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fain-General, the foll: Septemba "FICE,


Washington, D. C., September 14, 1901. Sir: I have the honor to submit the following annual report of operations of the Inspector-General's Department, in addition to matters relating to fiscal affairs and other branches of the public service which have been submitted to the Secretary of War.

There have been no casualties among the officers of this Department during the year. The names, rank, changes, appointments, stations, etc., of these officers are shown in Appendix B, to which attention is invited for detailed information, and a summary of the duties performed by them is given in tabular form in Appendix A.

INSPECTIONS OF POSTS AND COMMANDS. The following table gives the number of officers and men inspected and absent as shown by the inspection reports received for fiscal year ended June 30, 1901:

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All garrisoned posts in the United States, Cuba, Posts.

Porto Rico, and Alaska (except Fort Liscum), and Camp McKinley, Honolulu, H. I., were inspected during the fiscal year. In the Division of the Philippines the number of garrisoned

New organizations etc.

posts and stations has been changed according to the necessities of the service, the maximum having been reached on March 1, 1901, when 502 were reported. Recognizing the great value of frequent inspections, the division commander, upon the recommendation of Lieut. Col. S. C. Mills, inspector-general, issued a general order, on July 18, 1900, directing that so far as practicable inspections of troops, hospitals, and depots, means of transportation, money accounts, etc., be made once every three months. While it does not seem to have been practicable to make all these quarterly inspections, the inspection work at the end of the fiscal year was reported to be well up to date, and with probably a single exception—the Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V.-every organization in the division was inspected at least once, and most of the stations were inspected twice. The work of the inspector, often that of instructor rather than that of inspector, has been performed abroad and at home in a careful and painstaking manner and with conscientious regard for the public welfare, and has been productive of much beneficial results. Colonel Garlington, inspector-general, Division of the Philippines, reports:

Practically every station, all the troops, except those recently arrived, all the disbursing officers that it was possible to reach, and all transports have been inspected. This has been accomplished only because the officers performing inspection duty have brought to bear upon the problem before them conscientious effort, zeal, and intelligence, and have overcome the many obstacles and difficulties within their respective fields of operations, particularly so in the case of the inspectors-general of districts, who are entitled to the highest commendation.

New organizations and troops en route to the Philzations, ippines were specially inspected by officers of this

department, as follows:
Fifth Cavalry, First Squadron, at the Presidio, Cal.
Sixth Cavalry, Troops F and G, at the Presidio, Cal.
Eleventh Cavalry, First Squadron, at Fort Ethan Allen, Vt.
Eleventh Cavalry, Second Squadron, at Fort Myer, Va.
Fourteenth Cavalry, First Squadron, at Fort Riley, Kans.
Fourteenth Cavalry, Second and Third Squadrons, at Fort Leavenworth, Kans.
Fifteenth Cavalry, Troops A and B, at the Presidio, Cal.
Tenth Infantry, First and Third battalions, at the Presidio, Cal.
Eleventh Infantry, Companies K and L, at the Presidio, Cal.
Twenty-sixth Infantry, First Battalion, at the Presidio, Cal.
Twenty-sixth Infantry, Second Battalion, Fort McPherson, Ga.
Twenty-seventh Infantry, First Battalion, at the Presidio, Cal.
Twenty-seventh Infantry, Second Battalion, at Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y.
Twenty-eighth Infantry, First Battalion, at the Presidio, Cal.

Thirtieth Infantry, First Battalion, at the Presidio, Cal. The report shows that the work of organizing, arming, and equipping the new regiments was progressing very satisfactorily, and that the instruction was being pursued systematically and persistently and had made considerable progress. Mounted instruction, in one of the new squadrons, was not practicable until horses were furnished upon recommendation of the inspector; and fatigue details for post administration were reported by the inspector to be so excessive at one regimental rendezvous as to interfere, in a measure, with military instruction, and orders were given by the department commander to remedy the evil.

The War Department has reason to congratulate itself on the success which has attended the recruitment of the new organizations, and it is a high tribute to the training which has enabled the old-time


army officers to turn out regiment after regiment which a few months before embarkation for foreign service had no existence whatever.

The old organizations were completely armed and equipped for foreign service.

The great necessity for target practice in the Philippines was apparent, even among the old organizations en route thither. Some of the new regiments had had only two or three days' practice, while others had had none. Company D, Tenth Infantry, sailed with 40 per cent of the men not having had any target practice whatever.

The following extract from the annual report of Maj. Inspections bene- R. A. Brown, inspector-general, Department of South

. ern Luzon, is interesting as indicative, in a general way, of some of the beneficial results of inspections:

The matters reported on by inspectors have received attention from district and department commanders, and when reports indicated irregularities the officers concerned were called upon to correct irregularities and report their action. * * * Almost uniformly the inspector's criticisms have been received in proper spirit and efforts were made to correct irregularities noted, and it is believed that proper beneficial results, as far as the situation allowed, have resulted from the inspections made; and that marked improvement has been brought about in sanitary and police conditions, in records of all kinds, and that the inspections have added impetus to the performance of military duties of all kinds, whether in garrison or in the field.

* * The inspection work has gone on in harmony with the work of the troops and of the other staff departments. Under the circumstances, while the trials and difficulties of the inspector were many, he was better able to understand and appreciate the trials and difficulties of the officers and troops he was inspecting. His criticisms and suggestions were necessarily modified accordingly, and the spirit manifested was that of helpful suggestions rather than of indifferent or perhaps harrassing criticism.

The conditions in this respect have not materially Command of pos

nd of posts. changed from those reported last year. The changes in commanding officers and garrisons have been frequent, especially so in the Philippines, where the regular troops have greatly suffered on account of movements attendant upon the departure of the volunteers for muster out, combined with other exigencies of the service. As a rule the troops are too scattered for the proper exercise of efficient command. On March 1, 1901, the average number of companies per post or station was as follows: United States, 1.51; Philippines, 0.93; Cuba, 5.55; Porto Rico, 3.75; Alaska, 1.43. The average garrison was, therefore, unusually small, being 1.09 companies. It is evident from this, as well as from the inspection reports, that the command of many posts has devolved upon comparatively young and inexperienced officers. Bearing this fact in mind, the posts and stations have perhaps been as well commanded as could reasonably be expected. The reports show that a large number of officers were commended for the zeal and ability with which they had performed their duties as commanders, and that substantial improvement was noted at posts where commanders and garrisons had not changed between the two annual inspections. The law, regulations, and orders are generally reported to be properly enforced; justice is legally and promptly administered; the troops are regularly mustered and paid; public property is as well cared for as circumstances permit, and the prescribed practical and theoretical instruction has been carried on, as a rule, wherever practicable.

The reports from Alaska, where the posts and commands have been regularly inspected by an officer of this Department for the first time, show that the troops have been occupied in establishing and constructing the necessary military posts, and in exercising control over the large territory there in advance of the operations of the civil law. The situation at Nome, occasioned by the rush of gold prospectors, and its masterly handling by the military authorities there (see Appendix C) may further illustrate the capabilities of the Regular Army to meet civil exigencies in advance of the civil functionaries. And the general condition of the law and order reported to be existing throughout the Territory fully sustains the confidence reposed in the troops by the War Department. Officers.

The reports indicate the prevalence of harmony and

good will among the commissioned officers; and while the absence has been noted of the expression, “all officers are thoroughly instructed and efficient,” so general prior to the Spanish war, which is due, no doubt, to the large number of young and inexperienced officers, it is gratifying to be able to state that many have been favorably, and only a very few unfavorably, mentioned.

It may be well to mention under this heading that it has been reported by two officers of this department that there is lack of attention given by officers to general orders on subjects connected with their daily life and duties. The importance of all officers keeping themselves thoroughly posted on existing general orders and circulars is too well known to need pointing out, and neglect in this particular is the more inexcusable when, as in cases reported, the orders are on file in the company and readily accessible.

It is certainly marvelous and will always be a great Civil duties of offi- source of pride and pleasure to the nation, and espe

cially to the army, to contemplate the ability and sagacity with which the army officers have conducted the civil affairs intrusted to them abroad. The novel duties imposed upon them as governors, school superintendents, revenue collectors, superintendents of street departments, etc., which have been the test of their administrative abilities, have been well and faithfully done in that true spirit of patriotic devotion which should always be the guiding star of the American soldier. Under the circumstances these duties were and are considered necessary by proper authority. Nevertheless, the reports show that they materially interfere with the efficiency of commands, especially at the small stations in the Philippines where they consume much of the valuable time of officers that should be devoted to the training and instruction of the troops. It is sincerely hoped that conditions now so promising of universal submission and the restoration of peace, may soon warrant the extension of American civil goyernment, in its suitable entirety, to all parts of the archipelago, and the return of all army officers to their regular legitimate sphere of duty. Colonel Burton reports:

The officers, with one accord, recommend rigid enforcement of Staff appointments ne and detached service. para

Las paragraphs 32, 33, 34, and 35 of the Army Regulations (1895), rela

e tive to staff appointments, and to obviate the present detachment of officers from regiments. There is a general sentiment in the Army in Cuba that retired officers should fill all detached-service details where practicable, except that of command, and especially that they should fill the office of recruiting officer.

The class of recruits received by the various organia men..zations during the year are very generally reported to be well up to the standard. In a few instances artillery recruits were


Enlisted men.

considered rather poor. One inspector reported that in each troop of a newly organized squadron there were about six men who appeared to be unfitted for the service by reason of being too young and not sufficiently developed, and reports from Cuba show that there is general complaint that quite a number of men are being enlisted who are under age and, in many instances, physically unsuited for the service.

The improvements directly affecting the enlisted personnel that have been made in recent years are numerous. The ration has been improved by the addition of fresh vegetables and in other respects, clothing to insure the soldier's comfort in every clime has been adopted, the pay of noncommissioned officers has been increased, and the field for promotion widened by the increase in the number of noncommissioned officers authorized for company organizations, and the addition of the regimental commissary-sergeant, battalion and squadron sergeantsmajor, electrician-sergeant, color-sergeant, company quartermastersergeant, and cook, with noncommissioned pay. The coveted prize of a commission is also within easy reach of the soldier who demonstrates his fitness therefor. On the whole the inducement for a young man to enter the Army is strong. But what has been done for the man who stands by the flag and receives an honorable discharge, accompanied with “ character excellent” for duty faithfully performed? Formerly his military record would help him to a position at department headquarters or in one of the staff departments or depots; but these situations are now denied him unless he passes a civil-service examination and awaits his turn. Not long since a clerical vacancy existed in a certain military office, and it is reliably stated that two of the applicants failed to pass the civil-service examination by a few points through error in solving a schoolchild's problem or two (the rules for which had been forgotten), which could not in any sense be considered a practical test of qualification for the position sought. Both applicants were honorably discharged soldiers, of excellent character, and, it is said, were thoroughly competent as practical military clerks for the position. One had served in the artillery and had performed the duty of a general service clerk at headquarters for a number of years and was at one time an inspector-general's clerk, in which capacity his services are known to have been entirely satisfactory. The other had been first sergeant of a cavalry troop, with considerable clerical experience in the Army. It is not the voice of the Nation that such applicants be cast aside. And may it not be hoped that in the interest of the service, as well as the faithful old soldier whose heart's blood would be readily given for the flag he has followed, that the civil-service rules be so modified as to authorize vacancies for clerks, messengers, janitors, watchmen, etc., in the military establishment to be filled, in the discretion of the officer in charge, subject to approval of higher authority, by honorably discharged soldiers without civil-service examination, provided they are thoroughly competent for such positions.

The discipline and behavior of the troops are Discipline.

reported to be generally very good. In Alaska the conditions of the service have been cheerfully and loyally accepted by the troops, nevertheless the great amount of labor required of them in the building of posts has to a certain extent stamped them as “ workmen rather than soldiers.” The deportment of the troops in Porto Rico is reported to be excellent, and in Cuba " above the average of that in the States.” Very few men desert in Cuba, the percentage

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