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indirectly points out the advantages of an international tribunal by which and through which controversies of a legal nature between states may be decided by judicial means. The prompt action of Mexico prevented controversy, but if controversy had arisen, the appropriateness and the great services to be rendered by a permanent international tribunal are too obvious for argument.

APPOINTMENTS AND PROMOTIONS IN THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE

An objection generally made to the American diplomatic service is that it lacks permanency and therefore fails to offer the advantages of a career and that appointments to the service are necessarily made from the young men of our country who possess independent means and who regard diplomatic experience as an incident and as a pleasant way of spending a few years in foreign parts. It is generally supposed that the higher appointments are made as a reward for real or alleged services to the party in power, and that the secretaries of legation are chosen by senatorial influence, without regard to the fitness of the appointee.

While it is undoubtedly true that many ministers may have been appointed solely for political reasons, the uniform success of our diplomacy in the past one hundred years is the best evidence that our ambassadors and ministers, whatever the reasons controlling their selection, were men of ability. The instances are very few in which a diplomat, however successful, has survived, that is, has remained at his post, after the defeat of his party at the polls. The removal of Henry Wheaton by President Polk is perhaps the most flagrant example of a system with which we are only too familiar. The removal was often a hardstip to the individual; it was generally a loss to the country, because his experience in diplomatic life had rendered his services valuable at the very time his country was deprived of his services, and his successor, taken from private life, lacked diplomatic training. There might have been an excuse for the removal of a minister if he had been succeeded by one equally if not better qualified, but the lack of a diplomatic service from which promotions could be made from the lower to the higher posts rendered an appointment from civil life apparently justifiable if

not necessary

The extension of civil service rules to the secretaries of legation supplies the country with a body of trained diplomatic and the diplomats themselves with the opportunity of a career.

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The first step was taken by President Roosevelt upon the advice of Secretary Root, who, on November 10, 1905, ordered

that vacancies in the office of secretary of embassy or legation shall hereafter be filled (a) by transfer or promotion from some branch of the foreign service, or (b) by the appointment of a person who having furnished satisfactory evidence of character, responsibility and capacity, and being thereupon selected by the President for examination, is found upon such examination to be qualified for the position.1

Taking advantage of section 1753 of the Revised Statutes of the United States concerning the admission of persons into the civil service, President Taft, upon the advice of Secretary Knox, in an Executive Order dated November 26, 1909,2 has extended to the diplomatic service the provisions of the Civil Service Act of January 16, 1883, so that hereafter promotions within the service shall be made solely upon efficiency, and appointments to secretaryships in the diplomatic service shall be made only upon examination of persons previously designated by the President. The nature and extent of the examination are set forth in the following quotation from the Executive Order :

The examinations shall be both oral and in writing and shall include the following subjects: -international law, diplomatic usage, and a knowledge of at least one modern language other than English, to wit, French, Spanish, or German; also the natural, industrial and commercial resources and the com. merce of the United States, especially with reference to the possibilities of increasing and extending the trade of the United States with foreign countries; American history, government and institutions; and the modern history since 1850 of Europe, Latin America and the Far East. The object of the oral examination shall also be to determine the candidate's alertness, general contemporary information, and natural fitness for the service, including mental, moral, and physical qualifications, character, address, and general education and good command of English. In this part of the examination the applications previously filed will be given due weight by the Board of Examiners. In the determination of the final rating, the written and oral ratings shall be of equal weight. A physical examination shall also be included as supplemental.

Examination papers shall be rated on a scale of 100, and no person with a general rating of less than 80 shall be certified as eligible.

1 For the order of the Secretary of State prescribing the examination, see Supplement to the JOURNAL, Vol. I, p. 84.

2 See Supplement to this number, p. 99.

It is evident, therefore, that the secretary of legation will be prepared for the position at the time of his appointment, and as his promotion depends upon his record in the service, an incentive is supplied for faithfulness and devotion to duty. As the Secretary of State is " directed to report from time to time to the President, along with his recommendations, the names of those secretaries of the higher grades in the diplomatic service who by reason of efficient service have demonstrated special capacity for promotion to be chiefs of mission," a secretary of legation may look to a ministry as his ultimate goal.

The foundations are thus laid for an efficient and permanent diplomatic service and a career is offered to the youth of our country.

INTERNATIONAL CELEBRATIONS

The past eighteen months have been prolific in international celebrations which have served to recall at once the youth of the Republic and the stormy years following the discovery of America until Great Britain established its ascendancy in North America and introduced the English language and established once and for all the type of the nation and its civilization as Saxon.

The various anniversaries have been celebrated by Americans in the larger sense of the word, including the citizens of the United States, subjects of his Britannic Majesty in the Dominion of Canada, and representatives of France who for two centuries maintained the cause of the Latin against the Saxon in the Western Hemisphere. A marked characteristic of the meetings has been the unbroken good humor and uniform cheerfulness notwithstanding the feeling of regret that may have lurked behind the spoken word.

The 300th anniversary of the settlement of Quebec by Champlain in 1608, the 300th anniversary of the discovery by Champlain of the lake which bears his name, the 300th anniversary of the discovery of the noble river which boars the name of Hudson, and the 100th anniversary of Fulton's daring voyage from New York to Albany in the little Clermont which demonstrated the feasibility of the steamboat and opened up the possibilities of ocean navigation, were international events of no mean significance and properly treated as such. It therefore seems proper that a few paragraphs be devoted to each and that the importance of each event be viewed in the light of the present.

Quebec Tercentenary. When Champlain in 1608 landed with his devoted band at Quebec and raised the fleur de lis, he dreamed of a new France and he hoped and believed that his country was permanently taking possession of a new world. For a century and a half it seemed that the dream would be realized, but the fleur de lis raised by his loving hand as the visible mark and symbol of French sovereignty in the new world was lowered in 1759 on the Plains of Abraham within range of the citadel of Quebec, and with its descent the sovereignty of France vanished from the new world to be revived for only a brief moment in Louisiana. The victory of Wolfe was not merely the defeat of Montcalm ; it was the victory of the Saxon over the Latin; it was the triumph of the English language and English institutions which from that day have prevailed in North America. The Atlantic seaboard from the Arctic to the Gulf of Mexico became and remains English. And yet the influence of France did not cease with the surrender of Canada. The French settlers remained and have increased in numbers and influence, and it is perhaps not too much to say that the French-Canadian has prevented the absorption of Canada by the United States and has developed a national spirit already embodied in the Dominion, as it may one day be embodied in a nation.

At the celebration the United States was properly represented by the Honorable Charles W. Fairbanks, Vice-President of the United States, and it is pleasing to note that in Quebec, the storm-center of armed conflict, on the very heights of Abraham where Great Britain and France battled for the supremacy of the new world, Mr. Fairbanks, true to the fundamental conception of the American people that war is a remedy of the past, that arbitration for the peaceful settlement of international disputes is the hope of the future, confessed his faith in arbitration in the following measured sentences :

We confidently believe that we are each destined to play a large and worthy part in the progress of the human race upon the Western continent. We have no rivalries except in the way of peace.

We do not covet the other's territories. We covet only each other's neighborly esteem.

There are no fortifications on our frontier, and no battleships upon the waters which divide us, and we believe and fervently hope that there never will be need of any defensive preparation between us.

May we not, on this theater of past conflicts, surrounded now by the impres. sive monuments of peace, venture to hope that the widespread morement which seeks to insure the maintenance of peace among nations of the world without

invoking the sword, may grow in strength, and at no distant day become incorporated as a part of the fixed policy of nations ?

To advocate measures for the maintenance of international tranquillity, to endeavor to substitute arbitration for war force, is not evidence of any decay in the courage or manhood of modern civilization. There is such a thing as righteousness among nations. Let them take their differences into international courts of justice, and there let reason and righteousness prevail.

We have no need to fear that the relations between the United States and Great Britain ever again will be disturbed.

Mr. Fairbanks' tribute on the battlefield to the peaceful settlement of international disputes was as appropriate as is the monument to learning and science, equally opposed to war, which, in the form of Columbia University of the City of New York, graces the battlefield of Harlem Heights.

Three-hundredth Anniversary of the Discovery of Lake Champlain

The discovery of Lake Champlain opened up a highway from Canada to the heart of the English Colonies, and if France had been able to control the line of communication through Lake Champlain and Lake George to the Hudson, English influence might have been confined to New England, if not crushed, and the west delivered to France, just as surely as the success of Burgoyne's expedition would have divided New England from New York and might have stamped the American Revolution as a mere rebellion. If the surrender of Quebec marked the downfall of French influence and ambitions, the failure to acquire and hold the region between Lake Champlain and the Hudson rendered the downfall possible if not a mere question of time. The control of this battlefield, for such it is, by Great Britain in Colonial times and its possession by the Colonies in the struggle with Great Britain, determined not merely that North America should be English in language and institutions, but that the united Colonies should be a free and independent nation.

It was manifestly appropriate that the celebration should be graced by the President of the United States, and that France and Great Britain should be represented. It was also eminently appropriate that the Honorable Elibu Root, formerly Secretary of State and now senator from New York, should entitle his address on this occasion “The Iroquois and the Struggle for America.” From Mr. Root's masterly address on this occasion, so in keeping with the magnitude of the events

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