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PREFACE.

THI8 work, the initial volume of a proposed annual publication, has been prepared to meet an increasing demand for information respecting the affairs of the General and State Governments, public institutions, finances, resources, and trade of this country; the political, financial, and social condition of other countries; and various other subjects relating to social and political economy.

Unwearied pains has been taken to collect full and authentic information. By means of official documents, an examination of official records, the aid of national and state officers, and an extensive private correspondence with persons in every state and territory in this country, and with officers of government, and others, in foreign countries, a large amount of matter has been collected, digested, and arranged in a form convenient for reference and study.

Part I. or the Astronomical Department, has full calendar pages, embracing the sun's rising and setting, moon's phases, length and increase of days, and beginning and end of twilight for eight different parallels; the different eras corresponding with 1869; the Jewish and Mahommedan calendars, and other important celestial phenomena. There is a full tide-table, and a table of latitude and longitude and difference of time, for the most important places in the world.

Part II. contains a full list of the principal officers of the General Government, and of the different sessions of Congress from the first Congress to the present time; the Governors of the several States and Territories from their organization; the Members of the fortieth Congress, committees and officers, and of the forty-first as far as elected; an account of the different departments of government, with the principal officers in each department; a full list of Ministers and Consuls to Foreign Countries, and of Foreign Ministers and Consuls in the United States; Collectors of Customs, Assessors and Collectors of Internal Revenue, an account of the Coast Survey, LightHouse Board and Districts, with officers of each; the Army and Navy, and Army and Navy Lists, U. S. Military and Naval Academies, Military Divisions, Districts and Departments; Freedmen's Bureau; Postal service, Postal regulations, and rates of Domestic and Foreign postage; Judiciary; an account of the Pension Office, Public Lands, and Patent Office; the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Education, lists of Colleges and Collegiate Institutions, and Professional Schools; Library of Congress; Smithsonian Institution; U. S. Mint and officers; proceedings of Congress,

laws passed at the 2d session of the 40th Congress, Impeachment trial, Reconstruction, National Platforms, and miscellaneous tables and facts of interest. It also contains a brief historical notice of each state and territory, a list of the executive and judicial officers, and an account of the finances, debts, resources, educational and charitable institutions, population, and industry of each.

Part III. contains an account of Foreign Countries, their area and population, constitution and government, finances, army, navy, commerce, and other important facts.

Part IV. gives a full account of the religious condition of the world, with ecclesiastical statistics of different countries and denominations.

PART V. embraces miscellaneous essays on Agriculture, Currency and Finance, Mining, and Literature, written by persons who have made these subjects a study.

PART VI. contains full Presidential election returns for all the States from 1836 to 1868; a summary of the most important events for 1868, and obituary notices of eminent persons who have died during the year.

It is believed that all classes will find facts of importance relating to the general condition of the country and the world; and statesmen, lawyers, physicians, clergymen, teachers, students, politicians, merchants, importers, manufacturers, and farmers, will find facts pertaining specifically to their several professions or callings.

The accounts of Foreign Countries, the Ecclesiastical Statistics, the Summary of Important Events, and the Obituary Notices, were prepared expressly for this work by Prof. A. J. Schem, and the Election Returns by A. J. Cummings, both of New York.

The thanks of the editor are due to the Heads of Departments at Washington, their assistants and clerks; to members and officers of Congress who have rendered special aid ; to the officers of the Freedmen's Bureau; the Director of the Mint; the Secretary and Chief Clerk of the Smithsonian Institution; the Librarian of Congress; to Inspectors of Light House Districts and of Steamboats; to the Governors, Secretaries, Auditors, Treasurers, and other executive officers of the several States; to Superintendents of Public Instruction, Presidents and Professors of Colleges and Professional Schools, Superintendents and Directors of Charitable Institutions and Prisons, and to many contributors and correspondents who have furnished valuable information and made important suggestions.

No labor or expense has been spared to make the work accurate, and to furnish the latest statistics that could be obtained. But in gathering such a variety of information from so wide a field, condensing and arranging in proper form so many facts, and transcribing a great number of names and a multitude of figures, complete accuracy in all matters of detail can hardly be hoped for; and the editor and publishers will be thankful for information relating to any errors or inaccuracies, however unimportant, that may be discovered.

CONTENTS.

Page.

PREFACE..

Page.

20
21

PART II.

THE UNITED STATES.

Page.

Page.

THE UNITED STATES..

59 THE UNITED STATES-

Historical Notice.

59 Alphabetical List of Senators...

78

Principal Officers of the Government from Alphabetical List of Representatives. 78

the First Continental Congress to the Executive Government.

Present Time.

The Cabinet..

Presidents

Department of State.

80

Vice Presidents.

Intercourse with Foreign Nations.

81

Secretaries of State.

Chief Officers in the State Department... 81

Secretaries of the Treasury.

61 Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers

Secretaries of War.

61 Plenipotentiary..

81

Secretaries of the Navy..

61 Secretaries of tion,

82

Secretaries of the Interior.

61 Assistant Secretaries of Legation.. 82

Postmasters General..

Ministers Resident..

82

Attorneys General..

62 Consular Officers of the United States... 82

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court.. 62 Diplomatic Corps..

89

Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. 62 List of Foreign Consuls in the U.S. 90

Presidents pro tempore of the Senate.... 63 Treasury Department.

95

Speakers of the House of Representatives. 63 Chief Officers in the Treasury Dept. 96

List of Congresses..

Collectors of Customs..

97

Governors of States.

64 Assessors & Collectors of Internal Revenue 99

Governors of Territories..

69 United States Coast Survey...

104

Congress.

70 Light-House Board.....

105

Apportionment of Representatives.. 71 Light-House Districts and Officers. 105

Fortieth Congress-2d Session..

71 Supervising Inspectors of Steamboats...106

Senators.

71 Ariny and Navy..

106

Committees of the Senate.

72 War Department.

.107

Officers of the Senate..

73 Chief Omcers in the War Department...108

House of Representatives.

U.S. Military Academy:

. 108

Delegates from Territories.

76 Appointment and Admission of Cadets..110

Committees of the House..

76

Army List..

.111

Officers of the House..

78 Retired from Active Service.

..119

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STATES AND TERRITORIES.

Page.

ALABAMA-Government, Judiciary, Finan- NEW YORK, Government, Judiciary, &c....411

ces, Education, Charitable and Penal Insti- North CAROLINA, Government, &c.. .421

tutions, Population, Wealth & Industry..275 Ohio, Government, Judiciary, Finances, &c.426

ARKANSAS, Government, Judiciary, &c.....281 OREGON, Government, Judiciary, &c.... 433

CALIFORNIA, Government, Judiciary &c. ...285 PENNSYLVANIA, Government, Judiciary, &c.437

CONNECTICUT, Government, Judiciary, &c..294 RHODE ISLAND, Government, Judiciary, &c.445

DELAWARE, Government, Judiciary, &c....303 South CAROLINA, Government, &c., 449

FLORIDA, Government, Judiciary, &c. ..306 TENNESSEE, Government, Judiciary, &c. .454

GEORGIA, Government, Judiciary, &c.. .311 Texas, Government, Judiciary, &c... .457

ILLINOIS, Government, Judiciary, &c. ..316 VERMONT, Government, Judiciary, &c. .462

INDIANA, Government, Judiciary, &c.. .324 VIRGINIA, Government, Judiciary, &c. .....467

Iowa, Government, Judiciary, Finances, &c.380 WEST VIRGINIA, Government, &c...

KANSAS, Government, Judiciary, &c. 338 WISCONSIN, Government, Judiciary, &c....476

KENTUCKY, Government, Judiciary, &c. .342 ALASKA Territory, Government, &c. 482

LOUISIANA, Government, Judiciary, &c....346 ARIZONA Territory, Government, &c... .484

MAINE, Government, Judiciary, &c... .353 COLORADO Territory, Government, &c.... 486

MARYLAND, Government, Judiciary, &c....358 DAKOTA Territory, Government, &c... .489

MASSACHUSETTS, Government, Judiciary, &c364 Idaho Territory, Government, &c.. .492

MICHIGAN, Government, Judiciary, &c......876 INDIAN Territory, Government, &c.. :496

MINNESOTA, Government, Judiciary, &c....382 Montana Territory, Government, &c.. .407

MISSISSIPPI, Government, Judiciary, &c....387 New Mexico Territory, Government, &c...500

Missouri, Government, Judiciary, &c.... .390 Urah Territory, Government, &c...... .502

NEBRASKA, Government, Judiciary, &c.. 395 WASHINGTON Territory, Government, &c...504

NEVADA, Government, Judiciary &c... .398 WYOMING Territory, Government, &c......508

NEW HAMPSHIRE, Government, &c.. 401 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Government, &c...510

NEW JERSEY, Government, Judiciary, &c..406 New YORK CITY, Government, &c... ...516

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