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Air, and ye Elements, the eldest birth 180
Of Nature's womb, that in quaternion run
Perpetual circle, multiform; and mix
And nourish all things; let your ceaseless change
Vary to our great Maker still new praise.
Ye Mists and Exhalations that now rise 185
From hill or steaming lake, dusky or gray,
Till the fun paint your fleecy skirts with gold,
In honor to the world's great Author rise,
Whether to deck with clouds th’uncolor'd sky,


is made to speak according to ap- cients and particularly to Pythagopearances, and he mentions in ano- ras his notion of the music of the ther place, VIII. 19 and 21. their spheres, by which no doubt he unrolling spaces incomprehensible, and derstood the proportion, regularity, their swift return diurnal. And ye and harmony of their motions. five oiher wandring fires. Dr. Bent. Shakespear speaks of it more fully ley reads four, Venus and the Sun in his Merchant of Venice, Aa V. and Moon being mention'd before, and only four more remaining, -Look how the floor of Heaven Mercury and Mars and Jupiter and Is thick inlaid with patterns of Saturn. And we must either sup bright gold: pose that Milton did not consider There's not the smallest orb that the morning star as the planet Ve. thou behold'ft, nus; or he inust be supposed to in- But in his motion like an Angel clude the earth, to make up the fings, other five besides those he had Still quiring to the young-ey'd mention'd; and he calls it else- Cherubim, where VIII. 129. The planet earth; Such harmony is in immortal tho' this be not agreeable to the souls ! system, according to which he is But whilst this muddy vesture of speaking at present. Wand'ring decay fires in opposition to fix'd stars. That Doth grossly close us in, we canmove in mystic dance not without song, not hear it. alluding to the doctrin of the An.


Or wet the thirsty earth with falling showers, 190
Rising or falling still advance his praise.
His praise ye Winds, that from four quarters blow,
Breathe soft or loud; and wave your tops, ye Pines,
With every plant, in fign of worship wave.
Fountains and ye, that warble, as ye flow, 195
Melodious murmurs, warbling tune his praise.
Join voices all ye living Souls; ye Birds,
That singing up to Heaven gate ascend,
Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise.


181.--that in quaternion run &c.] margin of the Bible; and ver. 30. That in a fourfold mixture and every thing that creepeth upon the combination run a perpetual circle, earth, wherein there is life, that is one element continually changing a living foul. into another, according to the doc- 198. That singing up to Heaven trin of Heraclitus, borrow'd from gate ascend,] We meet with Orpheus. Et cum quattuor fint the like hyperbole in Shakespear, genera corporum, vicissitudine eo- Cymbeline, Act II. rum mundi continuata natura ett. Hark, hark! the lark at Heav'n's Nam ex terra, aqua : ex aqua, ori

gate fings; tur aer : ex aere, æther : deinde retrorfum viciffim ex æthere, aer : and again in his 29th sonnet, inde aqua: ex aqua, terra infima. Like as the lark at break of day Sic naturis his, ex quibus omnia constant, sursus, deorsus, ultro, ci- From fullen earth fings hymns at tro commeantibus, mundi partium Heaven's gate : conjunctio continetur. Cicero de Nai. Deor. II. 33.

and not unlike is that in Homer, 197. -- ye living Souls ; ] Soul Od. XII. 73. of a very high rock, is used here as it sometimes is in

-- κρανον ευρυν ικανά Scripture for other creatures be- Ozein nopuen. fides Man. So Gen. I. 20. the moving creature that hath life, that And with its pointed top to Heav'n is foul in the Hebrew, and in the ascends.

I i 2

202. Witness

Ye that in waters glide, and ye that walk 200
The earth, and stately tread, or lowly creep;
Witness if I be silent, morn or even,
To hill, or valley, fountain, or fresh shade
Made vocal by my song, and taught his praise.


202. Witness if I be filent, ] Dr. Adam, those of the Sun to Eve, Bentley thinks that Milton had for- those of the Moon to Adam, of got that both Adam and Eve Mar'd the Air and Elements to Eve, of in this hymn, and therefore he the Mists and Exhalations to Adam, reads if we be filent, and in the of the Winds and Pines to Eve, next verse but one by our fong: But of the Fountains and Rills to Milton rather imitates here the an- Adam, of the Creatures and Birds cient chorus, where sometimes the to Eve, of the Fishes and Beasts to plural, and sometimes the fingular Adam, and the four last lines to number is used. The same is prac- Eve. But on the contrary Dr. tic'd by our poet in the speeches of Pearce says] The firft seven and the chorus in Sampson Agonistes, the four last verses of this hymn I where the reader will see in every would suppose spoken by Adam and page almost that the number is Eve together: and as to the other thus varied. Dr. Bentley observes, verses, I would have Adam speak that the whole hymn naturally di- all that the Doctor aligns to Eve, vides itself into parts interlocutory, and Eve all that is now assign'd to and that he has presumed to put Adam. In this method the menit so, cho' not warranted by any tion of the fair Morning Star, the edition. But this is not Dr. Bent. Moon, and Fountains and Rills will ley's invention; for this hymn was come to Eve's share, and they are set to music soine years ago, and in circumstances which seem fitter for that composition the several parts her to mention than her husband. of it were allign'd distinctly to

Pearce. Adam and Eve. I think that such

205. - be bounteous fill interlocutory parts are by no means

To give us only good;] He had his fit for an heroic poem: but if the th

thought, as Dr. Bentley remarks, author should be supposed to have a

on that celebrated prayer in Plato, design'd them, I should choose to divide this hymn very different Zeu Baringu, ta uercat de la from the Doctor's division. (The UXoubors sal aveux lors Doctor assigns the first seven lines Auvo dado. Ta de auges kald to Adam, those of the Angels to ευχομυων απερυκε. Eve, those of the Morning Star to

Hail universal Lord, be bounteous still - 205
To give us only good; and if the night
Have gather'd ought of evil or conceald,
Disperse it, as now light dispels the dark.
So pray'd they innocent, and to their thoughts


O Jupiter give us good things, So pray'd they innocent; and to whecher we pray for them or not, their thoughts and remove from us evil things, Firm peace recou'ring soon and even tho' we pray for them. And wonted calm, we learn from the first book of On to their morning's rural work Xenophon's memoirs of his master they hafte &c. Socrates, that Socrates was wont D.

was om Dr. Pearce thinks the sentence fuf. to pray to the Gods only to give

Á ficiently continued in the common good things, as they knew best what things were so. ÇUXE70 de

The reading, if recover'd be a parti

ciple of the ablative case; and GPG 78 9886 aanws t'aguld

conceives this to be the construcdidoval, us 785 Jees xardısa tie

tion, Peace and calm being recover'd doras OTTOIR ag celle est. And to the same purpose there is an ex

to their thoughts, they hafie &c. and cellent collect in our Liturgy, for

accordingly points it thus, the eighth Sunday after Trinity, - and, to their thoughts We bumbly beseech thee to put away Firm peace recover'd loon and from us all burtful things, and to wonted calm, give us those things which be profi. On to their morning's rural work fable for us.

they haste. 209. So pray'd they innocent, and

But perhaps the abruptness of the to their thoughts Firm peace recover'd soon and wont. On to their morning's rural work

they haite On to their morning's rural work w

was design'd the better to express they hafte &c.] These verses

es the haste they were in as they were are thus pointed in the best, that is

mars later to day than usual: Or perin Milton's own editions : but the haps with an easy alteration it may latter sentence begins very abrupt- ne

be read thus, ly, On to their morning's work &c. Dr. Bentley therefore continuing Then to their morning's rural work the sentence reads thus,

they hafte. Ii 3

214. Their

ed calm.

Firm peace recover'd soon and wonted calm. 210
On to their morning's rural work they hafte
Among sweet dews and flow'rs; where any row
Of fruit-trees over-woody reach'd too far
Their pamper'd boughs, and needed hands to check
Fruitless embraces: or they led the vine 215
To wed her elm; she spous'd about him twines
Her marriageable arms, and with her brings
Her dow'r th’adopted clusters, to adorn


214. Their pamper'd boughs,] The that is very fitly made the employpropriety of this expreflion will ment of a married couple, which best be seen by what Junius says of is urged in Ovid as an argument to the etymology of the word pamper. marriage, Met. XIV. 661. The French word pampre of the Latin pampinus is a vine-branch full Ulmus erat contra fpatiofa tumenof leaves : and a vineyard, he ob tibus uvis, serves, is said by them pamprer, Quam focia poftquam pariter cum when it is overgrown with super- vite probavit; fluous leaves and fruitless branches. At fi ftaret, ait, cælebs fine palGallis pampre eft pampinus : unde - mite truncus, iis pamprer dicitur vinea supervacuo Nil præter frondes, quare petere. pampinorum germine exuberans, ac · tur, haberet. nimia crescendi luxuria quodam Hæc quoque quæ juncta vitis remodo sylvescens.

quiescit in ulmo,

Si non nupta foret, terræ accli216. To wed her elm; ] Hor. nata jaceret. Epod. II. 9. - Aut adulta vitium propagine

An elm was near, to whose emAltas maritat populos:

braces led, Inutilesque falce rainos amputans,

The curling vine her swelling Feliciores inserit.

clusters spread:

He view'd their twining branches Adam and Eve are very well em with delight, ploy'd in checking fruitless embraces, And prais d the beauty of the plear. and leading the vine to wed her elm; ing sight.


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