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number, and consult the Capuchin, It looks, as we are accustomed to who is good authority on this as on say,“ too good to be true,"—too grand other subjects, and live as much as a project to be actually accomplished. possible by faith.
All Italy formed into one compact It is hardly possible to make the monarchy ?-or say all Italy, with the mere temporal interests of the people exception of that part which has been a matter of conscience with this left under the dominion of Austriapriestly government. What can in- the design is one which must kindle dustry do but make the world more the imagination of the coldest politipleasant and seductive ? And science cian. A kingdom of Italy that would is a known enemy to implicit belief. soon compete in population, in wealth, It is said that there is no country in in intelligence, with the kingdom of Christendom where education is so France—what an accession to the little advanced as this, which lies great family of European nations ! under the immediate care of the Not an acre of land, nor a single Vicar of Christ.
human soul, would be added to Such is the government that is Europe, and still there would be a now upheld by the foreign troops of new creation,-a new people, with France, against the wishes of the renewed energies. France, England, inhabitants of Rome. Such is the and Germany have long represented government which is again threat- the growth and progress of the world; ened with overthrow by the new they have been the foremost and admovement, headed by Garibaldi and vancing nations of Europe ; now & the King of Sardinia. Will the Em- fourth would come amongst them, peror of France, or any other em- who, in every career, whether of art, peror, continue to support it? And science, industry, or war, would be what will be the results on Catholic second to none. Every one feels Europe, if the temporal sovereignty directly that Italy would be a new of the Pope should really come to an power; that the intellect of the nation end? These are questions which we would spring up as from a sleep. cannot help asking ourselves, though Commerce and industry would revive, it is only a very imperfect answer we new schools of art would appear, and, can give to them.
above all, new universities, or univerWhen the present Emperor of sities that will teach science and hisFrance undertook the restoration of tory in quite a new spirit. Hitherto the Pope to his civil power, it was a the youth of Italy, the youth of the small republic, of most uncertain middle classes, on whom the vigour existence, that he assailed and de- and energy of each coming age destroyed. And the policy, which de- pends, has been cruelly maltreated, termined him is very intelligible. cabined, cribbed, confined," and He thereby represented himself to then pronounced to be capable of all Europe as the champion of order, nothing better than a theatrical and he gained the support of his own coffee-house existence. Let us hope clergy, and he set his foot on this that France will not be impelled, by rising flame of republicanism, which, some feeling of distrust and jealousy, as matters stood, seemed to bode to oppose and thwart this great reno good to Italy, or to neighbouring generation of a people, who, in the nations. But the scene has very arts of peace, in the prosecution of rapidly changed. The new move- science and philosophy,—if not in ment is one for national unity,—the material wealth and power,-may formation of one great Italian mon- soon be its distinguished rival. archy. Will the Emperor of France We can but hope success to this oppose this movement, openly or great effort for a united Italian peocovertly ? Or will it be strong ple. We know the difficulties that enough to accomplish its ends, despite must be encountered, the opposition of all foreign opposition? Here we can
from without and within, the open express no confident opinion. We can or concealed hostility of foreign only hope that the grandest political powers, the ceaseless, pertinacious, scheme which has agitated the minds unwearied, and unscrupulous resistof men in our day may be fulfilled. ance of the great body of the priestbood, the alternating sloth and pas- Rome, is utterly incompatible with sion of the populace, and the timid- the foundation of a stable Italian ity and repugnance to change which monarchy. The Pope, or the Bishop the wealthy classes in all nations are of Rome, must become, in temporal sure to display. We can but hope. matters, a citizen of Rome, a subject But if it should succeed, there are of the Italian monarchy. some of the results to follow from Of course the priesthood, and those it on which we should speak with who feel with the priesthood, will be much less hesitation, which we should indignant at the thought,,will do venture, indeed, very confidently to everything in their power to prevent predict.
this degradation, as they will esteem Why is it that we feel convinced it, of the head of the Universal that the construction, by the Italians Church. They will set in motion themselves, of a new kingdom of every engine of diplornacy; they will Italy, must be accompanied by a re- rouse every superstition of the peoinvigoration of all the powers and ple. There are no traitors, no calumenergies of the people ? Because niators, that_can rival an angry we know that this great political priesthood. There is no peace to be design cannot possibly be accom- made with them. It is not a quesplished without such an awakening tion of peace or war; there must be of the mind and heart of the country war or submission. as must inevitably display itself in We confess we tremble for the fate very many directions.
In one di- of Italy, when we reflect on the vast rection the very contest will call it power of the clergy over a most forth. It is not the Austrian alone superstitious people, and call to that has driven the several portions mind that the anger of that clergy of Italy into this union—it is not will inevitably be roused to the utthe Austrian alone that would op- most. There are princes, too, as pose it—there is a power of the one superstitious as the populace, or, Church which the scattered civilians what is worse, who seek to govern of Italy are incapable of competing by its superstition. An Emperor with-there is a subtle opponent in who could enter into a concordat their own territory which must, in with a pope in order to improve the one shape or other, be done battle with. piety and morality of his own sub
The programme of national unity jects, may commit any folly, or any necessarily implies two things — treachery on earth. He is not to freedom from foreign domination, be trusted for a moment. He has and a due subordination of the eccle- stamped himself indelibly as perfect siastical to the civil power, or an child or perfect hypocrite. Or who equitable alliance between them. can say what a confessor may do The Austrian, limited to a corner
with the conscience of a queen of of Italy, and left unassailed there, Spain, or a Dominican friar with the might not provoke an open war, but populace of Castile and Madrid ? the open war of speech, of denunci- who knows what disturbance in ation, of every priestly weapon, there every Catholic country the emissaries is no possible escape from. It is in of Rome may excite? We know this, vain that leaders of this great poli- that there is no war so cruel that a tical movement strive to limit it to Catholic priesthood would not bring politics; it will be a religious as well upon its own country in the defence as civil contest. They do not now as- of its Church. sail the Church, but the Church will We tremble for the issue of the assail them, and they must combat contest, but we repeat that it is or submit.
because the contest must be of this It is impossible to exclude Rome twofold description--because an infrom the programme of an Italian ternal domination, as well as an kingdom. Rome must be the capital external one, must be overthrown, of the new Italy. The existence of if success is to be achieved—that the temporal sovereignty of the Pope, we prognosticate such good results though he should consent to restrict from a politically united Italy. Let it within the walls of the city of us permit ourselves to imagine that, in spite of all opposition, suecess other governments would be equally has been attained — that a great slow to receive him as the head of Italian monarchy has been formed, their own ecclesiastical establishembracing the Roman States—what ment. It is not necessary to argue would be the effect on the Papacy? this point. The mere statement of
We have in Mr Hemaps one of the case must bring conviction, we those Catholics who can look without think, to every man who is at all dismay, or even with approbation, accustomed to reflect on the springs on the suppression of the temporal of human action. If two European sovereignty of the Pope. He thinks nations are rivals of each other in Catholicism will reap benefit from power, and wealth, and knowledge, the change, arise purer and stronger. -in everything that constitutes naIf for Catholicism we might substi- tional greatness,-neither would actute Christianity, or if the Papacy cept the bigh-priest of the other as can be distinguished from Cathol- the head of its own clergy. icism, we should acquiesce in his This division of the universal church opinion. But if the present eccle- into so many national churches, does siastical system, the present govern- not imply necessarily the advance of ment of the Church, be included in Protestantism, but it inevitably enthe idea of Catholicism - if Catho- tails a diminution of the ecclesiastical Jicism is rightly described by Le power. It will permit the religious Maistre in his celebrated book, Le establishments of each country more Pape-then we pronounce that it freely to conform themselves to the cannot long survive the blow it growing intelligence of each country. would receive by the subjection of At present, a refractory clergy gains the Pope or Bishop of Rome to the a support from without. Say that King of Italy.
six nations, independent in their civil It is very likely that immediately government, were linked together by after any adversity should befall the one common ecclesiastical institution, Pope, whether humiliation or exile, no reform of a religious nature could the fervent devotion of Catholics be effected by either, till it had obwould increase. For a time he tained in its favour a majority of the might exercise a greater influence six. The clergy of every nation than ever over the pious throughout would be supported, or would be all Europe. It is very likely, too, restrained (if they themselves should that, for centuries to come, some be liberally disposed) by the general dreamy doctrine of the "infallibility spirit pervading the whole clergy. of the Pope” would haunt the minds And this general spirit would find its of scattered sectaries, who would representative and executive in the look with contempt on all the na- permanent head of the united hiertional churches which, in the course archy. If an archbishop of Cologne of those centuries, had sprung up rebels against the municipal regulaDo not the Parsees hold their ground tions of his country, he appeals to a to this very day? Does not some foreign priesthood for sympathy and traveller tell us of three wise men support. If an Emperor of Austria who met in the ruins of Baalbec to wishes to repress the little philosophy kindle a sacred fire, and perform some that appears in his states, and, under annual rite. These wise men were the plea of fostering piety and morpersuaded that, if this fire were not ality, to keep the people from the annually kindled, the world would least freedom of religious inquiry, he cease to exist. What we venture enters into an agreement with the with confidence to predict is this, Pope, and the Pope grants fresh that if the Pope is the subject of the powers to his bishops. If in France King of Italy, he will not long be à spirit of concession should arise the head of the Church of France. amongst the clergy themselves, the France, and other Christian mon- reaction takes the form of an ultraarchies, will acknowledge no higher montane faction. To all this there ecclesiastical functionary than their will be an end. In every country the own bishop or archbishop. If the clergy will feel themselves essentially Pope should emigrate into France, national, and their teaching will more readily be modified according to the men,,we do not doubt a moment; advancing intelligence of the nation. and nature has done all she can for
The formation of a great Italian this people, whether we talk of race monarchy will be the downfall of the or of climate. The impression which present ecclesiastical system, and no every one must receive who reads its country will reap so much benefit annals or visits the country, is of from the change as Italy itself. We the power that resides in this people are not pretending to prophesy that for good or for evil. Once on the Italy or other Catholic countries will right track, none is so likely to take become Protestant, though it is very the lead in Europe. But how a supernatural for an Englishman to arrive stitious, passionate populace will comat such a conclusion. What we see port itself in the ensuing struggle, before us, in the event of the success who shall venture to predict ? of this great political movement for We regret that the work of Mr a national unity, is the downfall of Hemans (which bears Florence on its an ecclesiastical system. The new title-page) is not printed or published Italy cannot relinquish her Rome; in a form more likely to insure for it Rome cannot submit to be handed a fair trial. In spite of that want of over to an ecclesiastical caste, who literary skill which we have noticed, are to continue to govern it without and which probably is due to a proone generous sympathy in all that longed residence abroad, and the constitutes a national life-a caste of habit of reading and speaking in a celibates, who must either rule in foreign language, we have perused it the spirit of monks, or of profligate with interest. Much of the informamen, reckless of domestic virtues as tion he gives is such as could be of national greatness. The spectacle only gleaned by a resident in Rome; of a city coerced perpetually by a we accompany him with pleasure military force to live under a monas- throughout all his descriptions of the tic government, could not be en- various ceremonies or festivals of the dured ; and if Rome is to be the Church; as a lover of art he produces capital of the new Italy, it can no them in their most attractive aspect, longer give a pope to France. The as a good Catholic he enlightens us government that has its seat at Paris upon their symbolic significance. We could not consent to this. The spirit learn here the hidden meaning of of rivalry that must arise between the the alb, the maniple, the chasuble, two nations would utterly forbid it. and all other ecclesiastical robes. Thus the great ecclesiastical system, Nor is the information curious only, which nets the several Catholic pa- but useful. We have a fuller account tions together, would be broken up.than is easily to be met with elseTo this extent we venture to pro- where of the machinery of the Papal phesy, but no further.
Government, of the several CongreWe have forsaken Mr Hemans's gations, or, as we might call them, book to take a single glance at the several Boards, or Councils, by Italian politics. It shall be no more which it conducts its charitable and than a single glance. Of the immediate missionary schemes, and other multiresult of the noble enterprise of Gari- farious objects of its civil and spiritbaldi it is in vain to speculate. Be- ual jurisdiction. There is an account, fore our speculations will be printed, also, drawn up very carefully, of the events themselves may have rendered several religious fraternities, monks all speculation idle and superfluous. and friars, which, to the Protestant Nor can a foreigner form any con- reader at least, will point out some clusions satisfactory to himself of distinctions of which he was not the state of public opinion in Italy. aware. He will become acquainted, How can he distinguish between a perhaps, with some monastic orders temporary effervescence and a well- of which he had not heard before. grounded permanent sentiment-be- The whole book is really replete with tween the overflowing of the stream either interesting or useful material, and the steadfast current of the though it may not be presented in river ? That Italy has its full pro- the most attractive style, or with the portion of noble souls, -of heroic most judicious arrangement.
TICKLER II. AMONG THE THIEVES !
TICKLER II.'S FIRST APPEARANCE.
not the man, though he scemed a
decent enough fellow) and he did I was lying on the sofa, late in the look handsome! He trembled siafternoon,
trying to get a nap, by the lently as I carried him inwards, and aid of a Blue-book, but which was placed him on the sofa-and a picvery near giving me a nightmare in ture he was! I never beheld such a the daytime; so heavy was the pres- pair of eyes in a dog's head before : sure on my chest, where it rested, seen through his long hair, how of that ponderous mass of expensive, large, full, gentle, and sad they unintelligible, and worthless statis- looked ! Here, by the way, is what tics, which had been obtained at an had been said of him by the donor, expense to the country of £356 by in a letter received that very morna certain M.P.: who, having no other ing :means of indicating to his constitu
E ents that he was in Parliament, had "I hope you will receive, in the worried the Under-Secretary of the course of the day on which you get Treasury into consenting to his re- this note, my promised Skye terrier. quest, under a threat that, by-and- I can tell you that it is far away the by, a vote might be more easily asked finest specimen, to my thinking, that for than got ! The nightmare afore- ever left these parts, and you may said would probably have completed rely on its being of the very purest itself in all its horrors; but my breed. I hardly knew how to look daughter, who was standing at the in the face the dear good girl whom window, suddenly exclaimed-“Oh, I have persuaded to give it up to papa ! papa! Here it is, I do be- you; but when I told her for whom lieve! Something is coming !" Up I wanted it, I must own she surI jumped ; and, as I gained the win- rendered it very charmingly. I hope dow, to be sure the cause of the girl's you will keep a precious sharp lookexcitement was apparent, and pro- out after the little gentleman; for duced the same in me.
the moment he is seen by one of the with “GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY" fraternity of London dog-stealers, I painted on it; and it drew up at our would not give much for your chances door. There was no mistaking one of keeping Tickler II., as I hope you of the three occupants of the seat- will call him. He's a most affection'twas a dog; a dark pepper-and-saltate, intelligent little thing, and only Skye, sitting modestly between two about nine months old. Yours ever men, one of whom jumped down and sincerely, knocked at the door, returning to get the dog, who had a little metal P.S.-Don't give him all sorts of chain attached to his neck.
things directly you get him. Recol“Come, my little man!” quoth lect he will have come off a long the former ;'“ here you are, all journey, by boat and rail. I wish right,” and he lifted the dog kindly you had some oat-cake, or something down. “Is this
-'s ?” he of that sort, to which he is accusinquired of myself, mentioning my tomed.” name, who had hurried round to open the door. I said, “I am
We thought of this letter, as we and, examining the parchment label looked at the little New Arrival; attached to the chain, recognised the and after a world of petting and handwriting of the kind donor of the putting aside his glossy hair, so that dog. There was only a shilling to his dark beaming eyes, looking at us pay, and yet the little creature had as if he were saying“ use me kindly," travelled all the way from Skye! might be seen more distinctly, we
“ He's a ’ansome little dog, sir, commenced our good offices by setisn't he ?” quoth the man.
ting him free from his chain, and di“Bless him!” (the dog I mean, recting his attention to a basin of
'Twas a van,