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just in time to meet Garibaldi, who Hungarian, Swiss, and Germans of had arrived with a portion of Co all shades, were numerous. Of Sisenz's division, giving in all a dis- cilians there were two regiments, posable force of about 4500 men, chiefly composed of the levies from with three guns—that is, if two old Palermo, some so young and diminuship twelve-pounder carronades, and tive as to stagger under the weight a six-pounder of the latter portion of of their own muskets. Generally the seventeenth century, deserve such speaking, the force was armed with a name.

Enfields, but few knew how to The force under Garibaldi was di- develop the use of those deadly vided as follows:

weapons, the sights being deemed å

superfluity. Any martinet contemMedici's division,


plating this liberating army would Cosenz's do.,


have been heartbroken at the utter Malinchini's do.,


contempt displayed on all sides for Three guns, and


those qualities which on parade

are considered the sine qua non of Bosco's division, on the other hand, a soldier ; but these red - shirted, consisted of

ragged - looking scarecrows, under

this far from prepossessing exterior, Five regiments of carbineers, The first regiment of the line,

possessed many of those sterling Two squadrons of cavalry (about 120), qualities which have often enabled Two field-batteries ;

impromptu levies to triumph over

more elaborate organisations. A in all, including the garrison, about musket or rifle, sixty rounds of am6500 men. The Neapolitan position munition, a water-bottle, and, for in front of Melazzo was well chosen, the most part, an empty haversack, its right and left leaning on the two and you have the impedimenta of a hamlets of Arebi and St Marino, each Garibaldian. Of commissaries, in on the sea-shore, about a mile distant gorgeous uniform, there are none, yet

a from the entrance of the town. The of beef and bread there is an ocforce in St Marino, with three guns, casional supply; of discipline there commanded the main road to Barce- is the mere shadow : all, however, lona, and that in Arebi, with as many are animated with unbounded configuns, defended the approach to the dence in their chiefs, and especially bridge leading into the town on the Garibaldi ; he may be said to exerMessina side and the cross-road to cise an individual influence over his Santa Lucia, whilst the Neapolitan followers, wholly without parallel centre was established in the hamlet amongst modern commanders. With of St Pietro, where all the houses this imaginative race it almost and walls had been loop-holed and amounts to a superstition; whatever otherwise strengthened. During the he says, is; wherever he appears, night, Bosco advanced his right by victory follows as a matter of course. the sea-shore, in the direction of This feeling, combined with an utter Barcelona, with the hopes of out. contempt, and, with the Sicilians, an flanking the attack in this direction, implacable hatred for the Neapolitan and evidently with the intention troops, has been the key-stone of of pushing up the fumara towards Garibaldi's success, and of victories Merii, should the Garibaldians meet won in utter defiance of all martial with a reverse in the impending tactics, as laid down by Jomini and attack. Regarding the relative other expositors of the rules of war. merits of the two forces, Bosco was Those writers forget that every sucthe only Neapolitan officer in this cessful commander had his own art of war who has meant fighting, and his war, whilst the man of routine and troops were about the best in their precedent, who ought to have won, army, nearly all riflemen, orderly, had not his opponent transgressed well drilled, and well pipe-clayed. established rules, is invariably found As for Garibaldi's force, a more pinned like some specimen beetle in heterogeneous one never came into a glass case, for lack of that origithe field. Northern Italians pre- nality which constitutes the difference dominated, but English, French, between born and educated generals, Early on the morning of the 20th, with a red shirt, grey trousers, wideGaribaldi's columns deployed from awake, and loose bandana flowing Merii to the attack, Malenchini and over his shoulders, his appearance his division being destined to ad- is scrupulously clean and neat, and vance by the sea-shore, driving in the his manner gentlemanly and genial. Neapolitan right, and carrying the There is something most winning and village of St Marino to force the Paler- honest in his manner, and you are mo gate of the town. Garibaldi, at once impressed with the convicwith the main columns under Medici tion that you are face to face with a and Cosenz, advanced as far as man whose word would be his bond, Dunn's position on the cross-roads and upon whose guidance, either by towards Pace, and then separating, sea or land, you would'implicitly pushed for Archi and St Pietro rely. No wonder, then, that his men respectively, hoping to force the left advance again with such confidence, and centre, and, concentrating on the where perhaps routine troops would Messina gate, carry the town in have hesịtated. It is, indeed, hot that direction. Towards seven the work: Medici's horse has been killed skirmishing became general, as the under him ; Cosenz has been hit heads of various columns closed in the neck ; but the general still with the Neapolitan semicircle. Every leads his guides under Missari, man of Bosco's force was posted and the Genoese carbineers, who under the advantageous ever behave admirably. Suddenly of house, wall, or embankment- a three-gun battery opened on them their movements being entirely with mitraille at twenty paces ; in masked by the thick beds of Indian this murderous discharge Garibaldi fig which here intersect the vine- was slightly hurt, Missari's horse yards, and in many places form an killed, Major Breda killed, Staimpenetrable barrier. Our men tella alone left standing on foot dropped fast under this hidden fire, with a few men. At the same without any guide by which to return time Malenchini, who bad driven it, save the smoke of their adversar- the advanced Neapolitang back on ies' rifles; all, however, steadily ad- St Marino, found it impossible to vanced, threading their way amongst carry the 'hamlet-the road to it cane-brake, Indian-fig bushes, and being completely swept by their vineyards as best they could. Colonel battery ; and the Garibaldians were Peard and his revolving-rifle com- again checked along the whole line. pany pushed on towards the town General Garibaldi merely gatherby å by-road on the left, but was ed himself up for a fresh attack, soon brought to a stand-still, and and the reserve, consisting of the shortly afterwards the advance was English_regiment, as it is termed, entirely checked by the masses under Dunn, having arrived, one against which they were exposed. hundred and fifty men, with Major The check was, however, momentary; Wyndham, were sent to try and break the Garibaldians were speedily rein- through the line towards San Mariforced ; and the right and centre no; and Dunn, with the remainder, again advanced, headed by Garibaldi about two hundred strong, was in person ; whó as usual was ever ordered by the General to advance in the thickest of the fray, cigaret en and endeavour to carry the battery bouche, and walking-stick in hand, in flank; whilst Missari, Statella, and cheering his guides and Genoese car- the remnant of their men, attempted bineers, his calm and benevolent the same movement in the opposite features bearing their usual happy direction. Advancing under cover expression, as if he were on a day's of a wall and ditch, Dunn led his excursion,' rather than leading a men towards the battery, where he death-struggle on which the fate of found, to his astonishment, Garibaldi his country depended. Strongly joined in the fray. Dashing in after built and of middle stature, this pala- a momentary struggle with the indin of Italy is chiefly distinguished fantry, the guns were carried, and in from his followers by his unassum- the act of being dragged off, when the ing manner and aspect. Though Neapolitans opened out and made dressed somewhat in sailor fashion, room for their cavalry, about one hundred and twenty in number, to part of the enemy. Here an incident charge, and endeavour to retake occurred which deserves to be men. the captured guns. Dunn's men, tioned, as showing the singular unaccustomed to fire, behaved ad- character of Garibaldi. Finding mirably, though driven out of the his shirt dirty and soiled from his battery, and their commander knock- personal struggles, he took it off, ed down and galloped over by the washed it in the brook hard by, cavalry, not, however, until he had and hung it up on the bushes, até shot their leader. Dividing them- his lunch of bread, fruit, and water, selves on either side the road, the smoked his cigar barebacked, and, Garibaldians placed their backs to wrapt in thought, sat apparently the wall and Indian-fig bushes, and contemplating the drying of his garopened fire on the cavalry from ment : thus, in the field and bivouac, either side. This was the struggle sharing danger and hardship with of the day, and very nearly cost the humblest of his followers. Di. Garibaldi his life, and with it the rectly his shirt was dry, he went on life of Italy. Afraid of advancing board the Tukeri, formerly Veloce, too far, and finding himself between lying in the bay on the western side of two fires, the Neapolitan leader the peninsula, and personally directhalted, and endeavoured to return; ed her fire on the fortress and retirbut Garibaldi, Missari, Statella, and ing masses. Having succeeded in a handful of guides, barred the way. drawing the fire on the steamer, and Summoned by the Neapolitan offi- diverted the attention of the troops, cer to surrender, the hero of Varese he landed, and led the assault on the merely replied by springing at his town. At two o'clock the attack horse's bridle and cutting down became general; Medici advanced the owner. Three or four troopers by the beach, on the western side ; seconded their officer; one of them Cosedz towards the Messina gate; Garibaldi wounded ; Missari killed and Wyndham, followed by Malentwo others, and shot the horse of a chini, rushed at the gate leading to third ; Statella killed another; and Palermo. A harassing fire was kept this murderous struggle concluded up by the Neapolitans from the houses by Missari's killing a third with the and behind the boats on the beach, fourth barrel of his revolver. The and shot and shell from the castle remnant of the cavalry now charged, showered in on the Garibaldians ; backed, and escaped, leaving the and it was not until the Pavia comguns in the hands of Garibaldi. pany bad wormed their way into Wyndham having been equally suc- some gardens, turning the Neapolicessful on the left, after some very tan left, that good progress was sharp fighting, the whole line now made. The wall, which nearly suradvanced with the bayonet rounds the town on the land side, munition getting very scarce; the though nearly thirty feet high, ofSwiss and Bavarians stood for a fered but little difficulty, owing to moment, and then, following the the many apertures in it. Medici's example of their Neapolitan breth- men again bore the brunt of the ren, retired in confusion towards fighting, and behaved right well, in the town. On arriving at the spite of their heavy losses. Some houses in its vicinity, the castle of the houses were gallantly conguns opened on the assailants and tested; but the Neapolitans fought covered the retreat; and as it was like beaten troops, and were evinow noon, a halt was sounded, for dently bent on gradually retiring to the Garibaldians had been advan- the castle, their retreat being covered cing since daybreak, and fighting by a heavy fire of shot and shell from under a Sicilian summer sun. Hav- the fortress, in spite of which the ing secured the bridge, some exten- heroic Garibaldians gradually adsive wood-stores and other buildings vanced from position to position, were broken open, and the troops driving back the troops until, about placed under cover for a couple of four o'clock, they worked their way hours' rest previous to assaulting the up to the entrance of the castle. In town, a few good riflemen alone being the mean time some of Medici's men posted to check any advance on the and Peard's company, following the



Marina on the western side of the following days, save that Bosco peninsula, gained the heights to sea- seemed to imagine that he could dicward of the castle, and established tate his own terms to Garibaldi, who themselves near an old windmill, steadily refused anything but an unwhich completely overlooked the conditional surrender, the garrison northern works of Melazzo, and being hermetically sealed, and too rapidly with their rifles drove the disheartened to attempt a sortie; garrison out of that quarter. No- besides, provisions were not abunthing more could now be done for dant, and they were suffering much the want of heavy guns, as, from the from the badness of the water. Mines height of its walls, and singularly were therefore driven under the main strong natural position, the castle entrance of the castle, and the garricould not be escaladed. Barricades son summoned to an unconditional were thrown up in all the immediate surrender at six P.M. on the 24th; approaches towards the town, in on the afternoon of which day Bosco readiness to repel any sortie, and of- found his expected relief, in the arficers and men, alike worn out and rival of five Neapolitan steam friweary, lay down on their posts for gates, who threatened to bombard the the night-Garibaldi, with his head town if the troops were not allowed on a saddle, under the portico of a to march out with their arms and church in the centre of the Marina. remaining field battery, leaving beTheir successes, however, had been hind the heavy guns and stores. To dearly bought, no less than 750 Ga- these terms Garibaldi was obliged to ribaldians were hors de combat, and consent, from motives of humanity, of these over 150 killed ; Medici's as well as from the utter impossibility and Cosenz's columns and the reserve of replying to their fire. The garbearing by far the greater portion, so rison were accordingly embarked for that it may be said that out of the Naples and Messina, the Neapolitan 4000 actually engaged, when you have men-of-war performing again in this deducted the 600 men under Malen- case the part for which they seem chini, who was driven back in the especially created ; namely, that of early part of the day with moderate removing their army to a place of loss, the remainder lost upwards of safety after it has been well thrashed. a fifth hors de combat, which, con- The great guns and stores found in sidering the number of hours they the fort were of course invaluable were engaged, tells they met with no to Garibaldi, as well as the horses ordinary resistance. As for the of the cavalry, and the ninety-four Neapolitans, so strong and so well mules belonging to the field batteries; covered were their various positions, but the Neapolitans had the indestrengthened by loopholes and bar. cency to spike eighteen of the guns, ricades, that they did not lose more and lay a train to the principal magathan 150 in all. More than once the zine, leaving a lighted match in it, fate of Italy was doubtful, until which was luckily, discovered in the happy advance of the reserves, time. Bosco denied all knowledge under Dunn and Wyndham, the one of these transactions. Of the value on the right and the other on the of this denial the reader must form left, turned the tide of the day; and his own estimate. The day after the to the pluck and judgment of these fight, numerous reinforcements began two officers, together with the admir- to arrive from Palermo, which soon able conduct of the Piedmontese sous swelled the numbers of the Gari. officers, by whom their regiment was baldians to 10,000, and Medici was officered, to say nothing of the sin- sent forward with the columns in gularly steady conduct of the Paler- the direction of Messina to check mitans, may be attributed the suc- any advance in that quarter, and cess of Garibaldi's hardest fought with a view of commencing operabattle in Italy; and it was generally tions against that town. Medici stated that Bosco's troops fought soon established himself in that better than the Austrians had ever neighbourhood, but kept the main done in Lombardy against the Cac- body of his men at Jesso and Spaciatori delle Alpi.

dafora. Convinced of the utter imNothing occurred during the four possibility of longer opposing Gari


baldi in Sicily, and knowing the that the town, under all circumodium that the repetition of the stances, was to be respected, unless atrocious bombardment of Palermo an attack was made on the citadel would entail on him in Europe, King from that side, the Garibaldian Bomba decided upon trying to in- forces under Medici marched into duce foreign powers to aid him by Messina on July 27th. It seemed pretending to have left Sicily free to at first a city of the dead, for the select her own form of government. majority of the inhabitants had fled, On the 24th Marshal Clary, com- carrying with them their goods and manding-in-chief in the island, re- property. The Dictator soon hastceived orders to commence the eva- ened up with the main body of his cuation of Sicily, and to place him- army; and having been subsequently self in communication with the reinforced by Eber's and Bixio's Filibuster, as they once had the im- columns from the south, as well as becility to term him. The towns of daily arrivals from Palermo, an army Messina, Syracuse, and Augusta, of upwards of 20,000 men is now were to be delivered up as soon as at his disposal in Messina and its the troops could be withdrawn, and vicinity. Batteries are being thrown the far-famed citadel of Messina, and up at the Faro, and vast preparations its surrounding fortifications, as soon made for crossing into Calabria; but as the disarmament could be com- whether Garibaldi will make a campleted! Such were the fruits of the paign in that country, or, collecting fall of Melazzo, a battle in which his steamers, make a swoop at Naples, the only Sicilian officer engaged was time only can show; but come what Bosco, and he was fighting against may in that direction, Sicily being his own countrymen; a fact, how- now free, must be ere long annexed ever, not more remarkable than that to the dominions of Victor Emmanthe subscription throughout this fer- uel. The crowd of adventurers tile island in aid of Garibaldi has swarming here from all parts of only amounted to £5000, and that Europe,—the appearance of that bird he and his son had to pay for the of evil omen, Joseph Mazzini,—the bire of the horses during the first rapacity of the Sicilians, who all conmonth they were in the island, and ceive that they are to receive lucrathat, with the exception of the tive public employment, together Marquis Fardella, and a few other with their constant intrigue to upset honourable exceptions, no well-to-do the various ministries that have been Sicilian has joined the army. The formed, all tends to show that they pusillanimous and unpatriotic part are utterly unfit for self-government, taken by the majority in the de- and a state of anarchy must ensue if struction of the Bourbon dominion is they are left to themselves, when pitiable. They have no idea of Garibaldi leaves the island. But into risking the varnish of their patent whatsoever hands Sicily may fall, for leather boots beyond the Caffés of years it must be rigorously governed, the Toledo, or their precious persons before its motley and debased inhabibeyond an evening's drive on the tants can be expected to respect life Marina or English garden; as for or property, much less become fit to personal or pecuniary sacrifice, they be citizens of a representative comwill make none. Not a single house munity. Here may be witnessed the in Palermo would receive a wounded withering influence of generations of Garibaldian after its fall, save Rayuso servitude and vassalage upon the two of the Trinacria Hotel ; and the pre- classes into which the community of cious moments which are to give new Sicily may be divided-namely, the life to Italy, are frittered away over aristocracy and the working classes : ices and cigars that would sicken the one is ignorant and emascuany but a Sicilian. The evacuation lated with dissipation, and the other of Messina being completed, and a degraded and demoralised to a degree convention entered into between Me- withont a parallel in Europe. dici and Governor - General Clary,

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