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nature was the same then as now, astonished if you should find men, he would hardly commence saving who bear the highest character for money until he had attained the probity and honour, engaged in respectable age of four hundred. tricks and traffickings that savour The insurance tables giving him more of the atmosphere of the Old four hundred more, as his reason- Bailey than that of the meetingable expectation of life, how interest house.” would accumulate! No wonder that Next morning Faunce drove me Noah was possessor of the whole into town. I began rather to like earth-he had succeeded to the sav- him ; for although it would not be ings of Methuselah! Now, you two accurate to say that his was a wise lads go out, and smoke a cigar. If head upon young shoulders, still it you agree-well : if not, there is no was a head of no ordinary capacity harm done on either side.”

and cleverness, and the quaint humCertainly this was a very wise our of his remarks would have done proposal. Attie Faunce and I speed- no discredit to Lucian, immeasurily came to an understanding. I ably the most amusing of the satirimade him aware that I had anything cal writers of antiquity. I chanced but a wish to bore him, and he un- to ask him if he knew anything of dertook to place his stock of miscel- an individual of the name of Speedlaneous knowledge at my disposal. well, and the following was his

" It is little I can do," said he, prompt reply: "but I certainly have contrived tó “Speedwell ? Do you mean pick up some information regarding thick-set Jew, with bushy whiskers? city matters. Do you know, I think I know the man perfectly by sight I might have become a brilliant me- and reputation. He is as consumteor in Lombard Street if I had been mate a scoundrel as ever cheated the regularly bred to the business. I pillory-one of the very worst of the like nothing better than to observe bill-discounters that infest this precithe complicated transactions of this ous London of ours. The higher felhuge commercial Babel, where lows in that line, who deal with the knaves, dupes, and honest men are nobility, and assume the airs of men alike actively employed. At pre- of fashion, are, Heaven knows, hard sent, I fear, honesty is somewhat at enough; but they are generous and a discount. The great capitalists, liberal in comparison with such a usually so cautious, have been bitten dog-fish as this Speedwell. Woe beby the mad dog, speculation ; and tide the unfortunate sinner who falls hundreds of them, who would have into his clutches! He would strip looked very shy a year ago if asked him past the drawers on the frostiest to discount an ordinary bill, are now night of January.” raging in the market, buying up every “I conjectured as much,” said I. kind of scrip in expectation of a rise. "And has this Mr Speedwell given Now, in order to bring that about the benefit of his remarkable talents they are compelled to puff their pro- towards the development of the railjects to the uttermost. More than way system ?" one clever fellow, with a turn for "You may assume that as a cerromance, has made a small fortune tainty,” replied Faunce. “Not one merely by drawing prospectuses; remnant of the whole twelve tribes and as for the lies that are daily of Israel but is, at this moment, circulated on 'Change, they would actively engaged in rigging the marexhaust the invention of Munchau- ket. A speculative craze of this kind sen. But what is worst of all, many is a more important event for them members of Parliament are deep in than the return from the Captivity, the game; and as they possess Spoiling the Egyptians was a mere means, unknown to the rest of the joke compared with it. I do not beworld, of influencing the decisions lieve that there is a single orangeof committees, they have at least boy, or vendor of sponges, or collector twenty points out of sixty-three in of cast raiment, who has not managed their favour. But you'll know all to get an allocation of hundreds of about that in time-only don't be shares in some of the competing lines;


and when that is the case, it is not line is preferred, Jack pockets a cool likely that an acute Sadducee like thousand. If Tom's is thrown out, Speedwell will fail to profit by the Tom must descend to the dreary valoccasion. Indeed I have observed ley of discount. But they are both him of late in close attendance at confident of success, and to the very Westminster. There is no mistaking last moment the brokers are buying him. Curious that so deadly a snake, and selling. After an hour or two, to whom concealment must often bé the doors are opened. In rush, higan oject, should be so fond of con- gledy-piggledy, the barristers and spicuous colours !"

solicitors,—the more wary specula“But why should he haunt West- tors keep without. The chairman minster ?” said I. “Surely it would rises, and announces, with a provokbe easy to procure early intelligence ing drawl, that the Wessex line has in the city

the preference. Then along the lob“Of a verity,” said Faunce,"you bies and down the stairs is a frantic have got a great deal to learn. Go to race of Jews, jobbers, and publicans, any committee-room where there has each striving for dear life to be first been a regular stand-up fight between to get into the city. Some throw two competing lines for a fortnight themselves into cabs, others rush to or three weeks; for, when the prey the bridges for river-steamers, others is good, the lawyers have no fancy trust to sculls.-Neck or nothing !for abridging proceedings. There Devil take the hindmost !-Nothing have been opening speeches, and like it on the Derby-day! Nay, I evidence, and replies, until the five have been credibly informed that worthy senators who are to decide carrier-pigeons are sent off to convey which is the better line, and who are the intelligence to Liverpool, Manusually selected on account of their chester, and Glasgow, in anticipation entire ignorance of the peculiarities of the mail; and it is said that a of the district, are utterly bewildered, knowing fellow, who was posted with sick of the whole concern, and well- a gun near the premises of a Birmingnigh weary of their lives. At last, in ham broker, brought down a bird desperation, the chairman orders the that was worth two thousand pounds room to be cleared, that the commit- to his employer. Such things may tee may deliberate which preamble seem strange to you, and doubtless has been proved. In the mean time, will be disbelieved when told heremark you, and during the whole dis- after; nevertheless, there they are, cussion, the price of each stock, or I facts that will not brook denial. But should rather say scrip, has been here we are in Jermyn Street, so for fluctuating in the market. If Jack's the present I shall bid you good-bye.”

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Dr HANNA has here given us one we rebelled, as the new government of those useful unpretending volumes under which we are living; and we which, without professing to add to will venture to say that it is the our stock of historical knowledge by Protestant, who has the intellectual original research, presents to the pub- excitement of the contrast which is lic, in a brief space, the result of an brought constantly before him of the extensive reading: The first and two régimes, who is most likely to larger portion of it is devoted to the feel the deep speculative interest atlife and opinions of Wycliffe, and a tached to the history of the Catholic spirited portrait is drawn of our early Church. He proclaims, indeed, that Reformer, or great precursor of the the theory of that great Church was Reformation ; and the selection of altogether impracticable - was, in facts is so judicious that we are car- fact, a quite erroneous theory; but ried rapidly, and without any sense he is not the less occupied, on this of confusion, over a wide arena of account, with its examination, for it history. The second part is devoted is a theory which would inevitably to the Huguenots, or the Reformation offer itself to the human mind, and in France; and here, it must be con- one which he has both to explain, to fessed that the too narrow space for admire, and to repudiate. the so extensive subject becomes Grant that any set of men have a painfully evident; and although there right to assume that they are in posis doubtless the same judicious selec- session of all religious truth, and of tion of facts and of points of view, truth unmixed with error, and that the result is not so satisfactory. the will of Heaven as to the future There are limits to the compres- existence of the human soul, and the sibility even of historical matter. terms of its eternal happiness and Nevertheless, as the history of the misery, has been finally and fully Reformation in France is less fami- revealed to them -- grant this, and liar than that of the Reformation in the theory of the Catholic Church is Germany or in England, this latter grand and sublime, and altogether portion of the book may have more impregnable as a logical position. interest and novelty to many of its Here is a Church in possession of this readers.

truth - Heaven has spoken — all is The Reformation is, indeed, an known that can be known, and there endless subject of interest, and this is no room for cavil or denial ; -not only because in countries of the truth cannot be taught without teachreformed faith this great event is ers, nor religious precepts enforced looked upon as the starting-point of without living preceptors ; — this a new era of mental cultivation and Church, then, stands forth upon the of national existence, but because, face of the earth as the representative together with the new, we are con- of religious truth, the indispensable stantly employed in regarding the preceptor - one and universal, beolder form of Christianity, and that cause there is but one truth, and so-called Catholic Church from which under it all mankind are but one we have separated. In some revolu- family. Men of ardent temperament tions, the new government, or the or lofty aspirations have always felt new order of thiugs which has been the charm of this theory. And everestablished, is the only subject we more as the Church extends and magcare very much to contemplate ; but nifies her claims, does the logic by in this great spiritual revolution we which those claims are supported are as much interested in examining grow more complete and invincible. the ancient tyranny against which If logic would but suffice !—if facts

Wycliffe and the Huguenots; or, Sketches of the Rise of the Reformation in Eng. land, and of the Early History of Protestantism in France. By the Rev. WILLIAM Hanna, LL.D., Author of Memoirs of Dr Chalmers.

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might be disregarded !-if the first the earth must, after all, be tested admission, the first premiss, could by fact, by experience. A Vicar of never be revoked or re-examined! Christ against whom we have here But men, when disappointed in the in England to pass a statute “of Proresults of a spiritual government, will visers” is a very questionable personpry into its credentials. Otherwise, age. If human error and human vice what more certain than that Chris- have palpably crept into this great tianity should rule over Christendom vicariate, what becomes of our theory? -rule in temporal as well as in spiri- It is a dream, a wish, a regret, or it tual affairs-rule in courts of justice becomes an instrument of cupidity and in courts of emperors, as well and ambition. as in courts ecclesiastical? Or what But let us observe, in the first more palpable than that this cannot place, that this theory of a universal be effected unless Christianity bas its church did not precede the constiturepresentative and its instrument in tion of the Papal government, but a great hierarchy of unquestioned grew up to maturity as that governsupremacy, and itself of indissolu- ment itself grew up to its full power ble unity ? Distinction between spiri- and dimensions. The Papal Church, tual and temporal! Limitation of the like all the great institutions of sopower of this hierarchy, and of its ciety, arose gradually, shaping itself great head and chief to matters of according to the wants and emergendoctrine or of religious discipline! cies of the time. When it had asMiserable fallacy! Does not a Pro- sumed grand proportions, there came testant Arnold, does not every ear- the grand theory which corresponded nest and zealous Christian, loudly to them, and which helped still furassert that truth has come in vain ther to complete and aggrandise the unto the world unless it is allowed institution. And in the second place, to govern all the affairs of human it is well to remember that this was life, unless it moulds the jurispru- the theory of churchmen, and very dence, determines the policy, wields rarely received by civilians ; it was the administration of the state? Of not often the theory of laymen, of what use to decide upon doctrine, if jurists, of monarchs or their barons. the Christian doctrine is not to lead Side by side with the Christian to the Christian life? And who but Church was a feudalism built up on a sceptic at heart would ever think a quite different class of ideas and of leaving both the Christian doctrine interests. That all the affairs of this and the Christian life to take their world should be governed by the law chance unaided amidst the thousand of Christ, and that the Church was modes of thinking and acting that the expounder of that law, were properplex and mislead the multitude-- positions which would doubtless have to be merely one of the many intlu- been acquiesced in so long as they ences that are moulding the great remained mere logical propositions ; whole of human society?

but the monarch or the baron never The theory is perfect. Who would thought of surrendering his own dare or wish to set a limit to the rights, or of living otherwise than authority of the representative of after his own code of honour or of Truth, and the Vicar of Christ? That fealty. He levied war and adminisauthority should be coextensive with tered justice quite independently of the Christian life, and in Christen- the Church, or of that law of which dom all buman life should be Chris- the Church was the guardian. Protian. Alas that this representative testant writers, looking back to cenof Truth should palpably have fallen turies which preceded the Reformainto error! Alas that the Vicar of tion, sometimes express surprise at Christ should not have realised for what appears to them bold and liberal us this grand conception! Such an opinions from feudal monarchs and ideal must captivate the reason, must barons; as if men of this stamp had secure the affections of all good men; been, by a process of reasoning, emanbut if the reality does not accord cipating themselves from a spiritual with it, what are we to do? Whether thraldom. Such men had never felt there is such a Vicar of Christ upon their conscience encumbered by any


· Let us

ecclesiastical dogmas. Dr Hanna, but force would give him no perpetual in the work before us, after citing right to it. Let the Pope, then, gird on Wycliffe's report of certain speeches his sword, and come and try to exact this of our barons in the reign of Edward tribute by force, and I for one am ready III., makes the following comment :

to resist him.'

“ The second lord (somewhat more -" These speeches, when we think of the period when they were uttered, down as a first principle that tribute

rational) begins his speech by laying it are remarkable for the bold, broad, such as that now claimed could be paid patriotic sentiments which they ex

only to those capable of civil and secular pressed." The sentiments they ex- rule. The Pope had no such qualificapressed were the natural and indepen- tion; his duty was to follow Christ, who dent sentiments of such men at this, refused all secular dominion. and at still earlier periods. They hold him, then, firmly,' said the speaker, had never indoctrinated themselves to his own proper spiritual duties, and in “high-church principles.” Our oppose him when he claims civil power.' Protestant controversies lead us here

“ ' It seems to me,' said the third to practise a slight deception upon

speaker, 'that we can retort the Pope's ourselves. Learned ecclesiastics at

own reasoning upon himself. He calls

himself the servant of the servants of the time of the Reformation had to

God. He can claim, then, such tribute limit and define for themselves the

as this only upon the ground of some power of the Church, breaking loose good service rendered to this land; but from certain dogmas then taught at as, in my judgment, he renders no such the seats of learning. But such service, either spiritually or temporally, dogmas had never, at any time, been but only drains our treasure to help our established in the head or the wills enemies, the tribute, I say, should be of feudal barons, feudal monarchs, or

denied.'”—(P. 16.) powerful municipalities.

Of Wycliffe himself, the reporter In these days, when the temporal of this animated debate, from which power of the Pope (though in a very we have extracted but a small pordifferent phase of it) has been made tion, Dr Hanna, in common with his the subject of renewed discussion, other biographers, is well justified in it may be amusing, if nothing else, to speaking as of a man singularly in refer to this debate in our House of advance of his age. A more thorough Lords, of which Wycliffe is the re- acquaintance with that age would porter :

probably diminish the wonder we feel “ In 1365, thirty-three years after the at his complete anticipation of the last payment of this tribute (the tribute reformers of the sixteenth century. extorted from King John) had been But his intellectual superiority was made, Edward III. received an unex- not so remarkable as his great boldpected communication from Rome. Pope ness and self-reliance. It is his moral Urban V. not only demanded that the courage that strikes us with admirapayment should be immediately rersewed, tion. Think of the audacity of the but that the accumulated arrears should man who could stand forth apparbe instantly discharged; and to let the King of England know how resolute he ently alone, and challenge the whole was that this should be done, Edward University of Oxford to defend their was still further informed that, in default favourite doctrine of transubstantiaof compliance, he would be summoned tion. He signs a paper with twelve to appear and answer to his liege lord conclusions against this doctrine, and the Pope for his neglect. The King laid challenges all comers to contradict the Pope's letter before a meeting of his them. Twelve doctors and regents Parliament, and submitted to it the ques- of the university assembled at the tion as to what answer should be given.

summons of the chancellor, but not At this important meeting Wycliffe was to discuss such a flagrant heresy; present, and has reported to us the they simply passed sentence of susspeeches of some of the great barons on the occasion.

pension, imprisonment, excommuni" The first speaker in the debate is a

cation against every offender who plain blunt soldier: The kingdom of should teach such heresy, or even England,' said he,' was won by the sword, listen to any teaching that impugns and by that sword has been defended. the faith in transubstantiation, Julius Cæsar exacted a tribute by force, Wycliffe's opinions upon the subject VOL. LXXXVIII.NO. DXXXVIII.



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