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DOMINE, QUO VADIS ?*
TAERE stands in the old Appian way,
Two miles without the Roman wall, A little ancient church, and grey :
Long may it moulder not, nor fall ! There hangs a legend on the name One reverential thought may claim.
'Tis written of that fiery time,
When all the angered evil powers
How Peter left the accursèd towers,
Sole pilgrim else in that lone road,
Suddenly he was ’ware of one
Bareheaded in the beating sun,
Under a cross His weak limbs bow.
Scarcely His sinking strength avails.
And in His hands the print of nails.
Read in her eyes who gave thee birth,
That loving, tender, sad rebuke; Then learn no mother on this earth,
How dear soever, shaped a look So sweet, so sad, so pure as now Came from beneath that holy brow.
And deeply Peter's heart it pierced,
Once had he seen that look before ;
It touched, it smote him to the core.
* See Mrs Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art, p. 180. Theri as he looked up from the ground,
His Saviour made him answer due“My son, to Rome I go thorn-crowned,
“ There to be crucified anew; "Since he to whom I gave my sheep “Leaves them for other men to keep.”
Then the saint's eyes grew dim with tears.
He knelt his Master's feet to kiss“I vexed my heart with faithless fears,
“Pardon thy servant, Lord, for this.” Then rising up—but none was thereNo voice, no sound, in earth or air.
Straightway his footsteps he retraced,
As one who hath a work to do.
Silent, alone, and full in view;
Then he, who once, apart from ill,
Nor taught the depth of human tears,
As one rejoicing in the years,
If any bear a heart within,
Well may these walls be more than stone,
To him who grieveth all alone.
P. S. WORSLEY. THE TRANSITION-STATE OF OUR INDIAN EMPIRE.
The Government of India is now the Company's servants were found in a transition state, which it must wanting in this emergency. If they be impossible for any reflecting mind had been, we should have lost India. to regard without feelings of the But a great calamity had befallen liveliest interest, not altogether un- the empire. It is true that a similar mixed with anxiety, perhaps we calamity had befallen every native might say “with alarm.” For al- government, and that the most exthough hope may, with the more traordinary fact in connection with sanguine, predominate over fear, it the history of the great military reis certain that we are inaugurating bellion of 1857 is, that the storm a great experiment, that we are tear- burst upon us for the first time after ing up with a remorseless hand all a lapse of a hundred years; that ancient traditions and time-honoured whereas in all other native armies precedents, and plunging headlong mutiny may be said to be chronic, into a sea of novelty, to sink or swim with periodical acute symptoms, the as Providence may decree. That British army has had only one severe there is danger in this who can attack in the course of a century. doubt ? “Nothing venture, nothing Still, as we have said, there was a have,” is a good old proverb ; it gigantic calamity--and, for a while, stimulates energy, and encourages there was a tremendous danger. It enterprise, and the lessons which it is the way with us, whenever there has taught us are at the very bottom is a great disaster, to demand a vicof our great national successes. But tim. There was no Minister in this there is another proverb which tells case to be impeached, and no General us that “discretion is the better part to be shot, so the Company was arof valour ;” and if this be true in raigned, sentenced, and executed. military life, how much more true is We said what we had to say about it in relation to political affairs ? Ex- this at the time, and we have no deperiments ought to be made in single sire to revive the discussion. The files, not in battalions. The diruit. East India Company was being deædificat practice ought to be carried stroyed piecemeal ; and it is proout a little at a time, or not at all. bable that, if there had been no
The old system under which the Indian mutiny, it would have died affairs of India were administered out in the course of a few years. It was not a perfect system ; indeed, was simply a question of time. The we may cheerfully acknowledge that passion for change, the hatred of it had many inherent defects. That powerful corporations, with vested the great Indian mutiny made those rights, and privileges and patronages defects more apparent is not equally of any kind, were much too strong admissible. If anything so excep- to have permitted the continued extional can be said to have tested the istence of such a gigantic "anomaly” efficacy of the system at all, the re- as a company of princes, elected by sult must be said to have been in its holders of stock. The extinction of favour. In that tremendous crisis, the Company, as a governing bodythe indomitable energy and the fer- however little advantageous it might tility of resource displayed by the be to India-was, indeed, a political servants of the Company were equal necessity. But surely that one great to the occasion. They kept the change might have sufficed for some enemy in check till succours arrived years. The popular appetite does not from England; and those succours require to be cloyed with changes. were despatched with an amount We do not perceive that there was both of promptitude and of careful any political necessity for destroying organisation by the authorities of at once the whole system under which the India House, such as had never our Indian empire has been built up, been evinced in the corresponding and has flourished as no such emarrangements of the Imperial Gov- pire has ever flourished before. The ernment. Neither the Company nor changes which it is now proposed to institute--organic changes as for the line. The artillery was entirely local most part they are—might all be artillery. But the Company, before excellent in themselves, and yet it the period of the mutiny of 1857, had, might not be expedient to give them throughout all the three presidencies all simultaneous effect. It behoves of India, only nine European infantry us to experimentalise cautiously and regiments, and no European cavalry. gradually ; to inake sure that we The defection of the native army nehave planted one foot on firm ground cessitated an increase of the Combefore we advance the other. If we pany's European army; but still, at do not, we may find the earth crum- the time of the transfer of the govbling beneath us, and may be shat- ernment to the Queen, a very large tered to pieces in our precipitous proportion of the European troops in descent.
India belonged to the regular service If time and space be allowed to us, of the Crown. Her Majesty, therewe may offer some remarks upon fore, had two armies—the British these several contemplated changes, army and the Indian army; and and show how, in the aggregate, they people soon began to ask whether entirely destroy the constitutional these two armies would be retained balance, to which, in the old time, as separate establishments, or blendwe were wont to look as the very ed-amalgamated-into one. safeguard of the empire. Primarily, The revolt of the native army had our concern is with the Army ques- necessitated a revision of that branch tion, which is a part, and a very of the service; but still no one large part of the proposed revolution; doubted for a moment that there but its full significance can hardly bé must be a native army. And that understood and appreciated except so long as there is a native army in connection with the other changes there must be a local army, was which are now on the ministerial equally clear. But the “anomaly," anvil.
at the contemplation of which some When the government of the East people affected to stand aghast, was India Company ceased to be, and the existence of two separate Eurothe affairs of India were brought pean armies under the Crown. It under the immediate superintend will be understood, therefore, that ence of the Crown, the Company's when we write of “line" and "local” army was nominally converted into armies, as distinguished from each her Majesty's Indian forces. It was other, we class under the latter episupposed, in the first instance, that thet only the white troops of her there would be nothing more than a Majesty's army. About the local change of name, and as the Act of character of the native army there Parliament guaranteed to the Com- was, of course, no manner of doubt. pany's servants the continuance of Ever since the transfer of tbe all their rights and privileges, it was direct government of India to the assumed that from the highest to the Crown, this question of the amallowest — from the Viceroy, to the gamation of the two European armies drummer-boy-there would be great has, we say, been more or less agirejoicing in the access of dignity de- tated. As there have been great rived from direct connection with conflicts of opinion on the subject, the Crown. No substantive change so have there been many fluctuations in the general character of the In- of feeling. The expectations and the dian army was necessitated by the wishes of those concerned have oscilchange of government. That army lated and alternated from time to had hitherto been, in technical par- time; and it is only within the last lance, partly a line army and partly few months that we have been able a local army. That is to say, the to fix our minds steadily upon a local or Company's army, consisting given start-point. At one time the mainly of native troops, had been prevailing impression was, that the supported by certain regiments-ca- local army of India would be mainvalry and infantry-of her Majesty's tained. It was known to be the opiarmy, which were periodically re- nion of the Indian Minister (Lord lieved. The European troops serving Stanley) that it was advisable to in India were mainly troops of the keep up the old Company's Euro
pean army, considerably increased in this manifestation of bad feeling. numbers, as an integralestablishment, But nothing can possibly be more entirely distinct from the royal forces. inconsequential. The old Company's The majority of the Commission Europeans did not strike for the which had been appointed to col- bounty because their discipline was lect evidence bearing generally upon bad, but because they felt that they the question of the reorganisation of could not be transferred from the the Indian army, European and service of the Company to the service native, had, it is true, reported in of the Crown without re-enlistment favour of the amalgamation of the by their own consent; and re-entwo armies ; but it was generally listment involved the payment of the felt that the balance of evidence was bounty. The occasion was of a purely against that amalgamation, and that exceptional character--the exception the larger amount of knowledge and being one that cannot occur again experience was on the side of the except by carrying out the very meaminority of the Commission. It sure now recommended as a remedy was known, too, that the Council of for all the evils of the old system.* India were strongly opposed to amal- Three large Blue-books have been gamation, and that the Governor- published illustrative of this soGeneral had recorded an opinion called mutiny of the local army. It against it. These circumstances is impossible to conceive a milder confirmed for a time the general be- affair. The language of the men was, lief that the local European army of for the most part, as respectful as it India would be maintained as an in- was logical. They had enlisted, they tegral establishment.
said, for the service of the East India Everything, however, remained in Company ; the East India Company a state of uncertainty until the spring had ceased to exist, and therefore of the present year. There had been their service was at an end. Some a change of Government, but it was of the men put this in plain, untuby no means certain that therefore tored, but forcible language of their there had been a change of opinion. own; others appear to have had Sir Charles Wood, indeed, has stated their answer drawn
for them by in his place in the House of Com- the lawyer, for there is a lawyer in mons, that his original prepossessions almost every regiment. Let us take, were in favour of the maintenance of at random, from the parliamentary the local army. And the local army papers, two or three of the answers would, probably have been main- given by the men of the Company's tained, but for its inability to under- European regiments, when asked if stand that, having enlisted for the they had any complaints. At page Company, it could lawfully be made 553, we find that Lance corporal over, like a herd of oxen or a gang Robert Milligan, Scotchman, put the of negroes, to the Crown.
case thus plainly-"I feel aggrieved This inability appears to us to at being made over to her Majesty; have been somewhat harshly judged. I would not have enlisted for her It is said that when the native mu- Majesty's service, if I had had the tiny was over, the old Company's choice. I enlisted to serve the ComEuropean army, following the exam- pany, and as the Company does not ple of the sepoys, revolted ; and this now exist, I consider my oath no alone is held to be more than enough longer binds me as a soldier. I to seal its condemnation. Even the wish, if I can get my discharge, to Indian Minister, as we have said, go home; and I wish my claim rechanged his mind in consequence of ferred to Parliament, as I do not
* This is a point which might advantageously be enlarged upon. It is obvious that, if care be not taken, we may raise a second “mutiny" by an attempt at a second transfer. In Mr Willoughby's dissent, to which subsequent reference is made in the body of our article, there are some pertinent observations on this hearl. We conclude that the difficulty will be got over by enacting that none of the local corps, converted into line regiments, shall be relieved until the ten or twelve years' Indian service, for which the men have enlisted, are expired. There are, doubtless, some ticklish operations which will demand very careful handling.