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sagacity, and humanity, in the fabri- The coast of Alghero is noted for cation of a code of laws for her people. the Pinna marina, of the mussel tribe, As Debora judged Israel, and the whose bivalved shell frequently expeople came to her for judgment, so ceeds two feet in length. As the might it be said of Eleonora.
shark is accompanied by its pilot fish, o The Carta di Logu, so called from its so is this huge mussel by a diminutive being the code of laws in her own do- shrimp, supposed to be appointed by minions, had been commenced by her nature as a watchman, but in fact the father, Mariano IV., but being compiled, prey of the Pinna. The Pinna is fasfinished, and promulgated by Eleonora, to tened by its hinges to the rock, and is her is chiefly due the merit of the under itself a prey to a most wily creature, taking, and the worthy title of enlightened the Polypus octopedia. This crafty legislatrix. It was first published on creature may be seen. in fine weather. 11th April 1395, and by its provisions, the forms of legal proceedings and of
approaching its victim with a pebble in criminal law are established, the civil and
its claws, which it adroitly darts into customary laws defined, those for the pro-
pro.. the aperture of the yawning shells, so tection of agriculture enjoined, the rights that the Pinna can neither shut its and duties of every subject explained, close, to pinch off the feelers of the the punishments for offences regulated polypus, nor save itself from being and, in these last provisions, when com- devoured. The tunny fishery is of pared with the cruelty of the jurispru- some importance to the Sardes. Mr dence of that age, we are struck with the Tyndale was present at one of their humanity of the Carta de Logu, and its great days of operation, the Tonnara. superiority to the other institutions of A large inclosure is artificially made, that period. The framing of a body of laws so far in advance of those of other
into which the fish pass, when the in
" portcnllis" is let down, and a great countries, where greater civilisation existed, must ever be the highest ornament slaughter commences. in the diadem of the Giudicessa. Its merits were so generally felt, that, though intend
“ Fears now began to be expressed ed only for the use of the dominions sub
lest the wind, which had increased, should ject to her own sceptre, it was some years
make it too rough for the Mattanza, but, after her death adopted throughout the
while discussing it, a loud cry broke upon island, at a parliament held under Don
us of Guarda sotto'-'look beneath. The Alfonzo V., in 1421. This great princess
ever watchful Rais, (commander,) whose died of the plague in 1403 or 1404, re
eye had never been off its victims, in a gretted by all her subjects.”
moment had perceived by their move
ments that they were making for the Of the natural curiosities, the Antro Foratico, and, obeying his warning voice, de Nettuno, a stalactitic grotto, about we all were immediately on our knees, twelve miles from Alghero, is one of bending over the sides of the barges, to the most interesting. It was seen by watch the irruption, and, from the dead Mr Tyndale under very favourable silence and our position, it appeared as if circumstances, he having been invited we were all at prayers. In less than two by the civic authorities to visit minutes the shoal of nearly 500 had passit in the suite of the King of Sar
ed through. The well-known voice shouted dinia. The Antro de Nettuno is
out' Ammorsella'-'let down the portculunder the stupendous cliffs of Capo
lis,'-down it went amid the general and
hearty cheers of all present; and the Caccia, close to the little island of
fatal Foratico, into which' Lasciate ogni Foradala. “In parts of the grotto
speranza voi che entrate,' was for ever were corridors and galleries some 300
closed on them.” or 400 feet long, reminding one, if the comparison is allowable, of the Moor
Whatever foundation there may be ish architecture of the Alhambra. One for conjecture as to the origin of the of them terminates abruptly in a deep races, and extent of Phænician migracavern, into which we were prevented tions, we are continually struck with descending." "Some of the columns, the resemblance between the Sardes in different parts of the grotto, are and the native Irish. There is the from seventy to eighty feet in circum. same indolence, the same recklessness, ference, and the masses of drapery, superstition, and Vendetta--that disdrooping in exquisite elegance, are of regard of shedding human blood, and equally grand proportions."
the same screening of the murderers,
who, we are told, though well known, ing at a church, performing a “Novisit the the towns on " festa ” days, vena." Some banditti, knowing this, fearlessly and with impunity. But descended from their mountains to the Vendetta of the Sardes is not only visit them, and proposed the hospimore excusable, from a habitual de tality of the mountains. The women nial or perversion of justice, but it has assented, and accompanied the banits own honourable and humane laws, dits, who treated them with respect, not under any circumstances to be in- and they closed their evenings with fringed, which place it in conspicuous songs and dancing. The banditti kept contrast with the too common bar. watch the whole night guarding their barities and cruelties of our unfortu fair guests : one of the bandits bad pate sister island.
been the rejected lover of one of the The Sardinian “ fuorusciti " are party, whose husband and other not the Italian banditti. The term friends, hearing of this departure to includes, with the robber, those who the mountains, in fear and for venescape from the arm of the law, and geauce, collected in force to rescue the the avenger of injuries. These take to women. The bandits, in their descent, the mountains. The common robbers to conduct back their guests, met the are few, and their attacks on passen other party ascending. The pregers are for necessary subsistence, and sence of women prohibited Vendetta; more commonly for gunpowder with a truce was therefore demanded, when which they may obtain it. Those the bridegroom and the rejected lover who escape from the consequences of met, with feelings of past injuries, crime for vengeance-Vendetta—are and fears of more recent on one side. many ; but these, as we related, have Each had his gun cocked ; they felt their humane code, we might almost them, and gazed at each other. Their say their romantic—for the presence lives were at instant peril, when the of a woman is a perfect security. It is bride rushed into the arms of her hustheir law that no atrocity, no Ven- band, seized his gun, and discharged detta, is allowable when a woman is it; then, placing herself in front to proin the company. A foe travelling tect him, she led him up to the bandit, with wife or child is safe. A melan- and demanded from him his gun. He choly instance of a breach of this law yielded it, and she discharged it also. is thus given :
The rest of the party pressed on, an «A brigand was conducting his wife
explanation was given of the nature on horseback through the mountains
of the visit, and both parties joined in when he suddenly met his adversary, who,
a feast, and mutual explanations of regardless of the conventional and living
former differences were given and reflag of truce, attacked and slew him, to.
ceived, their Vendetta terminated, and gether with his pregnant wife. The re a general and lasting reconciliation lations and friends of the deceased were took place. Such quarrels are, hownot the only outraged parties; a general ever, sometimes settled otherwise than feeling of indignation and vengeance was by Vendetta. The “Paci" are reconkindled throughout the whole province. ciliations through means of the priest. Every bandit felt it to be a breach of The parties meet in the open air near their laws of honour; and even the mur
some chapel, and such settlements are derer's partisans not only denounced the act, but refused him the kiss of peace.'
perpetual. But another mode is preThe mangled corpses were conveyed home,
ferred, by “Ragionatori " orumand the friends of the deceased having
pires; but appeals may be made from sworn, on the body of the unfortunate
these to a greater number, whose deTeodora, a perpetual Vendetta against cision is final. An interesting anecdote the family of the assassin, a system of showing their power is thus told :revenge and bloodshed was framed and ; carried out to such an extent, that hun
“It was the case of a young shepherd dreds of victims, perfectly innocent of who had been too ardent in his advances even indirect participation in this single to a young maiden. On the youth deact of dishonour, fell in all parts of
murring to the decision as too severe, the Gallura."
Ragionatori, indignant at his presumption,
arose from under the shady wild olive, Another characteristic story is told. and saying to the surprised spectators, I party of six females were sojourn- we have spoken, and done justice,' saluted them and turned towards their homes. nudity, to ascertain the use of so But one of his nearest relations, who was much water. They had no idea of leaning against the knotted trunk of an this being an indelicate intrusion. oak, with his bearded chin resting on the Finding that the water was for a kind back of his hand on the muzzle of his of cold bath, they were astonishedgun, raised his head, and, with a fierce
“What, wash in cold water? what is look, extended his right hand to the Ragionatori:“Stop,friends !'he exclaimed,
the good of it? do all your country“the thing must be finished at this mo
men do such things ? are they very ment.' Then turning to his nephew, with
dirty in England ? we do not wash a determined and resolute countenance, in that way-why do you ?” Such and placing his right hand upon his chest, were the questions, on the spot, which he said to him, 'Come, instantly !--either he was required to answer. But they obey the verdict of the Ragionatori,or were reiterated by the ladies below The offender, at this deadly threat, no stairs, who expressed amazement at longer hesitated, but approached the the eccentricities of the English. offended party and sued for pardon. The
Hospitality is the common virtue uncle, thus satisfied, advanced, and de
of the Sardes. “In most houses manded for him the hand of the maiden ; the betrothal took place, and things being
admitting of an extra room, one is thus happily terminated, they betook
set apart for the guests--the hospitale themselves to prepare the feast.”
cubiculum of the Romans-ready
and open to all strangers." It would We could wish that we had space be the highest offence to offer the to describe an interview our author smallest gratuity to the host, however had with one of the Fuorusciti, and of humble, though a trifle may be given his rescue of his guide from the Ven- to a servant. “La mia casa è piccola, detta. But we must refer to the book ma il cuore é grande," (my house is for this, and many other well-told in- small, but my heart is large,) was the cidents respecting these strange peo- apology on one occasion of his Cavalple; and particularly a romantic tale lante, on his arrival in Tempio, where, of “Il Rosario e La Palla," which, if owing to the presence of the King, not in all its parts to be credited, is not a bed was to be had, and the no bad invention—“Se non e vero e Cavallante earnestly entreated the use ben' trovato."
of his hospitality, which, indeed, We would make some inquiry into seemed in the proof to bear no prothe habits and manners of the Sardes. portion to his means of exercising it. We have before observed their re- Even the family bed was emptied of semblance to the Irish. A descrip- four children and a wife's sister, in tion of the houses, or rather huts or spite of all remonstrance, for his hovels in the country, will remind the accommodation. reader of the Irish cabin, where a Where hospitality is a custom hole in the roof serves for chimney, stronger than law, inns offer few comand the pig and the family associate forts and fewer luxuries—the traveller on terms of mutual right. Like Ita- is supposed to bring, not only his lians in general, they are under a own provisions, but his own furniture. nervous hydrophobia, and prefer dirt Our traveller arriving at Ozieri, a to cleanliness, and, in common with town with more than eight thousand really savage nations, lard their hair inhabitants, “mine host” was astowith an inordinate quantity of grease. nished at the unreasonable demand of Washing is very superfluous, as if a bed. Finding how things were, Mr they considered the removal of dirt Tyndale stood in the court-yard, as the taking off a natural clothing. contemplating the alternative of preUpon one occasion Mr Tyndale, arriv- senting some of his letters to parties ing at a friend's house, and retiring in the town, when he was attracted to his room, sent his servant to re- to a window on the other side of the quest some jugs of water, for ablution court, from whence this invitation after a hot ride. This unusual demand issued: “Sir, it is impossible for you put the whole habitation into commo to go to the Osteria ; there is no action, and brought the host and seve- commodation fit for you. Apparently ral visitors in his rear, into the room, you are a stranger, and if you have while Mr Tyndale was in a state of no friends here, pray accept what little we can do for you.” He ascend- must obey •me, as the people obey ed the stairs to thank his hostess, him in Terra-firma.” What comprowho sent for her husband, holding a mise his majesty made between the high government appointment in the regal crown and the pound of guntown, who received and entertained powder, we are not told. Though we him as if they had been his intimate would by no means vouch for this friends. On another occasion, in shepherd's story, which is neverthesearch of the Perdas Lungas stones, less very probable, we can vouch for antiquarian curiosities, he met a one not very dissimilar. stranger, who, though going to Nuovo Not very long since, a small farmer in a great hurry, and anxious to re- in a little village in Somersetshire, turn for the Festa, on finding he was a who prided himself on his cheeses, in foreigner, insisted on accompanying a fit of unwonted generosity-for he him, as he was acquainted with the was a penurious man-sent to her way- one of the many instances," majesty Queen Victoria a prime says Mr Tyndale, " of Sarde civility cheese. A person given to practical and kindness." And such hospitable jokes knowing this, bought an eighkindness he invariably received, teenpenny gilt chain, and sent it in a whether in towns or among the letter, purporting to be from her poorest in the mountain villages, or majesty, appointing him her " well more lonely places. It has been beloved" mayor of the village, in the cynically observed, that hospitality is document exalted into a corporate the virtue of uncivilised nations. town, but whereof he, the said mayor, However selfishly gratifying the exer- formed the sole body and whole cise of it may have been to that authority. The ignorant poor man wealthy Scotch laird, who said that swallowed the bait, and called the his nearest neighbour, as a gentleman, village together; gave an ox to be was the King of Denmark, among roasted whole, and walked at the head such a people as the Sardes, it surely of the invited procession, wearing his may be an indication of natural kind- chain of office; and for several weeks ness, and, in some degree, of honesty, exhibited the insignia of royal favour, for our civilised roguery is a sore the chain and royal autograph, at destroyer of open-housed hospitality. church and at markets. It is a doubt
A royal return for hospitable care if he be yet undeceived, and lowered is, however, not to be altogether re- from his imaginary brief authority. jected. When the King of Sardinia We know not what our farmer would visited the island, a shepherd of the say to the use to which the Sardes little island of Talovara, the ancient apply their cheeses, or what may be Hermea, near the port of Terranova, expected from a free trade with them of simple manners and notions, sent in this article ; but we learn that so his majesty some sheep and wild plentiful was cheese in the Donori goats, judging that the royal larder district, in 1842, that some of it was might not be over-richly stored. His used for manuring the ground, which majesty properly, in turn, requested to practice would amount to throwing it know if he could grant him anything. away, for they are not given to any The shepherd consulted his family industrial means of agriculture. So apon all their realand imaginary wants, fertile was Sardinia under the Romans, and finally decided against luxuries, that, in the last years of the second but " would not mind if the king gave Punic war, corn was so abundant that him a pound of gunpowder." "On it was sold for the mere price of the the royal messenger, therefore, sug- freight. Should the reader be curious gesting that he should ask for some- to know the result of this cheapness, thing else, the dilemma was greater he may see it in the present condition than ever ; but, after strolling about, of Sardinia compared with its former, and torturing his imagination for a population diminished from about several minutes, he suddenly broke two millions to about five hundred out—“Oh, tell the King of Terra- and twenty-four thousand, and full firma that I should like to be the king three quarters of the land uncultivated. of Tavolara; and that if any people The “ Attitu," or custom of mourncome to live in the island, that they ing around the body of the dead, will bring to mind, to those who have wit- tempts to suppress them by authority nessed such a ceremony, the Irish would only tend to perpetuate them. bovel. The “Conducti” are ever It would be very silly, for instance, to more vehement than the verè ploran- issue a proclamation against “ May tibus. The word Attitu is supposed to day," or to remind the innocents who be derived from the atat of the Romans, crown the Maypole that they are folbut it was not an original word lowing a pagan and not very decent of their language, nor may it have worship and ceremony. Superstitions been so with the Greeks, from whom are the natural tares of the mind, and they took it. The Sarde Attitadores spring up spontaneously, and among are thus described, and the description the wheat, too, it should be observed ; perfectly answers to exhibitions we and we should remember the warning have witnessed in some remote parts not to be over eager to uproot the of Ireland. “They wear black stuff tares, lest we uproot the wheat also. gowns, with a species of Capucin It is the object of travel to gratify hood, and, maintaining a perfect si- curiosity, and the nature of travel to lence, assume the air of total ignorance increase the appetite for it. It is, as to there having been a death in the therefore, like wholesome food, which family, till, suddenly and accidentally by giving health promotes a fresh reseeing the dead body, they simulta. lish; but there arises from this traneously commence a weeping, wail- veller's habit a less nice distinction as ing, and gnashing of teeth, accom- to quality, and at length a practised panied with groans and ejaculations, voracity is not dismayed by quantity. -tearing their hair, throwing them. The inquirer is on the look-out, and selves on the ground, raising their overlooks but little ; and in all Roman clenched fists maniacally to heaven, Catholic countries there is no lack of and carrying on the attitudes and ex- infidels, happy to have their tongues pressions of real anguish." It is cu- loosened in the presence of questionrious that the “ailinon" of the Greeks ing Englishmen, and to pour into their is traced to the Phænicians, and, on listening ears multitudes of tales, fabthe authority of Athenæus, “Linus ricated or true, as it may chance, with was a mythological personage, who a feeling of hatred for the religion of gave his name to a song of a mourn their country-for the superstition of ful character.” It is said that the unbelief is inventive and persecuting. Phænician “Lin" signifies complaint. We are not for a moment meditating
It would be well if writers, especi- a defence of Romish superstitions, but ally travellers, would exercise a little we think they are too widespread, more forbearance in speaking of the and too mixed up with the entire habit superstitions of the people amongst of thought of the general population, whom they are thrown. It is too to render a sudden removal possible, prevalent a custom to attribute every or every attempt safe. The reformasuperstition to the priesthood, where- tion will not commence with the unas the mere traveller can scarcely be learned. In the meanwhile, there is a able to distinguish what belongs wholly demand on the traveller's candour and and hereditarily to the people, and benevolence for the exercise of forwhat the priests enjoin. We suspect bearance ; for we doubt if a foreign in most instances the foundation is in traveller in our own country would the people, and that the priests could not, were he bent upon the search, not, though in many cases it may be pick up, amongst both our rural and admitted they would not, put a stop town population, a tolerably large colto them. They would too often lose lection of the “ Admiranda" of supertheir influence in the attempt, and stition, and sectarian and other saints, find themselves compelled to acquiesce with surprising lives and anecdotes, in practices and ceremonies of which to rival the Romish calendar and the they do not approve. Those who "Aurea Leggenda.” We offer these treat with contempt and ridicule the few remarks, because we think our superstitions of other countries do not author in his anti-popish zeal, and scrutinise those of their own. It is true abhorrence of “ignorance," is too ours are wearing out, and before their much inclined to see all the wrong, expiration become very innocent: at- and overlook the good in-shall we say