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that the patronage once adminis- The son of a Director went out to tered by the East India Company India with no better prospect of obshall, with the exception of the taining the loaves and fishes of the portion reserved to public competi- service, than the son of a country tion, he made over to the Horse- parson from an obscure west-of. Guards or the Secretary-at-War, it England village. The actual“ ap

арis easy to see how the power of the pointments” in India were in the Crown and the influence of the aris- gift of the local governments. There tocracy may be greatly enhanced by was one exception, however, to this, the change. This may be regarded and one which it is necessary tó as a very serious matter in itself, bear in mind. The members of the but it is far more serious when several councils of India were apviewed in connection with other pointed by the Court of Directors. contemplated reforms of a kindred Constitutionally they were held to be character. A few words of explana- checks upon the local governors, and tion will perhaps be necessary to it was considered a preposterous make this clear to the general reader. notion that a great public functionThe old system under which India ary should select his own checks. was governed, however anoma- The appointments, then, with this lous” and “inconsistent” it may exception, being in the gift of the have been, was somewhat cunningly Governor-General, there was no likedevised. It at all events contained lihood of any improper administrawithin itself certain constitutional tion of public patronage. The great checks, which it now appears to be mass of the candidates for office, sent the leading desire of our legislators out to India by the Directors, were wholly to destroy. The home gov- youths of the middle classes, whom ernment of India consisted of the a Governor-General was not likely Court of Directors of the East India to have much personal interest in Company and the Board of Control ; promoting. The Directors themselves the Indian governments, of gov- had little or no personal connection ernors and councils. These diffe- with the Governor-General, and the rent agencies and authorities may Crown Minister had little or no innot have been necessarily antago- terest in the success of the young nistic, but they were diverse and men sent out to India. So it bapheterogeneous, and, being such, there pened that very little pressure from was no continual chain or conduit, England was brought to bear upon as it were, between the ministerial the heads of Government in India, or parliamentary fountain-head in who found themselves fettered by nó England and the great field of In- pledges on their own account, and dian service. The Court of Direc- no solicitations from chiefs of their tors stood between the Queen's party, but free to put the right man Ministers and the Indian governor; in the right place, and thus to conand the Indian governor stood be- tribute to the general welfare of the tween the Court of Directors and State. There could hardly have been the Indian service; and then there a system better contrived to secure a were the Indian councils, appointed just and beneficial administration of by the Court of Directors to act as Indian patronage ; and no one, we a check upon the Indian governors believe, bas ever alleged that, under appointed by the Minister of the that system, the best men have not day. There was, indeed, every pos- come to the front. Bible security for the right adminis- The advantages of these checks tration of patronage in India. The were so patent, that when it was initial patronage was in the hands of proposed to substitute a new form of the Court of Directors. The Direc- government for that of the East tors sent out a certain number of India Company and the Board of young men every year to India. Control, it was deemed to be essenThey may have been their own sons, tial by all who considered the quesnephews, grandsons, &c., but beyond tion in its constitutional aspects, giving the youths a fair start in life, that some similar contrivances should they could do nothing for them. be introduced into the new system.

VOL. LXXXVIIJ.-NO. DXXXVIII.

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The Council of India was intended at once his 5000 rupees a-month. to preserve the balance on this side, It is not our wont to exaggerate posvice the Court of Directors, and the sible evils, and therefore we willingIndian councils were maintained un- ly admit that the Governor General changed. The Court of Directors, of India has too deep an interest in before their final extinction, had the good government of the country been shorn of their civil patronage. to be moved to any abuse of patronAll their once-coveted writerships age on a large scale. Parliamentary had been taken away from them, and corruption is not nowadays what it given over to public competition. once was. In 1860 it cannot be said Whether under this system a bet- that every man has his price, if you ter class of public functionaries was only know the exact figure. Still, likely to arise for the administration ministers will serve their friends or of the affairs of India, was a fair open their partisans, or get rid of troublequestion. But, at all events, the some opponents. And we cannot change did not render any abuse of help regarding with some alarm this patronage in India a bit more likely. extension to the civil service of the The competitors were not likely to be principle which will henceforth reguconnections of the Governor-General, late the military patronage of India ; or of his parli tary friends at the removal of the checks of which home. No one could obtain entrance we have spoken, and the direct action into the service except through the of parliamentary influence upon the gate of public competition, and no service of India. There will benceappointments of high trust and re- forth be nothing to prevent a man sponsibility were given to any who from following in the wake of a Gohad not passed through that gate vernor-General to India, and after and regularly graduated in the ser- acquiring a slight smattering of the vice. There was still an exclusive languages, dropping easily into an covenanted service and a close sys- appointment which, under the old tem, But it is now proposed to system, it would have taken twenty abolish the exclusive privileges of years of laborious service to obtain. this service. A bill has been prepared It may be said that appointments for the amendment of the law con- of this kind will be bestowable by cerning the civil service of India, the local governments only under the intent of which is to throw open certain conditions ; that restrictions to competition in India—that is, to and reservations will be imposed ; place at the disposal of the local and that aristocratic incompetency governments, without restriction as will, after all, not have much chance to persons — offices which have hi- in the open field. It is provided, we therto been held exclusively by men believe, that all appointments made who have graduated in the coven- by the local governments are to be anted civil service. A man desir- confirmed by the Secretary of State ing to hold a commissionership or a for India in council, and that the judgeship in India, will, after the “Secretary of State for India in passing of this bill, no longer be com- Council" in this case is to mean the pelled to waste his youth in the Secretary of State and a majority of solitudes of India; he may try his his Council. Doubtless this is someluck first of all in England ; may thing, and might be more, if there entera profession, and, failing at home, were any security for the permanence betake himself to India ; or having of the Council. But still we have spent his patrimony in genteel society the direct action of parliamentary at home, he may exchange the clubs influence brought to bear upon the of St James's for the Duftur-Khanas Indian services, and we can hardly of Calcutta, and go out to recruit his again expect to see fitness for office fallen fortunes and his exhausted regarded as the one necessary condi. social energies in some comfortable tion of obtaining it. But fitness is berth at the Presidency. There will of different kinds. There may be a be no longer any necessity to climb technical fitness fora particular office, the ladder of fortune step by step. A against which nothing can be said ; man may enter the service of the In- there may be character and acquiredian Government at fifty, and pocket ments more than respectable, in the

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face of which it would be impossible tain extent we might add practically, to lodge a protest ; and yet there may these councils, under the old system, be a something, and an essential were a check upon the local goversomething, wanting after all. It is nors. Appointed by the Court of easy to say what it is. It is a know. Directors, they were so far independledge of native character and a re- ent of the governor, and have somegard for native feelings, not to be times been too strong for him. But learnt from all the books that were now, instead of councillors appointed ever written. A man may be learned from England, there are to be exein the laws and the languages of the cutive councillors, or ministers of country, and yet be wholly incom- departments, appointed by the Goverpetent to transact public business nor-General and the governors of presiwith advantage to the people of that dencies themselves. They will therecountry. A good lawyer, fresh from fore be—we will not say “creatures the English courts, or even from prac- (as the word has an offensive imtice at an Indian presidency, may be port), but creations of the head of all abroad in the rough-and-ready the Government, selected with referwork of Mofussil justice; the most ence either to his peculiar views or expert diplomatist from Vienna or

to his personal predilections. A veto, Berlin would be utterly stranded we presume, in such cases, will be at the durbars of Scindiah or the reserved to the home Government; Nizam. To do well, in such situa- but, practically, this veto, as we have tions, men must be saturated with observed with reference to appointOrientalism. To understand things ments generally out of the pale of aright, wbether in the line of justice the regular service, will seldom or or of diplomacy, you must look at never be exercised, and for the same them through a glass of Orientalism; reason. A Governor-General may and that is only obtainable by men select as his foreign minister, or his who are content to purchase it by war minister, a very able and excelyears of training on the scene of lent man; but the man thus selectaction, and of intercourse with the ed, and thus qualified, might be the actors themselves. Therefore, whilst very last whom, with reference to we have little reason to apprehend the dominant characteristic and prethat under the proposed system any vailing opinions of other members of flagrantly bad appointments will be the Government, it is expedient to made - that is to say, that men appoint. What often is most wanted wanting in intelligence and integrity in council is not a man of the Goverwill be appointed to high office in nor-General's school, but a man of an India---we are by no means satisfied opposite school, to keep him from that arrangements will not be made, going too fast, or to urge him to go a under cover of the highest respecta- little faster. This sort of check, under bility, very injurious to the public the new system, will at all events be interests. A clever man may do lost. A Governor-General, it is true, more harm than a stupid one. In- on assuming office, will in most indeed, what is most to be dreaded is stances find an executive council an incursion of very clever men, with ready made to his hand; but if European notions, proclaiming that these councillors are to be anything Orientalism is, after all, a mere hum- better than mere irresponsible assistbug, and that Blackey, if you only dis- ants or clerks, they would feel themcipline him properly, will soon accom- selves bound to resign, if they were modate himself to our English ways. unable conscientiously to support the

Against appointments of this re- policy of their chief, and to leave him spectable class, nothing, we repeat, free to select his own colleagues. We can be said by councils in India or write in ignorance of the details of the councils in England. Besides, to what scheme for the revision of the Indian are those councils coming ? The In- councils; but as our object is merely dian councils are generally believed to to illustrate the subject of constitube on their last legs—that is to say, tional checks, these details are imthey have been left to die out by a material to our argument. It is process of exhaustion. We have said obvious that a council, chosen by the that, constitutionally, and to a cer- Governor-General himself, can never

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be in the independent position of one down as easily as a rampart of playnominated by such a body as the ing-cards. The game now lies beCourt of Directors of the East India tween the Minister in England and Company.

the Viceroy in India. The ball is And this brings us at once to the thrown without let or hindrance from consideration of the position of the the hand of the one to the hand of Council of India. We have already the other. The dual number is now shown that, by the contemplated re- supreme in affairs of Indian governmoval of one barrier after another, ment, and all precedents and tradithe whole field of Indian service is tions are cast remorselessly to the now being thrown open to the direct wind. influences of the Court, the Parlia- We have wished our readers to ment, and the Ministry of the day. look upon the present India quesNothing is left of the old system but tion as a whole. The army question, the Council of India, which was in- however important in itself, is, as tended to take constitutionally the we have shown, only a part of it. place of the Court of Directors, but Whilst we are contemplating the which has obviously much more probable results of a measure translimited constitutional powers. In ferring the control of the whole the first place, it is, to a great extent, European army of India to the hands a child of ministerial creation ; and of the Horse-Guards and the War it is perfectly clear that its continued Office, we learn that the Indian civil existence is dependent upon the will service is to be thrown open to of the Minister of the day. A more Government protegés of all ages and honourable body of men than the all kinds; that the Indian councils Council of India is not connected with are to be abolished ; and that the the Government of this or any other Council of India is absolutely a delucountry. But it is hardly in the sion and a sham. The experiment nature of things that they should which is now about to be inaugupreserve the stalwart and indomit- rated is a comprehensive and giganable independence of the old Court tic one. It has, at all events, the of Directors. And it is plain that if merit of boldness, and there is someSir Charles Wood's interpretation of thing that demands respectful admithe law is correct (and we believe ration in the completeness and conthat it is correct), the constitutional sistency of the scheme. If it succeed powers of the Council, when pushed —if it, under Providence, be perto the utmost limit of the law, are mitted that thereby our Indian emvery small. If it were possible to pire is placed on a securer basis than conceive a case in which such a before, and the people of India renbody of men, excluded as they are dered more prosperous, more happy, from Parliament, should have a right and more enlightened, future geneto be heard, it is when such a ques- rations may gratefully regard the tion as the future constitution of the scheme as one of the greatest efforts Indian army is be decided. But of statesmanship which the present Sir Charles Wood concedes as a pri- century has seen. Assuredly, it vilege what ought to be an inherent has our best wishes - our heartiest and inalienable right. We are not prayers. We will not predict failure, disposed to blame the Minister; be but the experiment is so novel and is entitled to exercise the powers so important, the interests at stake which the law has given him. But are so great, that it will be imposwe see now, for the first time, clearly sible, for some years to come, not and distinctly, what these powers to regard with feelings of anxiety

We see the last remaining har- the transition state of our Indian rier between India and party knocked Empire.

are.

Printeil by William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh.

BLACKWOOD'S

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

No. DXXXIX.

SEPTEMBER 1860.

Vol. LXXXVIII.

A SKETCH OF THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF SIR ROBERT PEEL.

THE family to which the late Sir deaconry of Richmond, to bequeath Robert Peel belonged, lays no claim to each of his several daughters to ancestral dignity or knightly re- “nine-score pounds.” Sir Lawrence nown. It is one of those good old tells us that the cloth which he wove English stocks, a yeoman's house- was stamped with patterns from hold, the members of which have been wooden blocks, on which they were well described as at once too high cut;" and that“some of these blocks for the office of constable, and too were seen by my father, lying nelow for that of sheriff. Originally glected in a lumber - room in his settled at East Marten, in Craven grandfather's house." We are not parish, it transferred itself, about the surprised that the late Chief-Justice year 1600, in the persons of William of Madras should express regret that Peel and his three brothers, to a the blocks in question were suffered farmstead near Blackburn, in Lanca- to disappear. "Rude as they were, shire, the name of which is ominous they would have doubtless attracted, of miasmata and hypochondriacal and deservedly too, as much notice humours, for the place is still called in the Hall of Drayton Manor as the De Hole, or Hoyle House. This gilded armour of the Earls of Pemhouse in the hole William Peel rent- broke attracts at Wilton, or the plain ed, with a farm attached to it, under black suit of belted Will Howard at a renewable lease, from the Arch- Naworth Castle. But we have not bishop of Canterbury, and he left it yet come to this state of feeling. at his demise as an inheritance to The weapons which our forefathers his children.

wielded to take away life, and not It was a grandson of this William unfrequently to overlay right by Peel who may be truly said to have might, are still furbished up and kept founded the family from which our clean that future generations may great statesman derived his descent. admire them ; while the implements His name was Robert. He became of their honest industry we cast a manufacturer of woollen cloths at aside, and sometimes ourselves enBlackburn, and succeeded so well in deavour to forget that to them we business that he was able, by his will, owe it that we are what we are. which was registered in the Arch- Besides settling on his daughters

A Sketch of the Life and Character of Sir Robert Peel. By Sir LAWRENCE PEEL. London : Longman & Co. VOL. LXXXVIII.—NO. DXXXIX.

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