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and later Bishop of Michigan, and to Professor De Volson Wood, which made it easier for me to get started and the sale of my business interests gave me much more than was needed for a college course.

Had your Secretary asked me to write about the difficulties of getting an education to-day, more could have been found to talk about, for it seems to me it was easier for the average student then than now. Then we finished geometry with the sphere and ellipsoid and went on to other and higher subjects, but now these simple bodies seem to dominate the college life of many students, who devote their energies mainly to violent practical discussion between themselves and other colleges over the simple position of these bodies in space. Blessed is he who works his way through college, with no time or money to waste.

As to the giants of those days, one is enough for so short a paper; indeed, a paper apiece would do them less than justice, and if more is wanted on this point it must be left to the future.

ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY OR CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING.

BY CHARLES F. MABERY,
Professor of Chemistry, Case School of Applied Science.

The school of science is founded on a two-fold assumption. First, that the individual receiving its benefits has the intellectual capacity to assimilate its training with adequate improvement of his mental condition, and with the corresponding capacity to acquire a store of knowledge that will be useful in the practice of some branch of applied science. For the satisfactory accomplishment of this design, the youth is permitted to devote the four best years of his life to such preparation for professional scientific employment, after he has received according to the wise judgment of those in charge of the scientific curriculum, a suitable preparation in the secondary schools. It is further assumed, that the individual has the ability to make an acceptable and successful use of his attainments, a feature of the first importance in modern education, since the present demand is for the man who can show results to the practical exclusion of his opposite. In this respect the institution, unfortunately, has no means of protecting itself from a waste of time and energy in educating an individual who can mentally comply with its requirements but who lacks inherent energy and ability to benefit by his attainments. It has no data whereby it may determine whether the applicant is a born genius, the like of whom we have all known, who, with scarcely the rudiments of ap elementary education, can master with proficiency any mechanical process, wood or iron work, fancy painting and decorating, photography or designing, or whether he possesses so little of practical application, like persons we have known, with the ability to master any literary subject with the greatest ease and proficiency, but who can scarcely make sufficient use of their knowledge for personal maintenance.

It is not on either of these extremes that the school of science must depend for a justification of its work, but rather on a well-balanced mental equipment that leads the individual to select a mode of action sure to accomplish the desired end. It may be that educators who have been long occupied in preparing young men for professional employment often feel that the proportion of such individuals to the entire student body is not large; perhaps they are led to share in the belief often stated that many a good farmer or mechanic is lost in the making of a mediocre engineer: in other words that the schools are attempting to educate too many men. But on the other hand, with the present omnivorous demand for scientific men, it does not seem possible to set close limitations. In the intelligent arrangement of its duties the institution can only adapt itself and adjust its work with reference to the demand of the industrial and economic situation of its environment. In our own country this doubtless includes a broader scope of intelligent applications than in most others, by reason of the great expansion of our multifold resources, and the immense storehouse of vital and mental energy in this section of the north temperate zone. The successful individual must be able to decide quickly and accurately with reference to a systematic course of action, and possess a power of physical and mental concentration in the use of the mechanical and human agencies at his disposal that cannot fail to reach the desired result. Evidently this situation demands of the institution an expert knowledge of economic conditions, and the means to provide for them in the details of its organization.

After his preparation for admission is accepted, the institution has pretty complete control of the conditions in which it places the student, and is able to apply its expert knowledge and judgment to the best advantage. Successful training in chemistry is, perhaps, more dependent on personal characteristics than any other branch of applied science; and it is doubtless true that more time and attention are required in securing a grasp on the inner spirit of chemical changes and the conditions under which they operate. Delicate touch and skillful accuracy in manipulation, alertness and instinctive watchfulness in observation, a prescient insight and a cautious yet confident interpretation of results and conclusions demand years of training even of the person with natural endowment, and no one who is lacking in this direction can hope to reach a high attainment in chemistry such as is essential in professional occupation.

It is eminently suitable to require a comprehensive and thorough training in the principles of chemistry in all courses in engineering for two reasons; every person should have practice in manipulation to acquire manual dexterity, and in the study of chemical changes and inferences involved, for training in accuracy and observation. It is also of importance to the engineer to be acquainted with the quality and properties of materials, and chemical principles involved in construction and operation. Beyond this it is scarcely possible for the engineer to continue profitably the study of chemistry. There is no doubt, as is often stated, that incidental knowledge is useful, but the time of every student is now all too limited to secure what is absolutely essential in his particular field. For instance, it is urged that a mechanical engineer may find quantitative analysis useful, for the principal reason of the training in accuracy; but he should get this in physics; he can never make quantitative analyses himself on account of lack of time; and it is not possible for him to devote sufficient time to laboratory work to acquire such skill that he can pass critical judgment on the work of a chemist with reference to its quality.

It is not long since the term chemist was synonymous with analytical chemist, a graduate from a course in which chemical analysis was the principal feature, who spent his time in the laboratory of the manufacturing plant. In the control of manufacturing operations, the quality of crude materials, the progress of operation, and the standards of shipments, chemical analysis is at present more depended on than ever in the history of manufacturing industry. But analysis is in the hands of routine workers on moderate salaries, whose principal duty it is to arrive

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