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Thus ended the cold and wintry March of 1880--ended with a smile as if in atonement for its naughty behavior. The change, when it did come, was sudden and well marked, and some spring birds arrived immediately. It is not often we have, of late, had to record good sleighing and sound ice at Montreal as late as the 26th. In Halifax and Nova Scotia, however, the month ended winter-like.
1. Spring-like ; robins and cherry birds seen. 2. Warm and overcast. 3. Murky and wet ; birds numerous. 4. Sultry and cloudy, with rain. 5. Cloudy and colder ; river-ice broken up. 6. Fair to cloudy and cold ; river blocked with ice again. 7. Cold ; ground white again with snow 8. Fair to cloudy ; cold wind. 9. Cloudy and raw. 10. Gloomy and wet. 11. Wintry again ; snow, blow ana drift ; sleighs out again; mere
cury reached within 12 o of zero again. 12. Bright and winter-like ; severe weather for April. 13. Dark and wet, with slight snow-fall. 14. Rain and sleet ; “ blizzard” and snow-storm, Quebec. 15. Fairer and warmer weather. 16. Cool and spring-like, with rain at night; first steamboat at
Montreal, “Portneuf;" ducks abundant. 17. Rains and snow at Quebec and other points. 18. More spring-like ; no swallows seen yet. 19. Fair and cloudy; showers. 20. Fine and spring-like ; swallows arrived. 21. Fine and cool. 22. Cloudy and cool, with rains. 23. Fine and cool ; nights cold. 24. Fine, but cold and frosty. 25. Cloudy, with warm rains. 26. Cold April showers. 27. Fair to cloudy and cool. 28. Very fine weather; Cap Rouge ice firm yet. 29. Windy and wet, turning during night and following day into snow, 30. Ground white again.
This month's record shows two unusual items, namely, sleighs out again on the 11th, and snow-covered ground on its last day. Thus May entered in white-to the chagrin of house-movers, but to the “prophet's ” satisfaction.
1. Month entered with snow-covered ground. 2. Fine and summer-like. 3. Warmer weather, with thunder-storms. 4. Fine and seasonable. 5. First really warm weather-generally. 6. Rainy. 7. Fair and warm. 8. Cloudy and cooler; rather backward with cool rains. 9. Warm and summer-like ; sultry at night. 10. Rain and thunder-storms. 11. Sultry, thunder-storms and high winds. 12. Sudden cold change, with strong wind. 13. Cloudy and fall-like, with rains. 14. Clear, cold and fine. 15. Fine, clear and cool ; waters high. 16. Fair and cool to warmer weather. 17. Fair, but windy. 18. Cloudy, but fair and warm. 19. 20. Sultry, with thunder-storms. 21. Very heavy rains.
Very unsettled weather. 22. Cloudy and showery. 23. Fair and warm- -growing weather. 24. Cloudy and warm ; maximum temperature, 72o. 25. Warm and summer-like. 26. Hot day, with storms in air. • 27.
840 in shade in Montreal; hot weather in New York and elsewhere in United States ; cases of
sun-stroke reported ; early heat. 28. Fair and cooler. 29. 30. Decided cool change-fall-like, with heavy rains. 31. Month ended with heavy rains.
The weather was again considerably mixed this month, the changes from heat to cool and cold being sudden and frequent. This indicated drought during the mid-summer months, according to my theory, which actually and markedly occurred.
GENERAL REMARKS ON FOREGOING RECORDS OF THE
WINTER OF 1880.
The foregoing records give the general character of the weather of 1880, not only throughout Canada and Lower Provinces, but also throughout a large portion of the Northern United States. Such records have been of great service to myself in the past in my attempts to predict accurately for seasons approaching, and I have learned with great satisfaction that they are valued by all true workers in this interesting field of enquiry. It was by the comparison of just such monthly and yearly records, between the years 1815 and 1880, that enabled English scientists to arrive at certain valuable conclusions respecting the weather likely to be experienced in the future. This, as I have maintained from the outset of my attempts at weather predicting, is dependant upon that which has passed, and it is with no little satisfaction that I see men of cultured observation and lengthened experience endorsing and doubly strengthening my first feeble statements of this truth. They say, for example : “A cold spring is apt to be followed by a cold summer, a cold summer by a cold autumn and a cold autumn by a winter of low temperature ; that at least eight of the months, that is, in all excepting February, March, May and October, a low temperature is apt to be prolonged into the succeeding months ; that, on the other hand, a dry August indicates a wet September ; that a wet December is apt to be succeeded by a wet January, and that a wet May or July gives a strong probability of cold weather in June and August respectively. It is further shown that the rainfall of certain months appears to be related to antecedent extremes of temperature and vice versa. Thus, if August and September be warm, the ensuing September or October inclines to be wet ; and if, on tbe other hand, September or October be cold, the succeeding October or December is likely to be a dry month. Again, if February, June or July be very dry, the next month is likely to be warm.
Let it be noted that I do not by any means endorse or subscribe to the whole of the foregoing conclusions. On the contrary, to many of them I am directly opposed ; but, as a whole, they are in the right direction, and follow the line of reasoning and comparison I have my. self adopted from the first.
EVENTS OF THE SUMMER OF 1880.
It is not my intention to fill up space in my Almanac with details respecting the weather of the summer of 1880, as my publication is primarily a “Winter and Spring ” one, but it will be of service to note its chief or characterizing features, or those likely to bear upon the ensuing winter.
JUNE entered with cool and pleasant weather, which continued with occasional showers up to the 12th day. On the 14th, 15th and 16th days, there were reports from the Western States to the effect that a severe rain-storm had visited Southern Ohio ; that a cyclone had done much damage in Indiana ; that destructive freshets had occurred in Wisconsin, and that snow had fallen at Minneapolis. Advices from parts of Illinois speak, also, uf heavy rains, and that June, so far, had been characterized by more than ordinarily wet weather. The army.worm was also, about this time, reported to have been making ravages in New Jersey. Frequent thunder-storms occur. red during the latter part of the second week of this month in some parts of the Province of Ontario. The water in the river St. Law. rence continued high much longer than usual, and a number of steamships and sailing vessels cleared outward deeply laden.
Sultry heat with frequent thunder-storms occurred on the 19th and 20th in many parts of the Province of Quebec, and the month continued sultry and hot to its end, the last few days in particular being intensely hot both in Canada and the United States as predicted.
JULY.- Wet and cool weather set in with the month of July nearly everywhere, but this was of brief duration, as hot and sultry weather came in again toward the 4th and continued several days without rains. On the 15th and 16th wet weather was reported in England and Ire. land, and intense heat in many parts of the United States as well as in parts of Canada. A cooler change took place about the 17th and 18th days, with cold nights up to the 22nd. On the 28th a cold wave passed over a large part of both provinces (Ontario and Quebec) as well as portions of the United States. Frosts were generally reported and it was feared much damage had been done to crops of different sorts. The month, on the whole, was a stormy one.
The rain-fall in many parts of the United States and Canada was exceptionally great ; and this was particularly the case in New York city on the 22nd inst., a similar report coming on the 23rd from some places in the Province of Ontario. The casualties from lightning in certain rural districts have been numerous, in some instances attended with loss of life. The rains, were, however, attended with fine weather, and the reports from the west of damage to grain crops were not so persistent as might have been expected. An unusually low temperature for the time of year prevailed during the nights of the 27th and 28th.
AUGUST.—Excepting one day (the 23rd), the first week of August was generally pleasant and seasonable, with cool weather, but rather unseasonably cold nights. A report at this time along the line of the Grand Trunk Railway showed that the fall wheat, though winter. killed in some districts, promised a very goud yield in others; while spring wheat was below the average owing to rust in many places. During the second week of the month, the weather continued from moderately warm to very warm-like much of July—with heavy rain and sultry weather on the night of the 7th. After some rain on the 13th, a cool change set in with frost early on the morning of the 16th, while hail storms were reported in a number of localities. From Vir. ginia we had reports of a severe storm of hail and rain on the 15th, doing great damage to the tobacco crop, and, from New York State, accounts of heavy frost the same night, but, fortunately, not severe enough to injure the crops. Towards the 19th, heat and oppressive weather, with heavy rain and storm occurred. On the 25th of this month a heavy storm on Lake Ontario was reported from Toronto; while, in New York, the gale along the coast was terrific and it was feared many vessels had foundered. The storm sprang up suddenly and gave vessels but little chance to seek harbor. There was heavy rain on the 27th and 28th, ending on the 29th with frost at night. On the 30th there was fine display of the Aurora in the north during fine and pleasant weather. The month closed with fair weather.
SEPTEMBER. -The month set in with cloudy, wet and muggy weather. There was frost between the 6th and 7th days, and rather cool and fall-like up to the toth. About this date, bush-fires prevailed through many parts of both Quebec and Ontario, as well as in the United States, and the air was filled with smoke. Rains previous to the 17th of the month quenched, for the most part, these bush-fires, which had done considerable damage in many places. Smoke and sog on the river St. Lawrence impeded navigation a little, and there was some detention of vessels on the Gulf. Smoke again appeared on the 19th in the air, but was again speedily quenched by rains on the night