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to have seen nothing more than the “ Anoeth byth bed y Arthur"leaden cross—“one foot long, more (“The mystery of the world is the or less”—but even this had a power- grave of Arthur.”). The Cornishful effect upon that enthusiastic anti- men, with more circumstance but quary. “I'beheld it,” he says, “with less poetry, preserve traditions of the most curious eyes, and handled it spot. At Camelford, a stone used to with joints that trembled in every be shown, bearing the letters ATRY, part.

which was said to mark the place of That the whole story was an im- his death or burial.t A similar meposture—that it was either a clever morial—“a single stone laid across invention of the brethren of Glaston- a stream, having some letters cut bury to raise the importance of their on its lower surface"_exists, or house in the eyes of their royal visi- did exist, “in front of the house of tors, or a politic ruse of the Planta- Worthy-Vale, near Minster;" and genét kings to secure their sove- Warbstow-barrow, near Launceston, reignty over the old Cymric nation, maintains a rival claim to be his last can scarcely at this day be doubted, resting place. though many antiquaries, Dr Whi- But the Arthur of legend and song taker amongst the number, have fills no grave at Glastonbury or in treated it as a historical fact. The Cornwalì. The last words which pretended discovery of the hero's the romancers put in his mouth conbones had at least some effect, as tradict their own story of the mid. Father Lobineau tells us, in dis- night burial—“I will to the isle of couraging the hopes entertained of Avallon, to heal me of my deadly his reappearance amongst the Bre- wound.” “Men say that he will tons;* and it was possibly with a come again and win the holy cross. view to some such effect upon their The popular belief in this second adkinsmen in Wales that, in 1289, vent is perhaps the strongest eviArthur's crown was said to have dence of his historical existence. been discovered, and tendered to Like all the darlings of a peopleEdward I. at Carnarvon.

like Frederick Barbarossa, like SebasThe Welsh bards, at least, would tian of Portugal, like "the three Tells" admit of no such sepulture. The of Switzerland, like the last Duke of national pride which, in the “Graves Burgundy, like the first Napoleonof the Heroes,” points to each crom- men could not believe in his death. lech where the chiefs of song lie The noble heart can never die. “He buried, claims no such record for the is a king y - crowned in faery;" mightiest of them all. “No”-says somewhere in those enchanted halls, Taliesin,

he is yet Arthur of Britain. Again * Hist. de Bretagne, p. 172.

+ See GILBERT's Cornwall, ii. 236. There are said to be nearly six hundred localities in our own island which bear the name of Arthur. They corroborate the fact that the traditions are confined (exclusively, so far as we have been able to trace) to districts to which the Celtic race clung to the last. The South Wales legend of Arthur's sleep runs as follows:-A Welsh farmer, selling cattle on London Bridge, was accosted by a wizard, who, after some conversation respecting a hazel stick which he carried in his hand, led him to the place where it had grown-Craig. y-dinas in Morganwo. There, under a flat stone, he showed him the entrance to a vast cavern, into which they descended. Midway in the passage hung a bell, which the wizard warned his companion not to touch. Below lay a circle of sleeping warriors, all in bright armour, which filled the cavern with a flashing light ; one distinguished from the rest by a jewelled crown. Two heaps, of gold and silver, lay in the midst; the wizard bid the other take what he would, remarking that to himself knowledge was worth more than gold. In his way out, the Welshman touched the bell; one of the warriors raised his head, and asked, “Is it day?" "No," said the intruder, prompted by his guide—"not yet.” He got safe out to the daylight with his treasure, and was warned not to repeat his visit. But the lust of gold was too strong—he returned again ; again awoke the sleeping warriors, and in his confusion forgot the proper answer. They started up, and cast him forth from the cavern so bruised and beaten that he remained a cripple for life ; and from that day no man could ever again find the entrance.



shall come, if Merlin spoke true, through the forest under the full "the snow - white chief upon the moon, he predicts fine weather, for snow-white horse,"

;"* to rally his he hears the “Chasse Arthur.” countrymen. He only sleeps ; in the Of the ends of Guenever and Lanfairy palace of Morgan la Fayet- celot we do not care to say much. seen sometimes on the coasts of Sicily Both pass, according to the due course as the “ Fata Morgana"-he rests of religious and poetical justice of the “ upon a couch of royal furniture," time, from the worst vanities of the his wound healed by her arts year world into the purest odour of sancafter year, but ever bleeding afresh, tity. Guenever takes the veil at till his hour come; or in the cav- Amesbury, and in time becomes abern under the roots of the hazel on bess there. Of the beautiful parting Craig-y-dinas in Eryri, “ all in a cir- scene between her and Arthur, where cle, their heads outward, every man we almost lose the sense of her guilt in his armour, his sword, and shield, in the reality of her repentance, it is and spear by him," he and his but just to Mr Tennyson to say that knights-companions sleep; to awake it is wholly a fair creation of his own. when “the black eagle and the gold- Very different is the spirit in which en eagle shall go to war," to lead the these romances part from her ; "while chivalry of the Cymry in triumph she lived she was a true lover, and through their native island. Or therefore she had a good end." Lanunder Richmond Hill in Yorkshire, celot, who bas meanwhile also taken deep in the bowels of the earth, they the religious habit, sees her buried wait only the man and the hour to with Arthur at Glastonbury, and start to life. There hangs at the after six weeks of grovelling and cave's mouth the magic sword and praying” on the tomb, he tou is found horn; boldly draw the sword, and dead. But there is no sound of penirightly blow the horn, and those en- tence in the grand proud words prochanted warriors shall start to life nounced over him by his comrade Sir once more. Once--so the legend Bors; after a life of falsehood to his runs—the entrance to that cave was king and his friend, red with the found by mortal wight; he gazed on blood of unarmed companions slain in the sword, but his heart failed him an unballowed quarrel, faithful only to grasp it; but he sounded the to an adulterous love, he goes to his horn ; and as the sleeping knights grave with that well-known eulogy, started to their feet, roof and cave whose magnificent language has fell in, while unearthly voices shout- blinded many an admiring reader to ed “woe to the coward” who had its perilous application. missed so wondrous an adventure. But such is the morality of these “Go into Brittany,” said Alan de romances throughout; an evil iml'Isle in his day, "and dare to say ported into them by their Anglothat Arthur is dead—the very chil- Norman adapters, for the tales of the dren will stone you.” Even yet they Mabinogion are free from it. It is show you where he sleeps, opposite not that we find here the seductive his old stronghold of Kerduel, in the licence of the Italian novelist; it bleak and lonely isle of Agalon. might be hard to point even to á liLong they believed that before every centious passage ; but intrigue and battle Arthur and his host might be unchastity are treated as the boldest seen at early dawn marching along matters of fact, and the writers apthe mountain-tops through the mist; pear utterly unconscious of even a and still they sing his war-song, and moral rule in such cases. The two as the peasant listens to the distant love-tales are adulteries, for the relasounds of hound and horn winding tions of Tristram and Iseult are but


“ Deinde reverterentur cives in insulam ;-niveus quoque senex in niveo equo fluvium Perironis divertet.”—Prophetia Anglicana, &c., Frankfurt, 1603, p. 96.

+ Morgan, in the Welsh legend, is Arthur's physician-Morgan-hud-not his sister the queen. A legend somewhat similar to that of the Fata Morgana is told in Pembrokeshire; buildings are seen out at sea, which are said to be the abodes of the Plant Rhys Dufn—a lost race of pigmies.


a repetition of those of Lancelot and that strange creation, the “Questing Guenever; the preux chevaliers are Beast,” or the “ Beast glatisant,” the disloyal, both as friends and as sub- undoubted original of the “ Blatant jects, in that which is rightly held to Beast” of Spenser ; which, introducbe the very soul of modern honour. ed as it is abruptly into the narraEven Arthur himself, in whom M. de la tive, is evidently supposed to be alVillemarqué sees the model of Chris- ready well known. It has “ a noise

a tian chivalry, is here neither saint nor as of questing hounds in its belly”hero: to say nothing of his massacre 'a marvellous beast and a great sig. of the innocents already alluded to, or nification," of which “Merlin prophehis unintentional incest, he is habit- sied much;" someof the most renownually faithless in his own conjugal ed knights of Arthur's companionship relations. We can feel little interest follow it successively, apparently in his own wrongs, when he congra- without success. The“ great signi. tulates Tristram and Iseult on being fication" we confess ourselves unable safe from King Mark in Joyous Gard, to explain ; but the legend, like so and says that “they are right well many of the rest, is Cymric. It is beset together.” Such, i.deed, is the undoubtedly the Turch Trwyth, the line in which the reader's sympathies wild-boar king, of the tale called are always directed; King Mark's “ Kilhwch and Olwen,” the wildest aims at avenging himself by taking and perhaps the most curious of the Tristram's life, are always denounced Mabinogion. Once a king, he has been as“ treason;" when King Lots wife is transformed into a boar for his sins ; slain in adultery, Arthur and Lance- he has seven young pigs or princes, lot hold it " a felonous treason;" and the eldest of which rejoices in the when King Mark, for the most excel- name of Grugyn Gwrych Ereint, of lent reasons, banishes Tristram from very porcine etymology, “whose his court for ten years, he is denounc- bristles were of silver wire, and you ed by the hero- in the apparent con- could trace him through the woods viction that he is expressing a popu- by their shining.” The Boar-king lar sentiment very ungrate carries between his ears a comb and ful.” But enough of such instances; scissors, and these must be won by 'is it too much to exclaim with old Kilhwch before he can wed with OlLeland-honest, even if he was cre- wen, whose father, Yspaddaden Pendulous—“O scelera, O mores, 0 cor- kawr, cannot arrange his hair without rupta tempora !"*

them. Kilhwch obtains the aid of The religion—in all but the latter Arthur and his companions in the portion, the Quest of the Graal-is hunt; but nine days and nine nights a mere parergon, though we have the royal beast and his brood defy abundance of its phraseology. In all the whole Round Table. They hunt essentials it is at least as much pagan him from Ireland through Pembrokeas Christian. There are strong proofs shire, Cardigan, over the Brecknock how long the old heathen belief sur mountains, across the Severn into vived, ,-a blind unreasoning fear of Cornwall, where he takes the sea, and the mysterious powers of nature, a is never seen more. very worship of the groves and rocks. It will be seen that our estimate Morgan la Faye, who can turn herself of these romances is scarcely the poand followers into stones at pleasure, pular one. The remarkable interest is a far more awful personage than which attaches to them seems to us the Archbishop of Canterbury, who independent of, and far beyond, their appears in strange conjunction almost intrinsic merit. As to the life and on the same page., Nature and art morals which they paint, the most are alike inexplicable, except on su- satisfactory reflection is, that it was pernatural principles. The works of never real. There was no golden age the latter are miracles, as in the in- of chivalry, whatever Sir Bulwer stance of Excalibur. The powers of Lytton may try to persuade usthe former are magnified into prodigies. We have an example in When what is now called poetry was life."


* Collect , v. 47.

Few of these heroes wore in their parison ; nerve and sinew have not hearts the noble motto, which one degenerated. The ancient armour of them-Gyron le Courtois-bore which had borne the brunt of actual upon his sword, “Loyaulté passe tout, tourney, was found somewhat scant et faulseté honnet tout.” This would- of girth for the limbs that jousted be heroic and chivalric age was very in sport at Eglinton. The gentlemean and poor in some of its phases. men of modern England, who, instead Even its good, such as it was, was all of sitting at home at ease, ride across for the knight and noble; the "churl" the stiffest country they can find, or is only introduced for their disport climb Monte Rosa and the Wetterand mockery. “Then were they horn for pure amusement, are at least afraid when they saw a knight." king Arthur's equals in this,—they What a picture of the social rela- will not go to meat till they have tions !

seen some great adventure.” And if After all, this antiquarian hero- it come to what the romancers call worship is unreal. Nobler, even if “derring-do,” we can fight as well as more self-assertive,-more fertile in they did ; though the sober columns present deeds, even if it deal less in of the modern “ correspondent” have reverence for the past,-is the consci- not the grand faculty of lying that ous boast of Diomed, which breathes was accorded to the trouveur of old, so much of the moderu English our poor prosaic annals can tell their spirit

story too. The lads that stood back «Huεις του πατερων μεγαμεινονες ευχομεθ' rodent Balaclava – the raw recruits,

to back at the Alma—the men who ειναι."

“churls” though they were, who fired They were not the giants that they their own death-volley as they went seem, looming through the mist of down in their ranks on board the ages. If we lay our bones beside their Birkenbead-were truer heroes than bones, they hardly suffer by the com- any knight of the Round Table.


The Faro, July 30, 1860. IMMEDIATELY after the embarka- of raw levies as those under Medici. tion of the Neapolitan army from The promontory on which the castle Palerino, and the despatch of Turr's is situated is three miles in length, and Bixio's columns into the interior and varying from three-quarters to and southern and eastern portions a quarter of a mile in breadth, and of Sicily, Garibaldi advanced his on an average about 600 or 700 feet new levies in the direction of Mes- above the sea, and connected with sina, by the northern coast-road, until the main by a low and narrow isththe leading column under Medici, mus on which stands the town, imabout 2500 strong, established itself mediately under the command of the at Barcelona, threatening the town guns of the castle. This fortress of and fortress of Melazzo, distant some Melazzo is, nevertheless, overlooked seven miles-Medici having in his by the higher cliffs beyond, but which rear small bodies of men echeloned it completely defends from a land along the coast from Barcelona to attack. On the western side, overMelazzo. In order to check this ad- hanging the sea, are the oldest porvance, General Bosco was despatched tions of the works, consisting of a with 5000 picked inen to make a Norman tower and heavy massive stand in the vicinity of Melazzo; its walls: the more modern works, hownaturally strong position, and the ever, surround this, and extend over fact of Garibaldi's forces being desti- about half the isthmus enclosing the tute of artillery, rendering it, in the site of the ancient town, little of opinion of the Neapolitans, perfectly which has been allowed to remain impregnable to such an assemblage save the cathedral. The English, in


the early part of the present century, other projecting spur, in the direction strengthened Melazzo, when, after a of Messina, and similarly cut off from six months' siege, they took it from the plain by a water-course, stands the French; but the Neapolitans have the little town of Pace. Pace stands subsequently added much to the land- so close to the sea as to perfectly ward fortifications—a very general command the coast-road along which measure throughout their dominions, General Bosco's forces advanced from as if they considered themselves safe Messina : and had Garibaldi and his from all comers save their own sub- followers been at Barcelona earlier, jects. The works mount forty guns of he would probably there have fought heavy calibre, chiefly long 24-pound- Bosco before he reached Melazzo, and ers, nearly all of which are facing the whilst tired with his long march from town. A succession of loose irregu- Messina. Medici, however, was in no lar fortification, extending down the position to assume so actively offenslopes in that direction, had been lately sive a measure, and leave his rear abandoned as useless. The modern open to attack from the garrison of town is generally massive and well Melazzo, the more so, that Bosco's rebuilt, containing about ten thousand pute was that of a fighting man, and inhabitants, and in itself affords con- his corps was known to be picked siderable advantages for defence from from the large garrison of Messina. a land attack, the mainland in the The liberating forces wisely, therefore, immediate vicinity being very low, took up a strong position at Merii, and thickly belted with cane-brake, the detachments in the rear hurried vineyards, and olive groves, as well up to support them, and Medici deas intersected with numerous ditches, termined to hold his ground until the embankments, and detached houses, arrival of the Dictator from Palermo. all admirably adapted to impede thé However, on the morning of the advance of troops. A more pictur- 17th of July, General Bosco advancesque view than that from the cliffs ing with all his force (saving the at the back of the castle, looking eight hundred men he had found in landward, it is difficult to conceive; garrison on arrival) to occupy the opthe tall spine of mountains which posite heights in the direction of traverses the north of the island forms Pace, evidently with the intention of the background, with the crater of advancing on Santa Lucia, and from Etna just leaning over its summit. thence turning his position, Medici Away west we have the wild fantastic immediately moved on in support of outline of the coast stretching down his advanced guard, and an affair of towards Termini, and in the opposite outposts took place in which the latter direction the Faro of Messina. The was worsted, losing eighteen prisoners, plain, or rather slopes of Sicily to and a few killed and wounded. In wards Melazzo, are teeming with the afternoon, Medici again attacked cultivation, and studded with vil. Bosco in force, and after a sharp conlages and towns, amongst the most flict drove him back towards Melazzo, conspicuous of which is Barcelona. but with a loss on his side of ten killed Away seawards we have Lipari, Vol. and thirty-seven wounded. In the cano, Stromboli, and other islets dot- evening the Garibaldians fell back on ting the blue Mediterranean. That Merii. On the morning of the 18th small town, due south about three the Palermitan regiment, under miles, is Merii, to which, on the ar- Colonel Dunn, arrived, and was imrival of Bosco from Messina, Medici mediately pushed on to the crossadvanced his column from Barcelona. road from Santa Lucia to Melazzo. At Merii, the land rises towards the The following day, that officer havmountaius of the interior, and across ing received information that there its front flows a very broad “fumara” were two guns in position on the or water-course coming down from left of the town only guarded by the neighbouring heights, and empty. 100 men, he stole up with 200, hoping itself into the sea a couple of ing to surprise them, but found miles west of the town. Meriì tbus himself in face of the entire Neapoforms a position, easily defended, litan force, in position, occupying a upon a spur of the mountains pro- semicircle of about three miles in ex: jecting towards Melazzo. Upon an- tent. Colonel Dunn of course retired


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