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passes out the Western door. A man sits down to his noonday dinner on Sunday, and it is Monday noon before he finishes it. There Saturday is Sunday, and Sunday is Monday, and Monday becomes suddenly transferred into Tuesday. It is a good place for people who have lost much time, for, by taking an early start, they can always get a day ahead on Chatham Island. It took philosophers and geographers a long time to settle the puzzle of where Sunday noon ceased and Monday noon began, with a man travelling West fifteen degrees an hour, or with the sun. It is to be hoped that the next English Arctic Expedition will settle the other mooted question : “Where will one stop who travels Northwest continually ?”Christian at Work.

PHOSPHATE OF LIME.

The recent numerous discoveries in this neighborhood of deposits of phosphate of lime have undoubtedly associated the Ottawa Valley with one more important source of national wealth and the means of establishing an industry of considerable extent.

But there is some reason to apprehend that our people may not fully realize the greatness of their opportunity, and that, instead of embarking upon the manufacture of an article of very considerable merchantable value and demand, they will be content to take the shortest, but not the most profitable, road to trade—that of exporting the raw material. This, to a great extent, it is now generally admitted, has been the mistake committed in relation to the products of our immense pine forests. Since operations were commenced in these forests it is probable that fully twothirds of the products has been in the form of square timber; and there: can be no doubt but that the production of this has been attended with incalculable waste. It is true that this may have been, at times, the most convenient form of timber to suit the market, but, in suiting the market, the forests have to a great extent been denuded, and from the exportation of the raw material the country has not derived ail that benefit which ought to have resulted from such valuable natural

And so, too, but on a smaller scale, has the country been robbed by the exportation of the raw material from valuable deposits of iron ore.

This material, as is well known, has been exported in very considerable quantities to the United States, in which country it has been mixed with leaner ores, made into iron of the best quality, and portions of this iron have been exported to Canada. In this way it is quite obvious that Canadians have been deprived of that labor which is involved in the manufacture of iron and the production of fuel, and the raw material sent away to benefit workmen in a foreign country. Now it is well known that the phosphate of lime, as taken from the geological strata, requires submission to a process of preparation before it can be placed in the market as a fertilizer, and in this process of preparation there is a considerable amount of labor required. The demand for super-phosphate as an artificial fertilizer is now very great, and the attention of farmers in every civilized country of the world is being given more and more to the phosphate. Indeed,

resources.

THE AMERICAN NEWS COMPANY,
Publisherm Agents, New York.

there is good reason to believe that the demand for super-phosphate will be fully equal to every source of supply, and that the total volume of the trade in the article will be very large Why then should not the people of Ottawa Valley have the largest benefit that can be derived from the deposits of phosphate of lime? Why export the raw material, if, as we believe to be possible, the fertilizer can be prepared in the neighborhood ?

DIPHTHERIA.

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Diphtheria is

new disease, as it has been traced to the time of Hippocrates, and in the second century of the Christian era it was fully described, considering the amount of knowledge possessed by Aretreus. He gave the name Ulcus Syriacum and Malum Egyptiacum. From the time of this author up to the time of Hecker, in 1337. it is occasionally mentioned Hecker, however, fully described the appearances of the disease as it occurred during a very virulent epidemic in Holland in 1337. It also occurred as an epidemic in the same country in 1657. About the middle of the last century it prevailed in Paris, and in some of the marshy parts of England. Dr. Bard was the first one who described the disease on this continent, during an epidemic of it in 1771

Epidemics were as common in olden times as they are now, notwithstanding the less crowded population of those days and the absence of the feverish excitement in the race of life, the only difference being that they were less noticed and hardly investigated. During the present time, at least in Europe, each government appoints its own medical investigators, and so also do the medical societies, at the approach of any epidemic, and reports are made for the benefit of the public and the medical profession

As regards the prevalence of diphtheria in the country parts of the Dominion, most farmers' houses are not in any better sanitary condi. tion than the city ones, and of this I can speak from actual experience. The ceilings are too low, overheated in winter, and the cellars are hardly ever ventilated, and frequently are used as root-houses

I may as well mention that some of our wholesale warehouses require examining. Last summer I had two cases of typhoid fever, the cause of which was clearly traced to defective closets.

Your correspondent is quite correct in stating that bad drainage is not the only cause of diphtheria, as there are continually cases occurring where we can give no cause whatever

As regards coal oil and the coal stoves I entirely agree with him. They are sometimes productive of a great deal of bad health. During the winter I was called upon in the night to perform a very serious operation, outside of the city limits. Assistants held three lamps, and the vapor from them caused such a feeling of deadly sickness that candles had to be used instead.

From the comparing of notes with the different medical men, I do not think I exaggerated the condition of matters as they existed two weeks ago.”—Correspondence Witness, April 13th, 1877.

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ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

(No notice is taken of Anonymous Communications). J. W.-Thanks for your kind interest in Almanac. In the present

issue you will find much of the information you ask. T. S. B.- My monthly records of past weather are the most important

part of the Almanac. When you have about ten years.collected, you will be able to forecast the weather tolerably correctly for

yourself. H.-“The weather ” is not my special study, but rather my recreation. J. S.-Wolves are very abundant through portions of Ottawa County,

and I have seen them recently in the rear part of Hull town.

ship and in Wakefield. E. G. L.-An earthquake cannot be predicted. But in countries

where they are not of an uncommon occurrence, the months

in which they are likely to occur may be pointed out. W. W.-Torricelli was the friend and pupil of Galileo, and may be

said to be the inventor of the barometer. TURNER.-The principles upon which my general forecasts are based,

are given in the present issue. W. H.-Yes, I firmly believe that we shall yet be able to form fairly

accurate forecasts of approaching seasons. R. T.-All three years, 1875, 1876 and 1877, have been exceptional.

The present winter 1878-79, is somewhat as of old. J. H.-There were decided snow furries during August, 1878, in

several parts of Pontiac and Ottawa Counties. M. S.-You need not attempt weather forecasts unless you have lived

an out-door life, and have observed the weather for at least ten

years. S. B.-"Fools laugh at their own folly.” “Where ignorance is

bliss,” etc. M. B.—The letters you refer to do me no harm, and, more fortunately,

cannot affect the weather. Let those laugh who win.” A. Mcl.-Do not bother about instruments. Observe and note.

Therein lies the secret of success. S. McN.—The main object of my Almanac is to gather in additional

data, and to induce others to record their observations. C. W.-The climate of Canada is decidedly moderating, and the

winters in Great Britain are becoming more rigorous. L. R.-My forecast for the winter of 1875-76 was the first one published. A. S. C.-"Cold dips” generally moderate to heavy snow-falls. F. J. W.-Send me the minerals and I will name them for you. J. W. D.-I cannot tell you the position of the planets when I was born.

Did not begin the study of astronomy for some years later. W. McM.-Misses do not surprise me. Surprised indeed should I be

did they not occur. A. L. S.--There are no such things as “true mineral rods" ; but bogus

; mineral hunters with bogus rods are frequently met with. A thorough knowledge of practical geology is the best rod to handle.

THE AMERICAN NEWS COMPANY,

Publisherm Agents, New York,

W. K. -Apatite is another term for Phosphate of Lime. It is derived

from the Greek apatao-to deceive ; and assuredly it is a mineral that deceives many. It is of every color and shade, but almost invariably of the same specific gravity and hard

ness.

J. H. S.-Many thanks for your records. Send me more. I will send

you a specimen diagram for your guidance. A. P. V.-Your notes are very interesting. Some of them are em.

bodied in the present issue. I think the weather and epi.

demics are and ever have been closely connected. R. W.-I do not agree with you on the moon question. She has no

more connection with the weather changes than have politics. Note.-Correspondents who do not see their questions answered in the foregoing list, will find the information they request in the body of the Almanac and in connection with the predictions and monthly records.

H. G. V.

PHOSPHATE SHIPMENT FOR 1878. A large quantity of phosphate has been taken out in the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario during the present year, and shipped to England, where it is manufactured into super-phosphate and sold for fertilizing purposes. In the district southwest of the town of Perth, some six thousand tons have been mined, and shipped from Kingston, mostly by the Montreal Transportation Company. Some of the phosphate was taken into Kingston by waggon, from adjacent townships, for shipment, but the most of it was taken down in vessels on the canal froni the Rideau Lake locality. About a similar quantity has been taken out in the Province of Quebec, Ottawa county furnishing the largest share, by all odds. This gives a total production for 1878 of 12,000 tons.

It sold at from $12 to $16 a ton, ready for shipment, which gives an easy average of $14 per ton, as most of what was produced found ready sale at $15 per ton. This gives a total of $168,000 as the value of phosphates taken out and shipped during the current year, which shows that the industry is of some importance. But it is as yet only in its infancy, but gives promise of rapidly becoming an important industry in this country. Under existing circumstances, the raw phosphates are shipped to the old country, where the manufacturing process is gone through with. And the question naturally arises, would it not pay better to have the super-phosphate made in Canada, and then shipped ready for use? There is no doubt that it would, as a readier market would be found for the article, beside which there would be no freight to pay for refuse matter. Super-phosphates made from Canadian rock form the richest fertilizer in the world, and will therefore always find ready sale. The establishment of super-phosphate mills in Canada, at or near the mines, would prove a paying speculation for capitalists.

DECEMBER, 1878.

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The month of December, 1878, was one of storms, cold, meteors and snow-falls, more especially in the West. THE RECORD AT MONTREAL.

Temperature Montreal.

Min.
Hard frost ; fair to cloudy ; cold night....
Sleet and rain ; dark day; snow Winnipeg.

23
3. Cold and wet ; light snow ; sleighing Pembroke
;

7 31 4. Snowing at many points and heavily overcast..

33 5. Overcast and snowing; ground well covered Montreal....

34

21 6. Wintry weather with light snows.

23 5 14
7. Fair to cloudy and cold with snow flurries.. 23
8. Brilliant cold day with fair covering of snow...
9. Overcast and cold with light snows ; cold wea-

ther reported from many points ; sleighing
Manitoba ; Bay frozen, Belleville, Ont.,

three weeks before last year....
Tremendous pour of rain Montreal ; deep snows

through Pontiac County ; heavy snow and

drifts Quebec ; ground bare again Montreal 39 25 7 Jl. Much colder with flurries of snow...

47 3

21 Fair to cloudy with flurries of snow....

26

19 13. Fair to cloudy and cold; calm; 100 below

zero at Winnipeg ; Great snow storm rag-
ing in Missouri, Iowa and Kansas for last
24 hours ; snow fell in Kansas to the depth
of 22 inches ; heaviest fall ever known in
that section...

180 6 14. Overcast and cold ; snow in England and Europe. ,

23° 0 150 6 15. Fall of snow during night ; sleighs out ; bright

; cold day and fine winter weather..... 16. Fair to cloudy cold day; fair sleighing every.

where.. 17. Fair cold weather...

27 18. Fair cold weather ; Toronto Bay frozen.. 27 19. Bright and cold weather ; river full of ice...

Overcast with snow flurries....
21. Very heavy snow fall afternoon and through

night over large portion of. Canada and
Western United States ; 19 'inches snow
fell at Montreal...

25 0 6 1807 22. Heavy blockades of snow everywhere ; still

snowing at many points westward ; 24°

Winnipeg... 23. Bright, cold and drifty ; intense cold in NorthWest; heavy snow falls in England....... 220 i

90 5

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THE AMERICAN NEWS COMPANY,

Pub. *' Agents, New York.

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