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of Mexico and the other independent Spanish-American States we have seen that the chief cause of their frequent revolutions has been the effort to change their presidents. The transfer of the administration by the peaceful and constitutional methods has proved in many instances a failure. This has been the case par: ticularly in Mexico.

It would have been a wise and patriotic act for General Diaz to have retired from the Presidency at the end of his second term, leaving the prohibitive clause of the Constitution in force. He would then have been in a position to guarantee a peaceful election of a successor and a continuance of the good order and prosperity which he had established. The people also might have had an oppor. tunity to test their ability to conduct a government by means of a free and untrammeled exercise of the electoral franchise, a condition as yet unknown in Mexico. The benevolent autocracy under his administration has resulted in great prosperity for the country, but it has done little to educate the masses of the people in their duties under a republican government. (Vol. I, pp. 106, 107.)

His first mission to Russia (1880-1881) was of short duration, but he was brought into intimate contact with the resident diplomats at the Russian court and was present at the assassination and burial of Alexander II. His chapters on Diplomats and the Russian Court (pages 150–162), Russian Affairs, Political and Social (pages 163–180), the Assassination of Alexander II (pages 181–197), Russia under Alexander III (pages 198–215), his second mission to Russia in 1897 in relation to the Fur Seal controversy (pages 216–238), are marked by a keen observation, justness and breadth of view, and his comments upon the Czars, the court and ruling classes are as sagacious as they are interesting

General Foster resigned from the diplomatic service in 1881 to take up the practice of international law at Washington, but he was persuaded by President Arthur to accept the mission to Spain (18831885), and he later visited Spain in 1891 in connection with reciprocity treaties. His familiarity with Spanish, obtained by a long residence in Mexico, his understanding of the Spanish life and character, have enabled him to give a singularly vivid and sympathetic account of modern Spain, and it is perhaps not too much to say that the chapters devoted to Spain (pages 239-333) are the most interesting of this singularly attractive book. The reviewer calls especial attention to the chapter on Statesmen and Diplomatists at Madrid (pages 261-275) in which General Foster gives an admirable sketch of Canovás, Sagasta and Castelar, and the curious and impressive Spanish ceremonial of “Holy Week” (pages 314-328).

The second volume contains many matters of great importance written by one who played no small part in them, such as the Reciprocity Negotiations (pages 1-19), the Bering Sea Arbitration (pages 20-50), the Alaskan Boundary Settlement (pages 191-210), the Annexation of Hawaii (pages 166–175), Canadian Affairs (pages 176–190), the Second Hague Peace Conference, at which General Foster represented China and of which he gives valuable and interesting chapters on its organization and results (pages 211-241).

The most interesting chapters in this volume are undoubtedly those devoted to “ Presidents under whom I served ” (pages 212-258) and the “ Secretaries of State” (pages 259-280). The most valuable portion of the work undoubtedly is the series of chapters dealing with China and Japan (pages 90–165), in which General Foster, with modesty and reserve, describes the course of the negotiations which put an end to the unfortunate war between China and Japan, and sets forth as only a participant could the issues in the balance and the means by which peace, honorable to both nations, was secured. These chapters are not merely interesting, well written and carefully balanced, but they are a distinct contribution to the history and diplomacy of the Far East. They show not merely the resourcefulness of General Foster, but they show him possessed of that balance and solidity of judgment which are the characteristics of true greatness.

It would be interesting to quote from the chapters on the Presidents and Secretaries of State, for in these General Foster has expressed, apparently without reserve, his opinions of the Presidents and Secretaries with whom he came into contact. It is feared that the relatives of some of the deceased will wish that General Foster had maintained more of the reserve so usually characteristic of diplomacy, but the student of public affairs will be glad that General Foster has preferred the truth as he sees it. As Secretary of State he considers Seward entitled to grateful remembrance. “Judged by his achievements and his despatches, he must be regarded as the first Secretary during the last half century.” (Vol. II, p. 259.) He considers Hamilton Fish as competent but not brilliant, William M. Evarts as a brilliant lawyer out of place in the Department, and among recent Secretaries regards the late John Hay as the most gentle, lovable and broad-minded in character and as having rendered the greatest services to his country. Mr. James G. Blaine is frequently mentioned, always with respect, and while General Foster appreciates his brilliancy and dash, he is not blind to his faults, which were many and serious.

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Of a personal nature are the chapters describing the tour around the world, Syria, Egypt, India, China and Japan (pages 51-89), chapters enlivened by personal letters to General Foster's daughters by Mrs. Foster without thought of publication. The chapter on International Law Practice (pages 281–302) will have especial interest to international lawyers.

The two volumes, briefly and inadequately passed under review, are a genuine contribution to diplomacy and diplomatic history. They are free from partisanship and bias, they aim to and do actually set forth the great events with which General Foster was connected, and are marked by a delightful and ever-present modesty and self-effacement. The concluding sentences are at once a sample of the author's reserve and of the spirit which has animated his entire life:

“I have been highly honored,” he says, “ by my country with many important public trusts, but I have the consciousness of having earnestly striven to discharge them faithfully. The retrospect of a life of more than threescore years and ten occasions much satisfaction and little regret, thanks to a kind Provi. dence, a favoring Government, and a host of friends.”

Various reports which General Foster prepared from time to time were printed as public documents and had a large circulation, and not a few addresses of his delivered before learned and scientific bodies have been widely read and appreciated. The reviewer ventures the suggestion that General Foster might well collect in permanent book form his most important reports and addresses dealing with questions of public law, and thus round out an honorable and distinguished literary and public career.



(For list of abbreviations used, see Chronicle of International Events, p. 191.)

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Africa. L'angleterre en Afrique. Capt. E. de Renty. Q. dipl., 28:271, 395.

L'évolution de l'Afrique du Nord. Henri Lorin. Q. dipl., 28:321.

L’union des colonies britanniques sud-africaines. Bérard d'Aunet.
R. de deux mondes, 53:862.

L’union Sud-Africaine. E. de Renty. Le correspondant, October 25,
Alliances with and against France. Edvin Marcy. Forum, 4:344.
Alsatian question.

La question d'Alsace. Henri Lichtenberger. R. de Paris,
August 15, 1909.
Annexions déguisées de territories, Des. J. Perrin jaquet. R. générale de dr.

int. public, 1909, No. 3.
Atlantic coast fisheries. La question des pêcheries de l'Atlantique. Un différend

entre les Etats-Unis et l’Empire brittanique. Thomas Willing Balch. R.

de dr. int. et de législation comparée, 11:516. Bolivia-Peru. Le différend entre la Bolivie et le Pérou et l'arbitrage inter

national. Louis Renault. R. générale de dr. int. public, 1909, No. 3. Bülow, Le prince de. La politique extérieure. André Tardieu. R. de deux

mondes, 53:312. Canada and the Monroe Doctrine. Stephen Leacock. University Magazine,

8:351. China in transformation. Archibald Colquhoun. Fortnightly R., N. S., 86:451. Commerce in the promotion of international peace, Influence of. John Ball

Osborne. Publications of the American Association for International Con

ciliation, No. 22, September, 1909. ('ongo et l'entente cordiale, Le. Félicien Challaye. R. de Paris, 6:30. Consular jurisdiction. Le droit pénal appliqué en pays exterritoriaux par les

juridictions consulaires. W. J. M. van Eysinga. Zt. für Völkerrecht und

Bundesstaatsrecht, 3:553. Declaration of London. La déclaration de Londres de 1909 sur divers points de droit maritime. N. Politis. Clunet (Journal) 1909, p. 897.

Paul S. Reinsch. North American R., 190:479.

Enemy character after the Declaration of London. L. Oppenheim.
Law Quarterly Review, 25:372.
Defence problem of Scandinavia, The. A. Schvan. Nineteenth Century, 66:

898. Eastern question. La nueva cuestión de Oriente. D. Antonio Balbin de Unquera.

R, de dr. int. y política exterior, 4:210.

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England and Germany. Anglo-German relations.

Edinburgh R., 110:447. England and Germany - Peace or

war? Gerhardt

SchulzeGaeverintz. R. of R., 40:602.

The isolation of Germany. Edvin Maxey. Forum, 52:424. Far East, The Clark University Conference on the. James L. Tryon. Advocate

of Peace, October, 1909. Germany and the entente: a letter from Berlin. R. E. C. Long. Fortnightly

R., N. S., 86:735. Greece. La crise hellénique. Henri Marchand. Q. dipl., 28:385. Hungary. La crise hongroise. Simon Aberdam. R. politique et parlementaire,

62:72. International agreements. Ententes et accords internationaux. F. de Saint

Charles. R. d'histoire diplomatique, 1909, No. 1. International law. I nuevi orizzonti della scienza del diritto internazionale.

Pasquale Fiore. R. de dr. int. y política exterior, 4:185. International law, private. Le droit commun international comme source du

droit international privé. J. Jitta. R. de dr. int. privé et de dr. pénal

int., 5:485. International law, United States and. Les États-Unis et le droit des gens.

Ernest Nys. R. de dr. int. et de législation comparée, 11:543. Japon, Pages de l'histoire diplomatique du. Közö Kijima. 2d article. R. de

dr. int. et de législation comparée, 11:578. Japonais et Américains. Les vraies difficultés. Félix Klein. R. de deux

mondes, 53:673. Morocco. Les événements de Melilla. Maisonave. Q. dipl., 28:227.

Le Maroc et les intérêts français. René Millet. R. politique et parlementaire, 62:205.

Le Rogni. Maisonave. Q. dipl., 28:461.

Le Sultanat Marocain. Edmond Doutte. R. politique et parlementaire, 61:421. Peace ideas and disarmament. Baron ron Stengel. National R., 5.5:403, Peace or war. Lord Courtney of Penwith. Contemporary R., 96:385, 513. Persian revolution. Questions extérieures. — Révolution

persane. Victor Bérard. R. de Paris, 5:415, 633, 872. Persian situation, The. Edvin Maxey. Forum, 52:237. Portuguese colonies. Les colonies portuguaises. Angel Marvaud. Q. dipl.,

28:285, 351. Russia, L'armée russe et la frontière occidentale de l'empire.

Le correspondant, August 25, 1909. Spain. Les troubles de Catalogne. Angel Marvaud. Q. dipl., 28:193. Trade domicile in war. T. Baty. Juridical R., 21:209. Turkey. La Jeune-Turquie et l'avenir du panislamisme. Dr. Rouire. Q. Dipl.,

28:257. Waddington, Henry: a famous English-Frenchman. R. Seymour Ramsdale.

Westminster R., 172:410.

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