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Who from the terror of this arm fo late : 1
Doubted his empire; that were low indeed,:, ...',.
That were an ignominy' and shame beneath»6 -115
This downfall; fince by fate the strength of Gods:T
And this empyreal substance cannot fail, ..'..!
Since through experience of this great events :;;
In arms not worse, in foresight much advanc’d,
We may with more successful hope resolve "', 120
To wage by force or guile eternal war; Dif
Irreconcileable to our grand foe, ",", .
Who now triumphs, and in th’ excess of joy L
Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven....?

So spake th' apostate Angel, though in pain, 125 Vaunting aloud, but rack'd with deep despair:

And this whole passage, which has per- successfully, notwithstanding the plex'd and confounded so many present triumph of their adversary readers and writers, is render'd in Heaven. plain and easy to be understood. 124. — the tyranny of Heaven.]

116. —- fince by fate &c. ) For The poet speaking in his own per Satan supposes the Angels to fub- fon at ver. 42. of the supremacy fift by fate and necesity, and he of the Deity calls it the throne and represents them of an empyreul, that monarchy of God; but here very art. is a fery substance, as the Scrip- fully alters it to the tyranny of Heature itself doth; He maketh his Àn- ven.. Thyer. i gels fpirits, and his ministers a flame 125. So spake th' apoflate Angel, of fire. Psal. CIV. 4. Heb. I. 7. tho' in pain, Satan disdains to submit, since the Vaunting cloud, but rackd with *Angels (as he says) are necessarily deep despair:] The sense of immortal and cannot be destroy'd, the last verse rises finely above that and fince too they are now im- of the former: In the first verse it proved in experience, and may is only said, that he spake though in hope to carry on the war more pain: In the last the poet exprefies


And him thus answer'd foon his bold compeer. ?

O Prince, O Chief of many throned Powers, That led th’imbatteľd Seraphim to war . ' Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds 136 Fearless, indanger’d Heav'n's perpetual king, And put to proof his high supremacy, Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate; Too well I see and rue the dire event,. . That with fad overthrow and foul defeat - 135 Hath loft us Heav'n, and all this mighty hoftwo In horrible destruction laid thus low, in As far as Gods and heav'nly effences !!! Can perish: for the mind and spi'rit remains Invincible, and vigor soon returns, "140 Though all our glory'extinct, and happy state

Here a great deal more; for Satan not should remark here the propriety only spake but he vaunted aloud, of the word perpetual. Beëlzebub and yet at the same time he was doth not say eternal king, for then not only in pain, but was rack'd he could not have boasted of inwith deep despair. Pearce. dangering his kingdom : but he enThe poet had probably in view devors to detract as much as he this passage of Virgil. Ån. I. 208. can from God's everlasting domi

Talia voce refert. curifave in. nion, and calls him only perpetual : gentibus æger

king, king from time immemorial Spem vultu simulat, premit altum or without interruption, as Ovid corde dolorem.

*** says perpetuum carmen, Met. I. 4.

- primaque ab origine mundi 131. - indanger'd Heav'n's per. Ad mea perpetuum deducite tempetual king, ] The reader pora carmen.


Here swallow'd up in endless misery. :...
But what if he our conqu’ror (whom I now .
Of force believe almighty, fince no lefs 1:1,
Than such could have o'er-pow'r'd such force as ours)
Have left us this our spi'rit and strength entirei - 146
Strongly to suffer and support our pains, it's
That we may fo fuffice his vengeful ire, son
Or do him mightier service as his thralls .
By right of war, whate'er his business be . 150
Here in the heart of Hell to work in fire, in
Or do his errands in the gloomy deep;
What can it then avail, though yet we feeli !
Strength undiminish’d, or eternal being
To undergo eternal punishment ?

: 155 Whereto with speedy words th’ Arch-Fiend reply'd.


What Beëlzebub means here is ex- His torments are the torments which press'd more at large afterwards by he hath appointed for us to suffer. Satan, yer. 637.

Many instances of this way of

speaking may be found in this But he who reigns poem. Pearce. . . . Monarch in Heav'n, till then as one secure

156. Whereto - ] To what he at on his throne, upheld by old had said last, which had startled repute,

Satan, and to which he thinks it Consent or custom, &c.

proper to make a Speedy reply.

Speedy words are better applied 150. — whate'er bis bufiness be] here than engel ole09817e are alThe business which God hath ap- ways in Homer. poiated for us to do. So in II. 70.

157,- to

Fall’n Cherub, to be weak is miserable
Doing or fuffering : but of this be sure,
To do ought good never will be our task,
But ever to do ill our sole delight,
As being the contrary to his high will .
Whom we resist. If then his providence
Out of our evil seek to bring forth good,


157.- to be weak is miserable intended to vary the accent of never

Doing or suffering :] Satan having and ever in the next verse. in his speech boasted that the 160. But see the angry victor batb Arength of God's could not fail, ver. "

recall,d &c. ) Dr. Bentley 116. and Beelzebub having laid, hath really made a very material ver. 146. if God has left us this our obiection to this and some other Atrength entire, to suffer pain strongly, passages of the poem, wherein tlie er to do him mightier service as his

" good Angels are represented, as thralls, what then can our strength

pursuing the rebel host with fire avail us ? Satan here replies very and thunderbolts down through properly, whether we are to suffer che

e to juger Chaos even to the gates of Hell; or to work, yet full it is some com as being contrary to the account, fort to have our ítrength undimi. which the Angel Raphael gives to nith'd; for it is a miscroble thing, Adam in the oth book. And it (says he) to be weak and without is

is certain that there the good AnAtrength, whether we are doing or gels are order'd to and fill Gel suffering. This is the sense of the

and behold, and the Melliah alone place; and this is farther confirm'd

expels them out of Heaven, and by what Belial lays in 11. 199. after he has expelled them, and

To suffer as to do Hell has clos'd upon them, VI.880. Our frength is equal - Pearce. Sole vi&tor from th'expulsion of . 159. To do cught good never will his foes

be our tajk, ) Dr. Bentley Mesliah his triumphal chariot would read it thus,


To meet him all his Saints, who To do ought good will never be

filent food our task,

Eye-witnesses of his almighty acts, as of a smoother and stronger ac. With jubilee advanc'd. cent: but I conceive that Milton


Our labor must be to pervert that end, - ;; ri
And out of good still to find means of evil; 165
Which oft-times may fucceed, fo as perhaps in
Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb i
His inmost counsels from their destin'd aim. ..
But see the angry victor hath recalld .
His ministers of vengeance and pursuit ... 170


• Thefe accounts are plainly con.. hoft; and perhaps they might think

trary the one to the other: but the that a numerous host were really authos doch not therefore contra- pursuing. In one place indeed dict himself, nor is one part of his we have Chaos speaking thus, scheme inconsistent with another. II. 996, For it should be considered, who are the persons that give these dif

and Heav'n gates ; ferent accounts. In book the 6th Pour'd out by millions her victothe Angel Raphael is the speaker,

ricus bands ,

... and therefore his account may be Purluing; depended upon as the genuin and

exact truth of the matter. But in But what a condition was Chaos in : the other passages Satan himself or during the fall of the rebel Angels?

some of his Angels are the speak- See V. 871,

ers; and they were too proud and Nine days they fell; confounded. : obstinate ever to acknowledge the Chaos roar d.

Meffiah for their conqueror; as And felt tenfold confusion in their their rebellion was rais'd on his ac- fall count, they would never own his Through his wild anarchy, so superiority; they would rather huge a rout ascribe their defeat to the whole Incumber'd him with ruin. host of Heaven than to him alone;

or if they did indeed imagin their We must fuppofe him therefore to · pursuers to be so many in num- speak according to his own frighted ber, their fears multiplied them, and disturb'd imagination; he might and it serves admirably to exprels conceive that so much how much they were terrified and confounded. In book the 6th, 830. Ruin upon ruin, rout on rout, the noise of his chariot is com- Confusion worse confounded pard to the found of a numerous VOL, I.


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