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That might require the array of war, thy skill Of conduct would be such, that all the world Could not sustain thy prowess, or subsist In battle, though against thy few in arms. These God-like virtues wherefore dost thou hide, Affecting private life, or more obscure In savage wilderness 2 wherefore deprive All Earth her wonder at thy acts, thyself The fame and glory, glory the reward That sole excites to high attempts, the flame Of most erected spirits, most temper'd pure Ethereal, who all pleasures else despise, All treasures and all gain esteem as dross, And dignities and powers all but the highest? Thy years are ripe, and over-ripe; the son Of Macedonian Philip had ere these Won Asia, and the throne of Cyrus held At his dispose; young Scipio had brought down The Carthaginian pride; young Pompey quell’d The Pontic king, and in triámph had rode. Yet years, and to ripe years judgment mature, Quench not the thirst of glory, but augment. Great Julius, whom now all the world admires, The more he grew in years, the more inflam'd With glory, wept that he had liv'd so long Inglorious: but thou yet art not too late.” To whom our Saviour calmly thus replied. “Thou neither dost persuade me to seek wealth For empire's sake, nor empire to affect For glory's sake, by all thy argument. For what is glory but the blaze of fame, The people's praise, if always praise unmix'd? And what the people but a herd confus'd, A miscellaneous rabble, who extol Things vulgar, and, well weigh'd, scarce worth the praise 2 [what, They praise, and they admire, they know not And know not whom, but as one leads the other; And what delight to be by such extoll’d, To live upon their tongues, and be their talk, Of whom to be disprais'd were no small praise His lot who dares be singularly good. The intelligent among them and the wise Are few, and glory scarce of few is rais'd. This is true glory and renown, when God, Looking on the Earth, with approbation marks The just man, and divulges him through Heaven To all his angels, who with true applause Recount his praises: thus he did to Job, When to extend his same through Heaven and Earth, As thou to thy reproach may'st well remember, He ask'd thee, ‘Hast thou seen my servant Job 2’ Famous he was in Heaven, on Earth less known; Where glory is false glory, attributed To things not glorious, men not worthy of fame. They err, who count it glorious to subdue By conquest far and wide, to over-run Large countries, and in field great battles win, Great cities by assault: what do these worthies, But rob and spoil, burn, slaughter, and enslave Peaceable nations, neighbouring, or remote, Made captive, yet deserving freedom more Than those their conquerors, who leave behind Nothing but ruin wheresoe'er they rove, And all the flourishing works of peace destroy; Then swell with pride, and must be titled Gods, fireat Benefactors of mankind, Deliverers,

Worshipt with temple, priest, and sacrifice
One is the son of Jove, of Mars the other;
Till conqueror Death discover them scarce men,
Rolling in brutish vices, and deform’d,
Violent or shameful death their due reward.
But if there be in glory aught of good,
It may by means far different be attain'd,
Without ambition, war, or violence;
By deeds of peace, by wisdom eminent,
By patience, temperance: I mention still
Him, whom thy wrongs, with saintly patience

rne, Made famous in aland and times obscure; Who names not now with honour patient Job 2 Poor Socrates, (who next more memorable 2) By what he taught, and suffer'd for so doing, For truth's sake suffering death, unjust, lives now Equal in fame to proudest conquerors. Yet if for fame and glory aught be done, Aught suffer'd; if young African for fame His wasted country freed from Punic rage; The deed becomes unprais'd, the man at least, And loses, though but verbal, his reward. Shall I seek glory then, as vain men seek, w Oft not deserv'd I seek not mine, but his Who sent me; and thereby witness whence I am.” [plied. To whom the tempter murmuring thus re“Think not so slight of glory; therein least Resembling thy great Father: he seeks glory, And for his glory all things made, all things Orders and governs; nor content in Heaven By all his angels glorified, requires Glory from men, from all men, good or bad, Wise or unwise, no difference, no exemption ; Above all sacrifice, or hallow'd gift, Glory he requires, and glory he receives, Promiscuous from all nations, Jew or Greek, Or barbarous, nor exception hath declar'd ; From us, his foes pronounc'd, glory he exacts.” To whom our Saviour fervently replied. “And reason; since his word all things produc’d Though chiefly not for glory as prime end, But to show forth his goodness, and impart His good communicable to every soul Freely; of whom what could he less expect Than glory and benediction, that is, thanks, The slightest, easiest, readiest recompense From them who could return him nothing else, And, not returning that, would likeliest render Contempt instead, dishonour, obloquy Hard recompense, unsuitable return For so much good, so much beneficence 1 But why should man seek glory, who of his own Hath nothing, and to whom nothing belongs, But condemnation, ignominy, and shame? Who for so many benefits receiv'd, . Turn'd recreant to God, ingrate and false, And so of all true good himself despoil'd; Yet, sacrilegious, to himself would take That which to God alone of right belongs: Yet so much bounty is in God, such grace, That who advance his glory, not their own, Them he himself to glory will advance.” So spake the Son of God; and here again Satan had not to answer, but stood struck With guilt of his own sin; for he himself, Insatiable of glory, had lost all;

Yet of another pleabethought him soc.).
“Of glory, as thou wilt,” said he, “so deem;
Worth or not worth the seeking, let it pass.
But to a kingdom thou art born, ordain'd
To situpon thy father David's throne,
By mother's side thy father; though thy right
Be now in powerful hands, that will not part
Easily from possession won with arms:
Judaea now and all the Promis'd Land,
Reduc’d a province under Roman yoke,
Obeys Tiberius; nor is always rul’d
With temperate sway; oft have they violated
The temple, oft the law, with foul affronts,
Abominations rather, as did once
Antiochus: and think'st thou to regain
Thy right, by sitting still, or thus retiring
So did not Maccabeus: he indeed
Retir’d unto the desert, but with arms;
And o'er a mighty king so oft prevail'd,
That by strong hand his family obtain'd,
Though priests, the crown, and David's throne
usurp'd,
With Modin and her suburbs once content.
If kingdom move thee not, let move thee zeal
And duty; and zeal and duty are not slow,
But on occasion's forelock watchful wait:
They themselves rather are occasion best ;
Zeal of thy father's house, duty to free
Thy country from her heathen servitude.
So shalt thou best fulfil, best verify
The prophets old, who sung thy endless reign ;
The happier reign, the sooner it begins:
Reign then; what canst thou better do the
while ”
To whom our Saviour answer thus return'd.
“All things are best fulfill'd in their due time;
And time there is for all things, Truth hath said.
If of my reign prophetic writ hath told,
That it shall never end, so, when begin,
The Father in his purpose hath decreed;
He in whose hand all times and seasons roll.
What if he hath decreed that I shall first
The tried in humble state, and things adverse,
By tribulations, injuries, insults,
C. ntempts, and scorns, and snares, and violence,
Suffering, abstaining, quietly expecting,
Without distrust or doubt, that he may know
what I can suffer, how obey Who best
Can suffer, best can do ; best reign, who first
Well hath obey'd ; just trial, ere I merit
My exaltation without change or end.
But what concerns it thee, when I begin
My everlasting kingdom Why art thou
Solicitous What moves thy inquisition
Know'st thou not that my rising is thy fall,
And my promotion will be thy destruction?”
To whom the tempter, inly rack'd, replied.
“Let that come when it comes; all hope is lost
Of my reception into grace : what worse 2
For where no hope is left, is left no fear:
If there he worse, the expectation more
Of worse torments me than the feeling can.
I would be at the worst: worst is my port,
My harbour, and my ultimate repose;
The end I would attain, my final good.
My errour was my errour, and my crime
My crime; whatever, for itself condemn'd;
And will alike be punish'd, whether thou -
Reign, or reign not; though to that gentle brow

Willingly could I fly, and mope thy reign,
From that placid aspéct and meek regard,
Rather than aggravate my evil state,
Would stand between me and thy Father'sire,
(Whose ire I dread more than the fire of Hell)
A shelter, and a kind of shading cool
Interposition, as a summer's cloud.
If I then to the worst that can behaste,
Why move thy feet so slow to what is best,
Happiest, both to thyself and all the world,
That thou, who worthiest art, should'st be their .
king?
Perhaps thou linger'st, in deep thoughts detain'd
Of the enterprise so hazardous and high;
No wonder; for, though in thee be united
What of perfection can in man be found,
Or human nature can receive, consider,
Thy life hath yet been private, most partspent
At home, scarce view'd the Galilean towns,
And once a year Jerusalem, few days' [observe?
Short sojourn; and what thence could'st thos
The world thou hadst not seen, much less her
glory,
Empires, and monarchs, and their radiant courts,
Best school of best experience, quickest insight
In all things that to greatest actions lead.
The wisest, unexperienc'd, will be ever
Timorous and loth; with novice modesty,
(As he who, seeking asses, found a kingdom,)
Irresolute, unhardy, unadventurous:
But I will bring thee where thou soon shalt quit
Those rudiments, and see before thine eyes
The monarchies of the Earth, their pomp and
Sufficient introduction to inform [state;
Thee, of thyself so apt, in regal arts,
And regal mysteries; that thou may'st know
How their best opposition to withstand.”
With that, (such power was given him then)
he took
The Son of God up to a mountain high.
It was a mountain at whose verdant feet
A spacious plain, outstretch'd in circuit wide,
Lay pleasant; from his side two rivers flow'd,
The one winding, the other straight, and left
between
Fair champaign with less rivers intervelm'd,
Then meeting join'd their tribute to the sea:
Fertile of corn the glebe, of oil, and wine;
With herds the pastures throng'd, with flocks
the hills; stem
Huge cities and high-tower'd, that well might
The seats of mightiest monarchs; and so large
The prospect was, that here and there was
room
For barren desert, fountainless and dry.
To this high mountain top the tempter brought
Our Saviour, and new train of words began.
“Well have we speeded, and o'er hill and
dale,
Forest and field and flood, temples and towers;
Cut shorter many a league; here thou beholds
Assyria, and her empire's ancient bounds,
Araxes and the Caspian lake; thence on
As far as Indus east, Euphrates west,
And oft beyond : to south the Persian bay,
And, inaccessible, the Arabian drought:
Here Nineveh, of length within her wall
Several days journey, built by Ninus old,
Of that first golden monarchy the seat,

And seat of Salmamassar, whose success
Israel in long captivity still mourns;
There Babylon, the wonder of all tongues,
As ancient, but rebuilt by him who twice
Judah and all thy father David's house
Led captive, and Jerusalem laid waste,
Till Cyrus set them free; Persepolis,
His city, there thou seest, and Bactra there;
Ecbatana her structure vast there shows,
And Hecatompylos her hundred gates;
There Susa by Choaspes, amber stream,
The drink of none but kings: of later fame,
Built by Emathian or by Parthian hands,
The great Seleucia, Nisibis, and there l
Artaxata, Teredon, Ctesiphon,
Turning with easy eye, thou may'st behold.
All these the Parthian (now some ages past,
By great Arsaces led, who founded first
That empire,) under his dominion holds,
. From the luxurious kings of Antioch won.
And just in time thou com'st to have a view
Of his great power; for now the Parthian king
In Ctesiphon hath gather'd all his host
Against the Scythian, whose incursions wild
Have wasted Sogdiana; to her aid
He marches now in haste; see, though from far,
His thousands, in what martial equipage
They issue forth, steel bows and shafts their
arms,
Of equal dread in flight, or in pursuit;
All horsemen, in which fight they most excel;
See how in warlike muster they appear,
In rhombs, and wedges, and half-moons, and
wings.”
. He look'd, and saw what numbers numberless
The city gates out-pour’d, light-armed troops,
In coats of mail and military pride;
In mail their horses clad, yet fleet and strong,
Prancing their riders bore, the flower and choice
Of many provinces from bound to bound;
From Arachosia, from Candaor east,
And Margiana to the Hyrcanian cliffs
Of Caucasus, and dark Iberian dales;
From Atropatia and the neighbouring plains
Of Adiabene, Media, and the south
Of Susiana, to Balsara's haven.
He saw them in their forms of battle rang'd,
How quick they wheel'd, and flying behind them
shot
Sharp sleet of arrowy showers against the face
Of their pursuers, and overcame by flight;
The field all iron cast a gleaming brown:
Nor wanted clouds of foot, nor on each horn
Cuirassiers all in steel for standing fight,
Chariots, or elephants indors'd with towers
Of archers; nor of labouring pioneers
A multitude, with spades and axes arm'd
To lay hills plain, fell woods, or valleys fill,
Or where plain was raise hill, or overlay
With bridges rivers proud, as with a yoke;
Mules after these, camels and dromedaries,
And waggons, fraught with utensils of war.
Such forces met not, nor so wide a camp,
When Agrican with all his northern powers
Besieg'd Albracca, as romances tell,
The city of Gallaphrone, from whence to win
The fairest of her sex Angelica,
His daughter, sought by many prowest knights,
Both Paynim, and the peers of Charlemain,
Such and so numerous was their chivalry:

At sight whereof the fiend yet more presum’d,
And to our Saviour thus his words renew'd.
“That thou may’st know I seek not to engage
Thy virtue, and not every way secure
On no slight grounds thy safety; hear, and mark.
To what end I have brought thee hither, and
shown
All this fair sight: thy kingdom, though foretold
By prophet or by angel, unless thou
Endeavour, as thy father David did,
Thou never shalt obtain; prediction still
In all things, and all men, supposes means;
Without means us'd, what it predicts revokes.
But, say thou wert possess'd of David's throne,
By free consent of all, none opposite,
Samaritan or Jew; how could'st thou hope
Long to enjoy it, quiet and secure,
Between two such enclosing enemies, -
Roman and Parthian * Therefore one of these
Thou must make sure thy own; the Parthian first
By my advice, as nearer, and of late
Found able by invasion to annoy
Thy country, and captive lead away her kings,
Antigonus and old Hyrcanus, bound,
Maugre the Roman: it shall be my task
To render thee the Parthian at dispose,
Choose which thou wilt, by conquest or by
league:
By him thou shalt regain, without him not,
That which alone can truly re-install thee
In David's royal seat, his true successor,
Deliverance of thy brethren, those ten tribes,
Whose offspring in his territory yet serve,
In Habor, and among the Medes dispers'd :
Ten sons of Jacob, two of Joseph, lost
Thus long from Israel, serving, as of old
Their fathers in the land of Egypt serv'd,
This offer sets before thee to deliver.
These if from servitude thou shalt restore
To their inheritance, then, nor till then,
Thou on the throne of David in full glory,
From Egypt to Euphrates, and beyond,
Shalt reign, and Rome or Caesar not need fear.”
To whom our Saviour answer'd thus, unmov’d.
“Much ostentation vain of fleshy arm
And fragile arms, much instrument of war,
Long in preparing, soon to nothing brought,
Before mine eyes thou hast set; and in my ear
Vented much policy, and projects deep
Of enemies, of aids, battles and leagues,
Plausible to the world, to me worth nought.
Means I must use, thou say'st, prediction else
Will unpredict, and fail me of the throne:
My time, I told thee, (and that time for thee
Were better farthest off,) is not yet come:
When that comes, think not thou to find me slack
On my part aught endeavouring, or to need
Thy politic maxims, or that cumbersome
Luggage of war there shown me, argument
Of human weakness rather than of strength.
My brethren, as thou call'st them, those ten tribes
I must deliver, if I mean to reign -
David's true heir, and his full sceptre sway
To just extent over all Israel's sons.
But whence to thee this zeal Where was it then
For Israel, or for David, or his throne,
When thou stood'st up his tempter to the pride
Of numbering Israël, which cost the lives
Of threescore and ten thousand Israelites
By three days pestilence Such was thy zeal

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Satan, persisting in the temptation of our Lord,

to him the celebrated seat of ancientlemming, Athens, its schools, and other various resorts of learned teachers and their disciples; accompanying the view with a highly-finished panegyric on the Grecian musicians, poets, orators and philosophers of the different sects. Jesus replies, by showing the vanity and insufficiency of the boasted heathen philosophy; and refers to the music, poetry, eloquence and didactic policy of the Greeks, those of the inspired Hebrew writers. Satan, irritated at the failure of all his attempts, upbraids the indiscretion of our Saviour in rejecting his offers; and, having, in ridicule of his expected kingdom, foretold the sufferings that our Lord was to undergo, carries him back into the wilderness, and leaves him there. Night comes on : Satan raises a tremendous storm, and attempts further to alarm Jesus with frightful dreams, and terrific threatening spectres; which however have no effect upon him. A calm, bright, beautiful morning succeeds to the horrours of the night. Satan again presents himself to our blessed Lord, and, from noticing the storm of the preceding night as pointed chiefly at him, takes occasion once more to insult him with an account of the sufferings which he was certainly to undergo. This only draws from our Lord a brief rebuke. Satan, now at the height of his desperation, confesses that he had frequently watched Jesus from his birth, purposely to discover if he was the true Messiah; and, collecting from what passed at the river Jordan that he most probably was so, he had from that time more assiduously followed him, in hopes of gaining some advantage over him, which would most effectually prove that he was not really that Divine Person destined to be his “fatal enemy.” In this he acknowledges that he has hitherto completely failed; but still determines to make one more trial of him. Accordinglyhe conveys him to the Temple at Jerusalem, and,

shows him imperial Rome in its greatest pomp and splendour, as a power which he probably would prefer before that of the Parthians; and tells him that he might with the greatest ease expel Tiberius, restore the Romans to their liberty, ard make himself master not only of the Roman Empire, but by so doing of the whole world, and inclusively of the throne of David. Our Lord, in reply, expresses his contempt of grandeur and worldly power, notices the luxury, vanity, and profligacy of the Homans, declaring how little they merited to be restored to that liberty, which they had lost by their misconduct, and briefly refers to the greatness of his own future kingdom. Satan, now desperate, to enhance the value of his proffered gifts, professes that the only terms, on which he will bestow them, are our Saviour's falling down and worshipping him. Our Lord expresses a firm but temperate indignation at such a proposition, and rebukes the tempter by the title of “Satan for ever damned.” Satan, abashed, attempts to justify himself: he then assumes a new ground of temptation, and proposing to Jesus the intellectual gratifications of wisdom and knowledge, points out

placing him on a pointed eminence, requires him to prove his divinity either by standing there, or casting himself down with safety. Our Lord reproves the tempter, and at the same time manifests his own divinity by standing on this dangerous point. Satan, amazed and terrified, instantly falls; and repairs to his infernal compeers to relate the bad suc. cess of his enterprise. Angels in the mean time convey our blessed Lord to a beautiful valley, and, while they minister to him a repast of celestial food, celebrate his victory in a triumphant hymn.

Penriex'd and troubled at his bad success
The tempter stood, nor had what to reply,
Discover'd in his fraud, thrown from his hope
So oft, and the persuasive rhetoric
That sleek'd his tongue, and won so much on
Eve,
So little here, may lost; but Eve was Eve:
This far his over-match, who, self-deceiv'd
And rash, before-hand had no betterweigh'd
The strength he was to cope with, or his own:
But as a man, who had been matchless held
In cunning, over-reach'd where least be thought,

To save his credit, and for every spite, Still will be tempting him who foils him still, And never cease, though to his shame the more; Oras a swarm of flies in vintage time, About the wine-press where sweet must is pour'd, Beat off, returns as oft with humming sound; Cr surging waves against a solid rock, Though all to shivers dash'd, the assault renew (Vain battery ') and in froth or bubbles end; So Satan, whom repulse upon repulse Met ever, and to shameful silence brought, Yet gives not o'er, though desperate of success, And his vain importunity pursues. He brought our Saviour to the western side Of that high mountain, whence he might behold Another plain, long, but in breadth not wide, Wash'd by the southern sea, and, on the north, Te equal length back'd with a ridge of hills That screen'd the fruits of the earth, and seats of so. men, From cold Septentrion blast; thence in the midst Divided by a river, of whose banks On each side an imperial city stood, t With towers and temples proudly elevate Ga seven small hills, with palaces adorn'd, Porches, and theatres, baths, aqueducts, Statues, and trophies, and triumphal arcs, Gardens, and groves, presented to his eyes, Above the height of mountains interpos'd : (By what strange parallax, or optic skill Of vision, multiplied through air, or glass Of telescope, were curious to inquire :) And now the tempter thus his silence broke. “The city which thou seest, no other deem Than great and glorious Rome, queen of the Earth, So far renown'd, and with the spoils enrich'd Of nations; there the Capitol thou seest, Above the rest lifting his stately head Qn the Tarpeian rock, her citadel Impregnable; and there mount Palatine, The imperial palace, compass huge and high The structure, skill of noblest architects, With gilded battlements conspicuous far, Turrets, and terraces, and glittering spires : Many a fair edifice besides, more like Houses of gods, (so well I have dispos'd My aery microscope,) thou may'st behold, Outside and inside both, pillars and roofs, Carv'd work, the hand of fam'd artificers, In cedar, marble, ivory, or gold. Thence to the gates cast round thine eye, and see What conflux issuing forth, or entering in ; Pretors, proconsuls to their provinces Hasting, or on return, in robes of state, 1.ictors and rods, the ensigns of their power, Legions and cohorts, turms of horse and wings: Or embassies from regions far remote, In various habits, on the Appian road, Or on the Emilian ; some from farthest south, Syene, and where the shadow both way falls, Meroe, Nilotic isle; and, more to west, The realm of Bocchus to the Black-moor sea; From the Asian kings, and Parthianaprong these; From Budia and the golden Chersonese, And utmost Indian isle Taprobane, Dusk faces with white siiken turbans wreath'd; From Gallia, Gades, and the British west;

wol. WI i.

Germans, and Scythians, and Sarmatians, north
Beyond Danubius to the Tauric pool.
All nations now to Rome obedi •ice pay;
To Rome's great emperor, whose wide domain,
In ample territory, wealth, and power,
Civility of manners, arts and arms,
And long renown, thou justly mayst prefer
Before the Parthian. These two thrones except,
The rest are barbarous, and scarce worth the
sight,

Shar'd among petty kings too far remov’d;
These having shown thee, I have shown thee all
The kingdoms of the worki, and all their glory.
This emperor hath no son, and now is old,
Old and lascivious, and from Rome retir’d
To Capreae, an island small, but strong,
On the Campanian shore, with purpose there
His horrid lusts in private to enjoy;
Committing to a wicked favourite
All public cares, and yet of him suspicious; ,
Hated of all, and hating. With what ease,
Endued with regal virtues, as thou art,
Appearing, and beginning noble deeds,
Might'st thou expel this monster from his throne,
Now made a stye, and, in his place ascending,
A victor people free from servile yoke -
And with my help thou may'st; to me the power
ls given, and by that right I give it thee. -
Aim therefore at no less than all the world;
Aim at the highest: without the highest attain'd,
Will be for thee no sitting, or not long,
On David's throne, be prophesied what will.”

To whom the Son of God, unmov’d, replied.
“Nor doth this grandeur and majestic show
Of luxury, though call'd magnificence, .
More than of arms before, allure mine eye, .
Much less my mind; though thou should'st add * :

to tell o
Their sumptuous gluttonies, and gorgeous feasts -
On citron tables or Atlantic stone,
(For I have also heard, perhaps have read,)
Their wines of Setia, Cales, and Falerne.
Chios, and Crete, and how they quaffin gold,
Crystal, and myrrhine cups, emboss'd with gems
And studs of pearl; to me should'st tell, who
thirst

And hunger still. Then embassies thou show'st
From nations far and nigh: what honor: that,
But tedious waste of time, to sit and hear
So many hollow compliments and lies,
Outlandish flatteries? Then proceed'st to talk
Of the emperor, how easily subdued,
How gloriously: I shall, thou say'st, expel
A brutish monster; what if I withal
Expel a devil who first made him such
Let his tormenter conscience find him out;
For him I was not sent; nor yet to free
That people, victor once, now vile and base;
Deservedly made vassal; who, once just,
Frugal, and mild, and temperate, conquer'd well,
But govern ill the nations under yoke,

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