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With this object in view I have abstained from too large a use of the numerical results of observations and measurements, and have avoided giving detailed descriptions of experimental methods.

This book has, therefore, in the main, been written from memory, and numerical examples have been taken from the existing literature only where it appeared absolutely necessary for the clearer understanding of the subject. The general-I may say the philosophical—review of the subject has been my chief aim, to which the details should be subordinated. I may, perhaps, be permitted to express the hope that this mode of treatment will especially meet with approval in England, where so wide a circle of readers interest themselves in the general results and conclusions of scientific investigations.

LOTHAR MEYER

TÜBINGEN : December 30, 1891.

TRANSLATORS' PREFACE

THE reception which our translation of Lothar Meyer's Modern Theories' met with has encouraged us to present to the public an English version of the author's smaller and less technical work on Chemical Philosophy.

The revised sheets have been submitted to the author, and we have gladly availed ourselves of the valuable suggestions he has made. As the nature of the book is set forth in the author's preface specially written for this translation, there remains only to add that we trust this book may not only be found valuable to the student of chemistry, but also to those who are interested in science generally.

THE TRANSLATORS.

January, 1892.

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In preparing a second edition of the translation of Meyer's Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry,' we have in the revision availed ourselves of the second edition of the German, published in 1893, a few years before the death of Lothar Meyer. Whilst the original form has been still retained, we have, by occasional footnotes and appendices, sought to bring the book up to date.

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Our thanks are due to Dr. J. A. Smythe, who has kindly assisted in reading the proof pages for this edition, and also to Sir William Crookes, and to the Council of the Royal Society for permission to use the diagram illustrating the position of argon, helium, and krypton in the scheme of elements.

July 1899.

CONTENTS

PAGE

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12

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26

17. RELATION BETWEEN ATOMIC WEIGHT AND VAPOUR DENSITY 29

18. WANT OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT EQUIVALENTS 31

19. AVOGADRO'S HYPOTHESIS

31

20. PHYSICAL BASIS OF AVOGADRO'S HYPOTHESIS. THE KINETIC

THEORY OF GASES

32

21. MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF GASES

34

22. UNIT OF MOLECULAR WEIGHTS

36

23. CALCULATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHTS

37

24. CORRECTION FOR ERRORS OF EXPERIMENT

38

25. DETERMINATION OF ATOMIC WEIGHTS FROM MOLECULAR WEIGHTS 39

26. POSSIBLE ERRORS

40

27. MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF THE ELEMENTS

43

28. NASCENT STATE .

44

29. DETERMINATION OF STECHIOMETRIC VALUES

45

30. RELATION OF STECHIOMETRIC DETERMINATIONS TO EACH OTHER 47

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SECTION

31. SELECTION FROM DIFFERENT DETERMINATIONS .

32. ACCURACY OF THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS

33. PROUT'S HYPOTHESIS

34. DOEBEREINER'S TRIADS

35. ARRANGEMENT OF THE ELEMENTS IN THE ORDER OF THEIR

ATOMIC WEIGHTS

36. PERIODICITY OF THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS

37. PERIODICITY OF THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

38. THEORETICAL PREDICTION OF PROPERTIES

39. PERIODICITY OF VALENCY .

40. DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL VALENCY

41. POSSIBLE ERRORS IN THE DETERMINATION OF

CHEMICAL

VALENCY.

42. IRREGULARITIES OF THE CHEMICAL VALENCY

43. THEORETICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CHEMICAL VALENCY.

NATURE

OF AFFINITY

44. INVESTIGATION OF THE CONSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL COM-

POUNDS

45. THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF THE POSSIBLE FORMS OF

COMBINATION

46. DETERMINATION OF THE LINKING BY SYNTHESIS AND

ANALYSIS

47. DETERMINATION OF ATOMIC LINKING FROM PHYSICAL PRO-

PERTIES

48. DETERMINATION OF ATOMIC LINKING FROM CHEMICAL

BEHAVIOUR

49. HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY OF ATOMIC

LINKING.

50. EXAMPLES OF THE DETERMINATION OF THE ATOMIC LINKING

51. AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

52. PHYSICAL ISOMERISM. ALLOTROPY

53. POLYMORPHISM

54. PHYSICAL ISOMERISM OF THE MOLECULES

55. OPTICAL ISOMERISM

56. ASYMMETRICALLY LINKED CARBON ATOMS

57. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE FORMS

58. PHYSICAL ISOMERISM, WITH DOUBLE LINKING

59. ABSOLUTE DIMENSIONS OF MOLECULES AND ATOMS

60. AGGREGATION OF THE MOLECULES

61. THE EFFECT OF HEAT

62. HOMOGENEOUS SOLID BODIES

63. HETEROGENEOUS SOLID MOLECULAR AGGREGATES

64. DENSITY OF SOLID BODIES

65. FUSION AND SOLIDIFICATION

66. MELTING POINTS OF THE ELEMENTS

67.

COMPOUNDS

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