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Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, born in 1852, has been for many years a familiar figure in international conferences, and both at home and abroad has consistently represented the cause of peace. Trained for the diplomatic service (he is now minister plenipotentiary of the first class), after fifteen years' experience (1880–1895) he was elected member of the Chamber of Deputies and in 1905 was elected senator. He represented France at both of the Hague Conferences and is a Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. M. d'Estournelles is an influential member of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, an outspoken partisan of the limitation of armaments and president of the Society of International Conciliation which he organized and directs in order to promote good understanding and draw the nations closer together. He is himself the personification of conciliation, and in the best sense of the word, an agitator for the cause of peace. By birth a Frenchman, he is by choice a citizen of the world and would break down the barriers which separate nations. His remarkable address at Berlin was commented upon at length in the July number of the JOURNAL, and if Germany and France forget their past differences and cooperate in the peaceful development of the world, it will be due in no small measure to the devotion, foresight and generous sympathy of d'Estournelles. To a gentle and pleasing, not to say winning, personality, he has the gift of persuasive speech. He is a remarkable linguist and is thus in all ways admirably fitted for the rôle he has chosen, namely, a mediator between the nations.

THE ANNUAL MEETING

The Fourth Annual Meeting of the Society of International Law will be held in Washington April 28, 29 and 30, 1910. The experience of the past three years shows that the two days devoted to the presentation and discussion of papers have left little or no time for the meeting of the various committees for the consideration of the business of the Society. It has therefore been decided that the meeting shall open Thursday even ing instead of Friday morning, and that the afternoon session of Friday shall be omitted, in order that the various committees may hold their business meetings.

It is expected that the opening session of the Society will be held in the Pan-American Building, and that the meetings of Friday and Saturdav, as well as the annual banquet on Saturday evening, will take place in the New Willard Hotel as usual.

The attempt was made last year, with considerable success, to select interesting and timely subjects for discussion and to make the papers read as well as the discussions so valuable that the report of the Annual Proceedings would not only interest members of the Society, but be a contribution to the subjects discussed. Encouraged by the results of last year, the Society has selected the following subjects for discussion for the Friday session.

The basis of protection to citizens residing abroad, ranged under the following headings: 1. The question of the limitation of protection by contract between the citizen

and a foreign government or by municipal legislation. 2. The citizenship of individuals, or of artificial persons (such as corporations.

partnerships, etc.) for whom protection is invoked. 3. The question of domicile in its relation to protection. 4. The effect of the unfriendly act or inequitable conduct of the citizen upon the

right to protection. 5. The place of denial of justice in the matter of protection. 6. Intervention for breach of contract for tort where the contract is broken by

the state or the tort committed by the government or governmental agency.

Under question 3 it is suggested that the Thrasher and Koszta cases will throw light upon the nature and importance of the question of domicile, and under question 4 that the Arbuthnot and Ambrister case will indicate one phase of this difficult and complicated subject, and that the Delagoa Bay and El Triunfo cases will serve as an indication of the scope of question 6.

At the Third Annual Meeting the following resolution was adopted : Resolved, That the President of the American Society of International Law shall appoint a committee of seven members, of which he shall be ex officio the chairman, to report to the annual meeting of this society in 1911 a draft codification of those principles of justice which should govern the intercourse of nations in times of peace; and make a preliminary report, if possible, in 1910, sufficiently in advance of the meeting to be a subject of discussion at the Fourth Annual Meeting 1

On Saturday morning the Committee on Codification will present a preliminary report on the history of codification and on the scope and plan of codification under the resolution.

It is expected that the president of the Society. Honorable Elihu Root, will open the proceedings by an address which will, as previously

1 Proceedings, 1909, page 268 note.

stated, occur on Thursday evening April 28th, in the Pan-American
Building. The address will be followed by two papers of a general
nature, the first of which will outline the advantages of the codification
of international law and the second state the objections to the proposed
codification. In this way Saturday morning can be devoted to the con.
sideration of the report of the committee on the resolution without
considering the general question of codification.

It is expected that the reception at the White House will be held on
Saturday afternoon at two-thirty o'clock.

It is suggested that members intending to be present at the banquet
should secure their tickets well in advance in order to aid the committee
in making the necessary arrangements.

Any changes in the time of the meeting or in the programme will be duly notified to the members of the Society.

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CHRONICLE OF INTERNATIONAL EVENTS

WITH BEFERENCES

Abbreviations: Ann. sc. pol., Annales des sciences politiques, Paris; Arch. dipl., Archives diplomatiques, Paris; B., boletin, bulletin, bollettino; B. A. R., Monthly bulletin of the International Bureau of American Republics, Washington; Doc. dipl., France: Documents diplomatiques; Dr., droit, diritto, derecho; For. rel., Foreign Relations of the United States; Ga., gazette, gaceta, gazzetta; Cd., Great Britain: Parliamentary Papers; Int., international, internacional, internazionale; J., journal; J. O., Journal Officiel, Paris; Mém. dipl., Mémorial diplomatique, Paris; Monit., Moniteur belge, Brussels; N. R. G., Nouveau recueil général de traités, Leipzig; Q. dipl., Questions diplomatiques et coloniales; R., review, revista, revue, rivista; Reichs-G., Reichs-Gesetzblatt, Berlin; Staatsb., Staatsblad, Gröningen; State Papers, British and Foreign State Papers, London; Stat. at L., United States Statutes at Large; Times, the Times (London); Treaty ser., Great Britain: Treaty Series.

March, 1909. 15 GERMANY–GREAT BRITAIN. Exchange of notes of February ??

and March 15 confirming protocols defining boundaries between British and German territories in Africa: (1) Gorege to Lake Chad (February 12, 1907); (2) Uba to Maio Tiel (March 11,

1907). Treaty ser., 1909, No. 17. July, 1909. 3 FRANCE-GREAT BRITAIN. Convention signed at Paris concerning

compensation for accidents of work. Mém. dipl., August 29;

London Ga., November 30. 3 SALVADOR--UNITED STATES. Exchange of ratifications at Wash

ington of arbitration treaty signed at Washington December 21, 1908. Ratification advised by Senate January 6, 1909; ratified by the President March 1; by Salvador June 14; proclaimed July

7. U. 8. Treaty ser., No. 529; B. A. R., September. 12 JAPAN-KOREA. New convention to ameliorate the judicial and

penal administration in Korea. Signed by the Japanese Resident-General in Korea and the Prime Minister of Korea. Mém. dipl., August 22.

July, 1909. 20 BELGIUM-NICARAGUA. Exchange at Guatemala of ratifications of

arbitration treaty signed at Guatemala March 6, 1906. Text in

Mém. dipl., September 12; B. Usuel, September 2. 20 COSTA RICA—UNITED STATES. Exchange at Washington of rati

fications of arbitration convention signed January 13, 1909. Proclaimed July 21. La Gaceta, August 4; B. A. R., September;

U. S. Treaty ser., No. 530. 26

MEXICO. Accession to the arrangement of Madrid of April 14,

1891, concerning international registration of trade-marks becomes

effective. Monit., July 11; B. A. R., October. 27 MEXICO— NICARAGUA. Exchange of ratifications, at Mexico City,

of the parcels post convention approved by Mexican Senate October 23, 1907; ratified by President Diaz April 23, 1909; ratified by the Congress of Nicaragua February 6, 1908, and approved by President Zelaya July 27, 1909. It will continue in force till twelve months after either party notifies its intention to terminate

it. B. A. R., October. 28

GREAT BRITAIN. Conference on the Naval and Military Defence

of the Empire, held at London July 28 to August 19. Representatives from the self-governing dominions: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Cape Colony, Newfoundland, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange River Colony, met the Prime Minister and other officials. The conference was of a purely consultative character and was held in private at the Foreign Office. Cd., 4948; Times,

dates of meeting 30 PARAGUAY—UNITED STATES. Paraguay approved the arbitration

convention signed at Asuncion, March 13. B. A. R., November. 30 BRAZIL-HONDURAS. Honduras approved treaty of arbitration

negotiated in April, 1909. Terms published in La Gaceta, August

19, 1909. B. A. R., November. 31 GERMANY—NETHERLANDS. Agreement signed at Berlin, supple

mentary to the convention concluded at The Hague on July 17, 1905, concerning civil procedure. In effect September 1, and con

tinues till six months after denunciation. Staatsb., 1909, No. 296. 31 SPAIN–FRANCE. Royal decree approving telegraph convention

signed at Paris, June 29, q. v. Gaceta de Madrid, August 1.

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