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by the ghost of the last pages, amid tions, the stones are not polygonal, but, the earnest pursuits and perhaps when so, are without that regularity of gaieties of the first. But what that form which would indicate the use of the last page of biography is, we find rule; nor is their construction of the Cynearly every page of history to be,
clopean and Pelasgic styles; neither have only far sadder, and far more cruel.
they any sculpture, ornamental work, or The man's tale may tell us that at least
cement. The external entrance, invari
ably between the E.S.E. and S. by W., he died in his bed; but history draws
but generally to the east of south, seldom up the curtain at every act, presenting
exceeds five feet high and two feet wide, to the unquiet sight, scenes of whole and is often so small as to necessitate sale tortures, poisonings, slaughters, crawling on all fours. The architrave, as and fields of unburied and mutilated previously mentioned, is very large; but carcases.
having once passed it, a passage varying It is time to say something of these from three to six feet high, and two to monuments of great antiquity, the four wide, leads to the principal domed Noraghe, and what they are, before
chamber, the entrance to which is somespeculating upon who built them. We
times by another low aperture as small as
the first. The interior of the cone conextract the following account, unable
sists of one, two, or three domed chamto make it more concise :
bers, placed one above the other, and di“All are built on natural or artificial minishing in size in proportion to the exmounds, whether in valleys, plains, or on ternal inclination; the lowest averaging mountains, and some are partially enclosed from fifteen to twenty feet in diameter, at a slight distance, by a low wall of a and from twenty to twenty-five in height. similar construction to the building. The base of each is always circular, but, Their essential architectural feature is a when otherwise, elliptical; the edges of truncated cone or tower, averaging from the stones, where the tiers overlay each thirty to sixty feet in height, and from other, are worked off, so that the exterior one hundred to three hundred in circum- assumes a semiovoidal form, or that of ference at the base. The majority have which the section would be a parabola, no basement, but the rest are raised on the apex being crowned with a large flat one extending either in corresponding or stone, resting on the last circular layer, in irregular shape, and of which the peri- which is reduced to a small diameter." meter varies from three hundred to six “In the interior of the lowest chamber, hundred and fifty-three feet, the largest and on a level with the floor, are freyet measured. The inward inclination quently from two to four cells or niches, of the exterior wall of the principal tower, formed in the thickness of the masonry which almost always is the centre of the without external communication, varying building, is so well executed as to pre- from three to six feet long, two to four sent, in its elevation, a perfect and con wide, and two to five high, and only actinuously symmetrical line ; but some- cessible by very small entrances. The times a small portion of the external face access to the second and third chambers, of the outerworks of the basements, as well as to the platform on the top of which are not regular, is straight and those Noraghe which have only one perpendicular : such instances are, how- chamber, is by a spiral corridor made in ever, very rare. There is every reason the building, either as a simple ramp, to believe, though without positive proof with a gradual ascent, or with rough --for none of the Noraghe are quite per- irregular steps made in the stones. The fect-that the cone was originally trun- corridor varies from three to six feet in cated, and formed thereby a platform on height, and from two to four in width, its summit. The material of which they and the outer side either inclines accordare built being always the natural stone ing to the external wall of the cone, and of the locality, we accordingly find them the inner side according to the domed of granite, limestone, basalt, trachitic por- chamber, or resembles in the section a phyry, lava, and tofa; the blocks varying segment of a circle. The entrance to in shape and size from three to nine cubic this spiral corridor is generally in the feet, while those forming the architraves horizontal passage which leads from the of the passages are sometimes twelve feet external entrance to the first-floor chamlong, five feet wide, and the same in ber of the cone; though sometimes it is depth. The surfaces present that slight by a small aperture in the chamber, about irregularity which proves the blocks to six or eight feet from the base, and very have been rudely worked by the hammer, difficult of entry. The upper chambers but with sufficient exactness to form re- are entered by a small passage at right gular horizontal layers. With few excep- angles to this corridor; and opposite to this passage, is often a small aperture in “Delenda est Carthago," he was unthe outer wall, having apparently no re- consciously fulfilling a decree against gular position, though frequently over the that denounced people. We should external entrance to the ground floor;
i be unwilling to trace the denunciation
be unwillin while, in some instances, there are several
further. There are, however, few things apertures so made that only the sky, or
more astonishing in history, tban most distant objects in the horizon, are visible.”
that so powerful a people as the Car
thaginians were—the great rivals of Such is the description of these the masters of the world, should have singular structures — when and by
been apparently so utterly swept from whom built? Their number must have the face of the world, and nothing been very great indeed ; for although left, even of their language, but those there have ever been decay and ab- few unintelligible (unless they be straction of the materials for common Irish) words in Plautus. purposes going on, there are now up. The " Sepolture de is Gigantes" wards of three thousand in existence; should also be here noticed. yet, not one has been built during the last 2500 years. Not only is the
“They may be described as a series of inquiry, by whom, and when were
large stones placed together without any
cement, enclosing a foss or vacuum, from they erected, but for what purpose ?
fifteen to thirty-six feet long, from three On all these points, various opinions to six wide, the same in deptli, with have been given. Mr Tyndale, who immense flat stones resting on them as bas well weighed all that has been a covering; but though the latter are not written on the subject, is of opinion always found, it is evident, by a comparithat they were built by the very early son with the more perfect sepulture, that Canaanites, when, expelled from their they once existed, and have been destroyed country, they migrated to Sardinia. or removed. The foss runs invariably There are visible indications of other from north-west to south-east; and at the migrations of the Canaanites, but no
latter point is a large upright headstone, where are exactly, or even nearly
averaging from ten to fifteen feet high,
nearly varying in its form from the square, ellipsimilar buildings found. We know, tical, and conical, to that of three quarupon the authority of Procopius, that ters of an egg, and having in many inin Mauritania were two columns, on stances an aperture about eighteen inches which were inscribed in Phænician cha- square at its base. On either side of this racters, “ We are those who fled from still commences a series of separate stones, the face of Joshua, the robber, the son irregular in size and shape, but forming of Nane." There is certainly a kind of an arc, the chord of which varies from similarity between these buildings and twenty to forty feet, so that the whole the round towers of Ireland-à sub- figure somewhat resembles the bow and ject examined by our author: but shank of a spear." there is also a striking dissimilarity in Their number must have been very dimensions, they not being more than great. They are called sepulchres of from eight to fifteen feet in diameter. giants by the Sardes, who believe that But there is a tumulus on the banks giants were buried within them. There of the Boyne, between Drogheda and is no doubt that these Sepolture and Slane, which in its passages, domed Noraghe were works of one and the chambers, and general dimensions, same people. Mr Tyndale thinks, if may find some affinity with the Sarde the one kind of structure were tombs, Noraghe. It certainly is curious that so were the other : we should draw a an opinion has been formed, not with- different conclusion from their general out show of reason for the conjecture, contiguity to each other. It should that these people, whether as Canaan- be mentioned, that in the Noraghe ites, Phænicians, or Carthaginians, have been found several earthenware reached Ireland ; and it is well known figures, which are described in La that the single specimen of the Car- Marmora's work as Phænician idols. thaginian language, in a passage in There is another very remarkable obPlautus, is very intelligible Irish. ject of antiquity—" a row of six coniIt has been observed that when Cato, cal stones near the Sepoltura, standing in the Roman senate, uttered those in a straight line, a few paces apart celebrated and significant words, from each other, with the exception
of one, which has been upset, and lies tarchy. This similarity is traced on the ground, but in the sketch is through its detail by Mr Tyndale. represented as standing. They are The Giudici are mentioned as early as about four feet eight inches high, of 598, though there is no account of any two kinds, and have been designated direct succession till about 900. “In male and female, from three of them both countries the ecclesiastics took a having two globular projections from leading part in the administration of the surface of the stone, resembling public affairs; and the hierarchy of the breasts of a woman." He meets Sardinia was as sacred and honoured elsewhere with five others, there evi- as that of England, where, by the laws dently having been a sixth, but with- of some of the provinces of the Hepout the above remarkable significance. tarchy, the price of the archbishop's We know, from Herodotus, that co- head was even higher than that of the lumns were set up with female em- king's. It is unnecessary, though it blems, denoting the conquest over an would be easy, to give further proofs effeminate people, but can scarcely at- of similarity in the institutions of the tribute to these such a meaning, for two countries; but those above are they are together of both kinds. For a sufficient to show their analogy, withcurious and learned dissertation upon out the appearance of there having the subject of these antiquities, we been the slightest connexion or comconfidently refer the reader to MrTyn- munication with each other, or derived dale's book.
from the same origin." Perhaps After the mention of these singular something may be attributed to the monuments, perbaps of three thousand long possession of both countries by years ago, it may be scarcely worth the Romans. We have not certainly while to notice the antiquities of, com- lost all trace of them in our own. paratively speaking, a modern date, The government of the Giudici was Roman or other. Nor do we intend not characterised by feudalism, before to speak of the history of the people the Pisan, Genoese, and Aragon inunder the Romans or Carthaginians, fluence. It did, however, become and but shortly notice that kind of established in all its usual forms. government under " Giudici," as Feudalism has, however, been aboprinces presiding over the several lished by the present reigning family; provinces some centuries before the and we trust, notwithstanding our Pisan, Genoese, and Aragon posses- author's evident doubts and suspicions, sion of the island. The origin of this that the change will ultimately, if not government is involved in much ob- immediately, be for the happiness of scurity; there are, however, docu- the Sardes. It requires a very intiments of the eleventh and twelfth mate knowledge of a people, of their centuries, which speak of preceding habits, their modes of thinking, their Giudici, and their acts. It would be character as a race, as well as their idle to inquire why they were called character from custom, to say that Giudici : it may suffice, that the this or that form of government is best * judges” were the actual rulers. suited to them.
"It is supposed," says our author, The constitution-mongering fancy " that the whole island was originally is a very mischievous one, and is comprehended in one Giudicato, of generally that of a very self-conceited wbich Cagliari was the capital; but, mind. There are some among us, in in the course of time, the local inter- high places, who have dabbled very ests of each grew sufficiently self- unsuccessfully that way; and there is important to cause a subdivision and now enough going on in the state of establishment of separate Giudicati.” Europe to read them a good lesson. The minor ones were in time swal. Carlo Alberto is no great favourite lowed up by the others, and only four with Mr Tyndale; yet we are not remained, of which there is a precise sure that he has not done more wisely history, Cagliari, Arborea, Gallura, for Sardinia than if the barons bad set and Logudoro.
aside their “ pride and ignorance," To us, the government of Giudicati and made such" spontaneous concesis interesting from its similarity to the sions” as we find elsewhere have not condition of England under the Hep. had very happy terminations. We conclude the following was written Enzio bore an illustrious part in the prior to events which throw rather a warfare of those times, between the new light on the nature of constitu- Pope and the Emperor; and such was tional reforms, as they are called: his success, that, after his celebrated “ In Hungary and Sicily the nobles, engagement of the fleets near Legwith generous patriotism, voluntarily horn, and the capture of the prelates conceded, not only privileges, but who had been summoned from the pecuniary advantages, and the people Empire to the Pope-to prevent whose have reaped the benefit. In Sardinia, arrival this armament was undertaken the empty pride and ignorance of the -Pope Gregory died in his hundredth greater part of the feudal barons year, his disease having been greatly always prevented such a spontaneous aggravated by this disastrous event. concession." We beg Mr Tyndale to The quarrel was, however, continued reflect upon the peculiar benefits those by his successor, Innocent IV., and two happy people are now reaping. the fortune of events turned against A man cannot tell his own growth of the Emperor. Enzio was taken primind and character, how he comes to soner in an unsuccessful battle near be what he is; but he must have little Modena, by the Bolognese, and was, reflection indeed not to know, that, though handsomely treated, detained under other circumstances than those captive twenty years, during which all in which he has been placed, he must the members of his family quitted this have been a very different man, and life. He consoled the hours of his have required a very different kind of captivity by music and poetry, in self, or other government, to regulate which he excelled, so as to have obhis own happiness. So institutions tained eminence as a poet amongst grow—and so governments. Paper the poets of Italy. But he enjoyed a changes are very pretty pieces for still sweeter solace. When he had declamation; but for sudden applica- been led in triumph as prisoner into cation, and that to all, whatever their Bologna, in his twenty-fifth year, so condition in morals and knowledge, early had he distinguished himself as they are but “onuara dvypa," and in- a warrior, the beauty of his person, dicate bloodshed.
and the elegance of his deportment, To return, however. We will not awakened in all the tenderest symdismiss the subject of the Giudici pathies. An accomplished maiden of without the mention of two persons Bologna, Lucia Viadagoli, besides the whose romantic histories are inti- pity and admiration which all felt, enmately connected with Sardinian af- tertained for him the most ardent fairs. The celebrated Enzio, illegiti- passion; an intimacy ensued, and the mates on of the Emperor Frederick II. passion was as mutual as it was arand the Giudicessa Eleonora. More dent. From this connexion, as it is than a century elapsed between these said, arose the founder of the family two extraordinary characters; the of Bentivoglio, who were, in after years, benefits conferred on Sardinia by the the avengers of his sufferings, and latter may be said to still live in lords over the proud republic. He some of the excellent laws which she had likewise obtained the devoted atestablished.
tachment of a youth, Pietro Asinelli; Enzio, not a Sarde by birth, by his through this faithful friend, a plan was marriage with Adelasia, a widow, laid down for his escape, which was Giudicessa of Torres, and Gallura, and very nearly successful. He was cara part of Cagliari, came into posses- ried out in a tun, in which some exsion of those provinces, and soon, by cellent wine for the king Enzio's use treaty and force of arms, became had been brought. His friends Asinpowerful over the whole island. The elli and Rainerio de' Gonfalioneri were favourite son of Frederick II., as a waiting near, with horses for his esmatter of course, he obtained the cape, when a lock of beautiful hair, enmity of Gregory IX., who had, by protruding from the barrel, was disthis marriage, been foiled in his covered, either by a soldier, or, as schemes upon Sardinia, through a some say, a maid, or an old mad marriage he contemplated between woman, for accounts vary. Alarm was Adelasia and one of his own relatives. given, and the prisoner resecured in
his place of confinement. Gonfalioneri all people to do homage, and swear fealty was arrested and executed; his friend to the young prince, her son ; and wrote Asinelli escaped, but was banished to obtain assistance from the King of for life. Enzio died in this captivity Aragon, in restoring order in her Giudiin the 47th year of his age, 15th
cato. Brancalione, encouraged by his March 1272, on the anniversary of
wife's intrepidity and success, asked per
mission from the King of Aragon to return his father the Emperor's death, and
to Sardinia with the promised auxiliaries; the saints' day of his beloved Lucia.
but the king, alarmed at the high spirit He was buried magnificently at the
of the Giudicessa, prevented his departure, expense of the republic. It might and kept him in stricter confinement, have been recorded of him, that he under pretence of conferring greater possessed every virtue, had not his honours on him. He was, however, at conduct to his wife left a stain on his last allowed to depart, under certain name. His early and ill-assorted mar- heavy conditions, one of them being the riage may offer some excuse for one surrender of Frederic, his son, as a hostwho showed himself so amiable on all age for the performance of a treaty then other occasions. He had won and
commenced. On his arrival at Cagliari governed Sardinia, and “ conquered a
in 1384, with the Aragonese army, he
repeatedly besought his wife to submit to great part of Italy, at an age when the
the king, in pursuance of the treaties. It vast majority of youths, even under the was in vain. Despising alike the pusillanimost favourable circumstances, are mous recommendation of her husband, but beginning to aspire to glory and and the threats of the Aragonese general, active life; while, equally fitted for the she for two years kept up a courageous • duties of a peaceful statesman, he was, and successful warfare against the latter,
at the same early age, intrusted with till having, by her exertions, acquired an a highly important charge, and op- advantageous position, she commenced a posed to the most subtle politicians. treaty with her enemy respecting the Should any future Hesiod meditate
sovereignty in dispute, and for the de
liverance of her husband, who, during the another poem on illustrious women,
whole of the time, was kept in close conEleonora of Sardinia will have a con finement at Cagliari.” spicuous place among the “Hoiai."
Finally, these terms of peace, so This Giudicessa was born about the middle of the fourteenth century.
honourable to her, were signed by Her father was Mariano IV., Giudice
Don Juan I., who succeeded his of Arborea. She was married to
brother Pedro, who died in 1387. Brancaleone Doria, a man altogether
“ The peace was but ill kept, for Braninferior to his wife. On the death of caleone, when at liberty, and once more her brother Ugone IV., a man worthy
under the influence of his high-minded of note, she assumed the government,
wife, regained his courage, and in 1390,
renewing the war more fiercely than ever, styling herself Giudicessa of Arborea,
he continued it for many years, without in the name of her infant son; in this
the Kings of Aragon ever reducing Eleoshe displayed a talent and vigour nora to submission, or obtaining possessuperior even to her father.
sion of her dominions. She formed alli“The first occasion on which her cour
ances with Genoa, and, with the aid of
their fleet, took such vigorous measures age and political sagacity were tried, was
that nearly the whole of Logoduro was in on the murder of her brother Ugone, and his daughter Benedetta, when the insur
a short time subdued; while Brancaleone, gents sought to destroy the whole reign
inspired by her example, reconquered Sas
sari, the castle of Osilo, and besieged the ing family, and to form themselves into a republic. Perceiving the danger which
royal fortresses of Alghero and Chivia.”
toy threatened the lives and rights of her After this, Don Martino, who sucsons, and undismayed by the pusillani- ceeded his brother Don Juan I. of mous conduct of her husband, who fled
Aragon, made peace, which secured for succour to the court of Aragon, she
the prosperity and honour of Arborea promptly took the command in the state,
during the life of Eleonora. But this and placing herself in arms, at the head of such troops as remained faithful,
extraordinary woman not only, in a speedily and entirely discomfited the
remarkable degree, exhibited the tarebels. She lost no time in taking pos
lents of a great general, and the genius session of the territories and castles be- of a consummate politician, but, for longing to the Giudici of Arborea, causing that age, a wonderful forethought,