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His barren leaves. Them thus employ'd beheld
With pity Heav'n's high king, and to him callid 220
Raphael, the sociable Spirit, that deign’d
To travel with Tobias, and secur'd
His marriage with the sev’ntimes-wedded maid.

Raphael, said he, thou hear'st what stir on Earth Satan from Hell scap'd through the darksome gulf Hath rais’d in Paradise, and how disturbid 226 This night the human pair, how he designs


Yet this tall elm, but for his vine ter of Raguel, and how to drive (he said)

away the wicked Spirit who had Had stood neglected, and a bar- destroy'd her former seven husren shade;

bands before they had knowledge And this fair vine, but that her of her. So sociable a Spirit as this arms surround

is very properly sent to converse Her marry'd elm, had crept along with Adam upon this occasion. the ground. Pope.

224. Raphael, said he, thou hear'/ And Virgil likewise has the meta

what flir on Earth &c) Milphor of the vine embracing the ton in the following scene seems to elm, Georg. II. 367.

have had his eye in a particular Inde ubi jam validis emblexeftir manner upon the oth Canto of pibus ulmos

Tasso's Jerusalem, where God sends Exierint:

Michael to aflift the Christians.

What God says here to Raphael and not only the poets, but Colu- is express'd much after the same mella and the writers of ruftic af- manner with the beginning of God's fairs frequently use the phrases of speech to Michael, St. 58. nupta vitis, and marita ulmus. ,

- Non vedi hor come s'armi 222. To travel with Tobias, ] In Contra la mia fedel dilletta gregthe book of Tobit the Angel Ra- gia phael travels with Tobias into Me. L'empia schiera d'Auerno dia and back again, and instructs

Thyer. him how to marry Sara the daugh


235. Hapa

In them at once to ruin all mankind.
Go therefore, half this day as friend with friend
Converse with Adam, in what bow'r or shade 230
Thou find'st him from the heat of noon retir’d,
To respit his day-labor with repast,
Or with repose; and such discourse bring on,
As may advise him of his happy state,
Happiness in his pow'r left free to will, 235
Left to his own free will, his will though free,
Yet mutable; whence warn him to beware
He swerve not too secure: tell him withal


235. Happiness in his pow'r left go of themselves to the assembly

free to will,] That is in the of the Gods, 'and, when there was power of him left free to will. no more use for them, returned 247. nor delay'd the winged again after the same manner. Sca

Saint &c.] Raphael's de. liger has rallied Homer very separture from before the throne, verely upon this point, as M. Daand his flight thro' the quires of cier has endevor'd to defend it. I Angels, is finely imaged. As Mil- will not pretend to determin, whe. ton every where fills his poem with ther in this particular of Homer, circumstances that are marvelous the marvelous does not lose fight and astonishing, he describes the of the probable. As the miracagate of Heaven as framed after lous workmanship of Milton's gates such a manner, that it open'd of is not so extraordinary as this of itself upon the approach of the the tripodes, so I am persuaded he Angel who was to pass through it. would not have mention'd it, had The poet here seems to have re- not he been supported in it by a garded two or three passages in passage in the Scripture, which the 18th Iliad, as that in particu- speaks of wheels in Heaven that lar, where speaking of Vulcan, had life in them, and moved of Homer says, that he had made themselves, or stood still, in contwenty tripodes running on golden formity with the Cherubims, whom wheels; which upon occasion might they accompany'd. There is no


His danger, and from whom; what enemy,
Late fall’n himself from Heav'n, is plotting now
The fall of others from like state of bliss; 241
By violence? no, for that shall be withstood;
But by deceit and lies; this let him know,
Lest wilfully transgreffing he pretend
Surprisal, unadmonish’d, unforewarn’d. 245

So spake th' eternal Father, and fulfill’d
All justice: nor delay'd the winged Saint
After his charge receiv’d; but from among
Thousand celestial Ardors, where he stood


question but Milton had this cir- authors, and have each their parcumstance in his thoughts, because ticular beauties and defects. Milin the following book he describes ton does not in this place seem to the chariot of the Messiah with endevor to imitate, as he does in living wheels, according to the plan many others, the Italian poet, but of Ezekiel's vision. I question not rather to strive to rival and outdo but Bossu and the two Daciers, him, and to have chosen for that who are for vindicating every thing purpose circumstances of a diffethat is censured in Homer, by some- rent fort to embellish his descripthing parallel in holy Writ, would tion. Which has succeeded beft, have been very well pleased had every reader muft determin for they thought of confronting Vul- himself. Thyer. can's tripodes with Ezekiel's wheels. 249. Thousand celestial Ardors, ]

Addison. Ardor in Latin implies fervency, It perhaps would be an entertain- exceeding love, eager desire, fiery ment to the curious reader to com- nature ; all included in the idea pare this circumstantial description of an Angel.

Richardjon. of Raphael's descent from Heaven By the word Ardors here Milton with that of Michael in Tasso's only means Seraphim, which ligGier. Lib. Cant. y. St. 60, 61, 62. nifies just the same in Hebrew

They seem both to have been (being deriv'd from Zaraph to much labor’d by their respective burn) as Ardors does in Englih.


LOST. Book V. Veild with his gorgeous wings, up springing light 2 50 Flew through the midst of Heav'n; th’angelic quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all th’empyreal road; till at the gate Of Heav'n arriv'd, the gate self-open’d wide On golden hinges turning, as by work Divine the sovran Architect had fram’d. From hence, no cloud, or, to obstruct his fight, Star interpos’d, however small he sees, Not unconform to other shining globes, Earth and the gard’n of God, with cedars crown'd Above all hills. As when by night the glass 261



The poet, I suppose, only made Where Mr. Pope observes that the use of this term to diversify his expression of the gates of Heaven is language a little, as he is forc'd to in the eastern manner, where they mention the word Seraph and Se. said the gates of Heaven or Earth raphim in so many places. Thyer. for the entrance or extremities of

254. - the gate self open'd wide] Heaven or Earth; a phrase usual This circumstance is not borrow'd, in the Scriptures, as is observed by as Mr. Addison conceiv'd, from Dacier. Vulcan's tripodes in Homer, but from Homer's making the gates of 257. From bence, no cloud, &c.] Heaven open of their own accord The comma after interpos'd, shows to the Deities who passed thro' that it is here a participle in the them, Iliad. V. 749.

ablative case pat absolutely; and

the construction is, From bence, Αυτομαται δε πυλαι μυκον και

cloud or far being interposed to obegve, ás cxov 12gb.

fruct his fight, be sees, bowever Heav'n gates spontaneous open to small it is, appearing very small at the Pow'rs,

that distance, the earth not unlike to Heav'n's golden gates, kept by the other shining globes, and in it Para winged Hours. Pope. dise, the garden of God, that was


Of Galileo, less aflur'd, observes =dmagin’d lands and regions in the moon:........

Or pilot, from amidft the Cyclades . ; Delos or Samos firft appearing, kens. .. 265

-A cloudy spot. Down thither prone in flight FuHe speeds, and through the vast ethereal sky to jails between worlds and worlds, with steddy wing

Now on the polar winds, then with quick fan Winnows the buxom air ; till within soar 270 tɔf tow'ring eagles, to’all the fowls he seems A Phenix, gaz’d by all, as that sole bird, When to infhrine his reliques in the sun's


crown'd with cedurs which were names to them:Or pilot, from amidit higher than the highest bills. the Cyclades, a parcel of ilands in 261. - As when by night the the Archipelago, Delos or Samos first

glass &c.] The Angel from appearing, two of the largest of Heaven gate viewing the earth is these ilands and therefore first ap.

compared to an astronomer ob- pearing, kens a cloudy spot, for ilands Eu serving the moon thro' a telescope, seem to be such at their first aps or to a pilot at sea discovering an pearance. But the Angel sees with

iland at a distance. As when by greater clearness and certainty than

night the glass of Galileo, the tele- these; the glass is less allur'd, and of scope first used in celestial observa- the pilot kens only a cloudy Bet.

tions by Galileo a native of Flo- when the Angel sees not the whole rence, less allur'd than the Angel, globe only, but distinctly the mount as was likewise the pilot, observes, of Paradise.

a poetical expreslion, the instru- 266. Down thither prone ine ' ment put for the person who makes fright &c.] Virg. Æn. IV. 253.

use of it, imagin'd lands and regions - hinc toto præceps fe corpore in the moon, it is not only imagin'd ad undas that there are lands and regions Misit, avi fimilis. in the moon, but aftronomers give 272, A Phænix,] Dr, Bentley ob


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