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derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, all necessary that the body be in a natural and up the short ribs, from the lower end of the breastright position. The following engraving repre-bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the
the spine, so that Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no or
the liver, stomach, gans should be in the least infringed upon, either
and other digestive by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position.
organs in that viciThe Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which
nity, are pressed we make sounds, by condensation. All are fami
into such a small liar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking analogy between it and the body, in the act of
compass, that their
functions are greatspeaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is like its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab
ly interrupted, and dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of
all the vessels, course, to blow with ease and power, one must bones and viscera are more or less distorted and take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well. the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anything,
17. This engraving,
of a bell-shaped glass, Larynx, ...
C, C, shows how the Wind-pipe,
air gets into the lungs,
and some of its effects. Collar bone,
A head is placed on Bronchia,
the cork, T, represent
ing the wind-pipe, and Heart & Lungs,
having a hole through cit
. , represents a 7 Long Ribs, .
bladder, tied to the Diaphragm,
lower end of the cork,
to indicate a lung. At 5 Short Ribs,
D, is seen the diaDorsal and
phragm. The cavity
of the bell represents Abdominal
the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lungs Muscles...
are: there is no communication with the external 14. This is a view of a well developed and air, except through the hole in the cork; air, ennaturally proportioned chest; with space for the tering through that hole, can go only into the bladlungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is ample room for the free action of the organs: it is raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid the true model of the form of one who would live of air; but when it is dropped, to the situation of to a good old age.
the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be 15. TIGHT DRESSING. No one can enjoy good the consequence, which can be supplied with air, health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or only through the hole in the cork; the air expandread, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitual- ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the ly compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air is elevated again, the air will be forced from the to purify the blood, and prevents the proper action bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhausof the diaphragm. The following engraving shows ted by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, the alarming condition of the chest, when com- dominal muscles; hence, the comparison between
and of the contraction and elongation of the abpressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hur- the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, is ried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands distinctly seen. to a premature grave; besides entailing upon the offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to
MUSCULAR ACTION. These contemplate. What is the difference between
two engravings represent some killing one's self in five minutes with a razor, and
muscular fibres in two states: doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight laxed nervous filament ramified through the fibres,
the upper one at rest, with a re.. as to prevent the air from coming between it and
as seen under the microscope; and the lower one in the body.
a state of contraction, and the fi16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or
bres in zigzag lines, with a simithorax of a female, showing the condition of the
lar nervous filament passing over bones of the body, as they appear after death, in
them: apply the principle to all every one who has habitually worn stays and muscles. The subject might be greatly extended; corsets, enforced by tight lacing. But,' says one, but for further information, see the Author's large "I do not lace too tight. If you lace at all, you work on Physiology and Psychology, which will most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe-| be published as soon as convenient.
18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells viscera and diaphragm upwards: the lungs coin the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. operate with the diaphragm and abdominal musThe body is formed by Blood, which consists of the cles; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and mus. nutritious portions
cles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and of our food, and
effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are beis in the form of
low the diaphragm, and are dependent on it, in a very small glob
measure, for their actions.
stiffness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or forwards, to the right or left: and especially, of resting your head on your hand, with the elbow on something else: by which practice, many have caused a projection of one shoulder, induced spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest: every that is improper : such as trying how much you one has two hearts, for the two different kinds of can lift with one hand, &c.
blood, and each heart has two rooms: 2, right 20. Here follows a representation of the position auricle, that receives all the blood from every part of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, of the body, through the vena cava, or large vein, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left which is made up of the small veins, e, e, e, e, e; engraving, represents the diaphragm in its great- it thence passes into the right ventricle, i, thence est descent, when we draw in our breath: 2, mus-into both lungs, where it is purified; after which cles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subcladiaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, vian arteries (u, and v,) to every part of the body; the muscles of the abdomen in action, forcing the returning every three or four minutes.
22. This engraving represents the larynx, or 24. Here is a front view of the Vocal Organs: vocal box, at 1, near the top of the wind-pipe, 2;e is the top of the wind-pipe, and within and a the bronchial
little above d is the larynx, or vocal box, where tubes, or
all voice sounds are branches of
made: the two the trachea,
horns at the top, rep3, 4, going to each lung;
resent the upper ex. the left lung is 2
tremities of the thywhole; the
roid cartilage: the substance of 7
tubes up and down, the right one
and transverse, are es removed, to
blood vessels: beshow the ra
ware of having mifications of
anything tight the bronchial
around the neck, twigs, termi
also of bending the nating in the
neck much, impeding the free circulation of the air-cells, 7,7,
blood, and determining it to the head. 8, like leaves on the trees.
ORATORICAL AND POETICAL ACTION. The bronchi
POSITIONS OF FEET AND HANDS. al tubes are three
8 branches of the windpipe, and enter the lungs about one third of the distance from the upper end: hence, how foolish for persons having a sore throat, or larynx, to suppose they have the bronchitis; which consists in a diseased state of the bronchia; generally brought on by an improper mode of breathing, or speaking, &c., with exposure. The remedy may be found in the practice here recommended, with a free use of cold soft water over the whole body, and bandages wet with the same, placed about the chest and neck, to be removed every few hours, as they become dry.
23. Here is a horizontal view of the Glottis : N, F, are the arytenoid cartilages, connected with the chordæ vocales, (vocal cords, or ligaments,) T, V, stretching across from the top of the arytenoid to the point of the thyroid cartilage: these cords can be elongated, and enlarged to produce lower sounds, and contracted and diminished for higher ones: and, at the same time, separated from each other, and allowing more condensed air to pass for the former purposes; or brought nearer together, 10 favor the latter: there are a great many muscles attached to the larynx, to give variety to the modifications of voice in speech and song