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B.S. men.

We believe it to be in accordance with the demands of the day to give engineering students a broad general education regardless of the particular profession or calling that they will eventually follow; let them specialize after they graduate, according to the demand. I insist that we make first, men fitted to become engineers,-not civil, mechanical, or electrical engineers,– in the four year period of time and in that time provide them with a foundation suitable to build upon in any branch of engineering. That I believe to be the real demand of the day. Now in regard to Professor Atkinson's paper-leaders are born; they are not made.

PROFESSOR WILLISTON : It makes very little difference what speciality a man takes up in college. If he has taken the work in the right way and has gotten the spirit of it, he will be able to meet, with little difficulty, the problems that are likely to confront him later. The demand unquestionably is, as Professor Cooley has said, for men who are broadly trained with a thorough understanding of the foundation principles of engineering. Nevertheless, I think there is a serious error in the ideas which he has just expressed; and I believe that we would make a mistake if we were to attempt to carry out his suggestions in practice. A broad and general training is good, but before we may be sure that this is the best that is possible the individual student, as he enters college, must first be considered. He often has very definite notions of what he thinks he is going to do after his graduation and his ambitions should be kept in mind. We wish to teach him the

general principles of engineering but we can do this just as well by teaching surveying in the field, or foundry practice in the shop, or chemistry in the laboratory. It is absolutely immaterial what medium we use through which to give him this general engineering education. If we as teachers have the spirit of the engineer, we can give it to him through any one of these channels. But if, on the other hand he has made up his mind to engage, as his life's work, in a given field that will determine the way to best teach him those things that every engineer wants to know, for he will put his heart and interest most cordially into what he believes will help the most toward his success.

The extent to which we should specialize, however, is largely a question of efficiency. If a large number of young men enter a university and some of them think they want to be electricians, others chemists and others naval architects, and still others highway engineers, we may as well put them in different sections under different teachers in courses called by different names, and teach them all very nearly the same things, using only different subjects through which to convey the same ideas. If there are enough who elect each of these specialties to properly fill the classes and to occupy the full time and attention of the corps of teachers and to efficiently use the necessary laboratories and equipment there is nothing lost by this specialization and the gain may be great. If on the other hand, the specialization means the separation into two or more classes of small groups of men who could otherwise be efficiently taught in a single section there is likely to result an increase in expenditure, or loss of efficiency in other directions, which will make it unwise if not unwarrantable.

In first year mathematics at Pratt Institute, we have a large number of men who are entering either mechanical or electrical or applied chemical courses. We wish to teach them all very nearly the same things. They must all learn how to solve equations and all must acquire accuracy in obtaining their results. We could teach all in different sections of the same class, but practically we find there is great advantage in having those who are to take the electrical course taught by a man who has had an electrical training who can make his illustrations and problems and often the notations that he uses such as have some direct bearing on electrical work. For the same reason the man who teaches those who enter the chemical course is familiar with chemistry and is able to adapt his instruction to their particular needs and to correlate it with the other subjects in their course. In all subjects we do not have a large enough number of teachers to make it possible for us to carry out this idea, but we do it wherever we can; and in each case where it can be done there is a distinct gain.

PROFESSOR CHATBURN: Dean Kent asked why drawing was not made a required subject for admission. The answer is that the secondary schools of Nebraska are not yet prepared to teach the subject. If a student offers drawing, credit is allowed. Some one thought a student after taking a six-year course would be too old to adapt himself to the requirements of a practical engineering life. Such has not proved to be the case in medicine and law. Dean Cooley asks for “ a technically educated man well-trained in “ general engineering.” The six-years course ought to give him what he wants, and, in addition, a cultured man.

Lord Kelvin says the first object of an education is “ to enable a man to live," and the second, “ to assist other men to live.” The first object may be attained by the tradeschool or the purely technical engineering education, but the broader the culture a man has the more will he be enabled to fulfill the second object.



Dean of the College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin.

The great increase in attendance in schools of engineering during the past few years has made the problem of administration a very important one and one which has in many cases required changes in organization and in the functions performed by the various administration officers. In the separate school of technology, the duties of the dean are likely to be quite different from those which he is required to perform in the large university where the engineering department constitutes one of several more or less independent subdivisions. As the latter case is the one covered by the writer's experience, it will be the one which will be here considered.

In the modern large university, the various departments are usually grouped into schools, or colleges, corresponding more or less closely to the various groups of academic or professional work taught in the university. Up to the present time, no one particular method of organization has been generally adopted so that there can scarcely be said to be an organization which is typical or standard. Existing organizations are the result, largely, of tradition and evolution, and the conditions are so greatly different in different institutions that an organization suited to one place will hardly be suited in all respects to an17


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