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should be in the hands of every teacher. The “Principles of Logic,” by F. H. Bradley, is perhaps in the main as true a formal exposition of the operations of our thought as has been written within the past twenty-five years, although more suited to the needs of the teacher than the needs of the student. For an able and stimulating criticism of the fundamental conceptions of science I would suggest Ladd's “Theory of Reality.'

A man does not learn to think accurately by “browsing around in books." He learns to think by example and necessity. Logic and philosophy are systematic summaries of racial mental attitudes. Produce the attitude and philosophy follows as a matter of necessity. The courses in logic and philosophy ought to be incorporated into the general structure of the teaching system. Stress should be laid upon the fact that knowledge hangs together on systematic thinking, and that science is the expression of such thought.

If you adjust your methods of teaching to the order of development of the brain functions, and seek to develop the apperceptive powers so that the experience stimulates desire and effort, the student will want to learn, and your battle will be all but won. The crying need of modern technical education is not better laboratories, but better teachers.

ENGINEERING EDUCATION BEFORE AND

AFTER THE WAR.

BY J. BURKITT WEBB,
Professor of Mathematics and Mechanics, Stevens Institute of

Technology

This paper, and no doubt many others, you owe to the effort and tact of your excellent Secretary. He sent me two things: a list of one hundred suggested subjects, so many of which would have suited that nothing would have been written, and a personal letter asking for a historical paper with reminiscences, telling the younger men the trouble of getting an education in my younger days and something about the "giants that there were in those days.” It was easier to say “yes” than "no" and a title was hastily chosen, which we must now try to justify.

To see if the Civil War had any noticeable effect on technical education, a graphical table of technical schools was made with the years of the last century as abscissas and the number of schools in the United 'States in each year as ordinates and a logarithmic curve was drawn. There is a slight depression or break during the war and the increase is very rapid after it, but the main variations are perhaps from financial causes.

My own education was commenced before the war and finished after it. In Professor Baker's presidential address* before our Society he speaks of there being six such institutions before the war, but there * PROCEEDINGS, Vol. VIII., p. 11.

were others, not to speak of various mechanics institutes and trade schools. My father belonged to the Franklin Institute and took the Scientific American from its commencement, which was a pretty good school in itself, and it would be a mistake to take the limited number of prominent schools with engineering courses as measuring the possibilities of such an education. The fundamentals were taught in many places and it needed only a natural aptitude, singleness of purpose and a strong will to get as good an engineering education then as the majority of students get now. During my connection with Cornell University old Dr. Wilson said in faculty meeting that he had never known a promising and worthy student fail to obtain his degree for lack of funds, so that the education depended on the qualities above mentioned.

The difficulties to be overcome, though different, were no greater then than now. In those days no one thought of making mahogany furniture without the wood, but now birch, spruce, and even bass and hemlock, are sent to the factory and a mahogany certificate attached to the product. If a boy had no natural aptitude for an education, there was little chance that his parents would insist on his having it, especially an engineering one, which was not then fashionable, so that the material for making engineers was better then than now. While much of our present material is good, much is bad, and the demand for mahogany furniture is such that the fact that there is not enough of that wood is a minor consideration. The engineering profession has grown and blossomed in a wonderful way; wealth and influence are siding with it and boys lacking aptitude, purpose and will must be made into engineers. The difficulties of getting food, shelter and raiment may not exist, but dangers more formidable block his path. Fortunate he who still has the old difficulties and not the new dangers. Give me my choice, and it will be for the earnest atmosphere and single purpose which was the rule formerly.

One might like to wake up in a century or two and have a look at things, but what will it be to live when everything has been found out or when any one mind can take but a bird's-eye view or when the simple laws and facts of mechanics have perhaps been discredited by too much knowledge.

But what were the chances for a scientific and engineering education before the war? Then, the scientific predominated; now the engineering courses often have too much of the trade-school in them. The impression that Professor Helmholtz made upon me will never be forgotten. He came into my room to discuss the investigation of alternating currents that he had given me to make and it was natural to pick up some wires and use them to illustrate the circuit. Involuntarily he showed his disapproval, his mind resented the recourse to a model, the material forms were a hindrance to his imagination.

We now have an immense quantity of apparatus for engineering instruction because of deficiency in that natural aptitude which some call genius. In the early days of education, apparatus was scarce to the great strengthening of the imagination and increase

of that aptitude. Without the aptitude, students were not likely to seek the engineering courses; now, they are attractive for other reasons.

Your Secretary asked me to tell you of the difficulties which existed in my youth, but I seem to be brushing them away, and it is a good way to treat them. The hydraulic engineer dams up a stream to make it useful and difficulties that dam up a student's energies just the right amount give him horsepower without which he is to be pitied.

In the matter of aptitude, the present is no better than the past; for while there may be actually more there is less in proportion to the now larger field for its exercise. Natural aptitude or genius is largely the result of an unconscious or subconscious education, without which other education is apt to fail. I was favored in this respect. My father was an inventor and I breathed that atmosphere. His chest of tools was to me a box of wonders and I longed to use his lathe myself. I had a beautiful little brass steam engine and he made me a cardboard one that ran by blowing into it. Three of us boys had a chemical laboratory near our grammar school and when the principal died he left me his philosophical apparatus which I set up and used in a spare room at home. When my father built a large windmill, I built a small one. He helped me make an air-pump, by thinking that I could not. I was never tired of looking through his boxes of “jim cranks” and some curved glass tubes with shot in them excited my suspicions, they suggested experiments in perpetual motion, and he avoided explanation. The clockmaker's

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