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With this object in view I have abstained from too large a use of the numerical results of observations and measurements, and have avoided giving detailed descriptions of experimental methods.
This book has, therefore, in the main, been written from memory, and numerical examples have been taken from the existing literature only where it appeared absolutely necessary for the clearer understanding of the subject. The general-I may say the philosophical—review of the subject has been my chief aim, to which the details should be subordinated. I may, perhaps, be permitted to express the hope that this mode of treatment will especially meet with approval in England, where so wide a circle of readers interest themselves in the general results and conclusions of scientific investigations.
TÜBINGEN : December 30, 1891.
THE reception which our translation of Lothar Meyer's Modern Theories' met with has encouraged us to present to the public an English version of the author's smaller and less technical work on Chemical Philosophy.
The revised sheets have been submitted to the author, and we have gladly availed ourselves of the valuable suggestions he has made. As the nature of the book is set forth in the author's preface specially written for this translation, there remains only to add that we trust this book may not only be found valuable to the student of chemistry, but also to those who are interested in science generally.
In preparing a second edition of the translation of Meyer's Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry,' we have in the revision availed ourselves of the second edition of the German, published in 1893, a few years before the death of Lothar Meyer. Whilst the original form has been still retained, we have, by occasional footnotes and appendices, sought to bring the book up to date.
Our thanks are due to Dr. J. A. Smythe, who has kindly assisted in reading the proof pages for this edition, and also to Sir William Crookes, and to the Council of the Royal Society for permission to use the diagram illustrating the position of argon, helium, and krypton in the scheme of elements.
17. RELATION BETWEEN ATOMIC WEIGHT AND VAPOUR DENSITY 29
18. WANT OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT EQUIVALENTS 31
19. AVOGADRO'S HYPOTHESIS
20. PHYSICAL BASIS OF AVOGADRO'S HYPOTHESIS. THE KINETIC
THEORY OF GASES
21. MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF GASES
22. UNIT OF MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
23. CALCULATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
24. CORRECTION FOR ERRORS OF EXPERIMENT
25. DETERMINATION OF ATOMIC WEIGHTS FROM MOLECULAR WEIGHTS 39
26. POSSIBLE ERRORS
27. MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF THE ELEMENTS
28. NASCENT STATE .
29. DETERMINATION OF STECHIOMETRIC VALUES
30. RELATION OF STECHIOMETRIC DETERMINATIONS TO EACH OTHER 47