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was produced by the reflection that the end had been attained by a fair and open trial, with every opportunity to the parties to be heard.

In July 1905 Judge Penfield was sent as a special commissioner to Brazil. On bis return to the United States he resumed the discharge of his regular duties; but, in the following year, he decided to lay down the burdens of office and to engage in private practice. He opened an office in Washington, and was soon retained in important cases. also appointed professor of international law and of the foreign relations of the United States in the postgraduate law school of Georgetown University. He died in Washington, May 9, 1909, prematurely, in the full tide of professional success.

Judge Penfield was a man of admirable gifts. While not professing to proceed by the intuitions of genius, he possessed to an unusual extent the faculty of logical analysis, which, united with patience and industry, enabled him to master the subject in hand, and, when he had mastered it, to present it with clearness and force. He was also persuasive. Versed in literature, and practised in writing and in speaking, he knew how to convey his thoughts in appropriate language, and, while sturdy in the maintenance of his views, bore himself with a courtesy that was innate and never lacking in dignity. But, if there was one trait more than another by which he was distinguished, it was his overruling sense of justice, a sense in his case cultivated and enlightened by study and by experience but ever directed to the ascertainment of the truth. In devoting to this ideal, unobscured by unworthy or extraneous considerations, his well-trained faculties, he has left behind him an example worthy not only of commemoration but also of imitation.


On April 26, 1910, the future home of the International Bureau of the American Republics was formally dedicated at Washington in the presence of the President and Secretary of State of the United States, representatives of the twenty-one Latin-American Republics, and Messrs. Root and Carnegie, whose interest in and devotion to the cause of the closer union of America have resulted in this outward and visible memorial to western civilization and to Pan-American solidarity.

The idea of a closer union of the American Republics has long been a favorite one of the enlightened and progressive spirits of America, and it is peculiarly appropriate that it be given definite form and effect in this year of 1910 which thus marks at one and the same time the actual, although non-political, union of America and the progress of LatinAmerica in the century following the declaration of its independence in 1810. The Fourth Pan-American Conference of July, 1910, to be held at Buenos Aires, is but a more formal and ceremonious manifestation of the spirit embodied in the Pan-American Building of the city of Washington.

The independence of Saxon America was achieved by Washington and the union of the states was in no small measure his work as it was the necessary consequence of his labors. The independence of Latin-America will ever be associated with the name of Bolivar and the union or federation of the Americas was the dream of the younger and more enthusiastic patriot. The conception of the Panama ('ongress of 1826 was Bolivar's and its failure merely showed that America was not ready for cooperation, not that cooperation was Utopian or impossible. Nations are plants of slow growth and disinterested cooperation is impossible until independence is an undisputed and concrete fact. Almost sixty years passed before the auspicious moment arrived. In 1881 a distinguished Saxon statesman, the late James G. Blaine, proposed, in a justly celebrated and felicitous note,' a meeting of the nations at Washington. Postponed for the time being, the conference met in Washington in 1889-90 under the presidency of Mr. Blaine, for the second time Secretary of State. In 1901–2 the conference met in Mexico, and again in 1906 at Rio de Janeiro on the eve of the Second Hague Peace Conference, the character and purpose of which while more international, is hardly more beneficent, certainly not more idealistic or progressive.

The first Pan-American Conference of 1889–90 was thus followed by a second at Mexico in 1901–2 after a long interval: it was quickened into life and given the dignity of a permanent institution by the initiative and sympathy of Secretary Root, who persuaded another American citizen, Mr. Andrew Carnegie, to provide it with a permanent home, just as the Hague Conference was perhaps saved by the timely intervention of President Roosevelt, for which institution Mr. Carnegie's generosity is supplying a permanent palace.

From the interesting addresses delivered upon the opening of the PanAmerican Building, significant passages are quoted from those of the President, the Secretary of State, Senator Root and Mr. Carnegie, as indicating the Saxon viewpoints, and the reader is referred to the elaborate address of the Mexican Ambassador who spoke for the republics of the South.

1 Printed in the SUPPLEMENT. p. 252.

Secretary Knox spoke in full as follows:

Mr. PRESIDENT, Ladies, AND GENTLEMEN : I feel that I am especially privileged in taking part in the auspicious ceremony of the dedication of the building to be devoted to the cause of peace and good will between the Republics of LatinAmerica. It is more than a privilege, it is a duty incumbent on me to voice the sympathy of the United States in the great work which it is the mission of the International Bureau of the American Republics to accomplish and to give renewed assurance, if such be needed, of the earnest and unselfish purpose of the Government and people of the United States to do all that lies within their power toward the fulfillment of the high task set before you.

The great movements of the people of the earth looking to closer association and truer kinship are often slow of realization. Such movements spring from within. They are not arbitrarily imposed by outward forces. Their primary impulse is the growing conviction of neighboring communities that the development and prosperity of each is in harmony with the advancement of the rest and that between peoples of the same ideals, living under the same political conditions and sharing in a common environment, there is a certain sentiment of unity which moves them to closer intimacy. The growth and fruition of that sentiment is the work of time, of centuries perhaps. Rarely has the seed been sown and the tree matured within the lifetime of a single generation.

The movement in whose confirmation we take part to-day has been exceptionally favored. The reason of its marvelous fertility of development is not far to seek. The soil was prepared a century ago when the colonists of Spanish America established free communities from the Rio Grande to Cape Horn, following their northern brethren of the United States, and the peoples that vast domain, from being dependents of a common motherland, became fellow-workers in the building up of a scheme of kindred sovereignties. As historical eras are computed those sovereignties are yet young. It is a happy coincidence that at this very time they are commemorating the independence they won a hundred years ago.

Many of those among us were witnesses of the birth of the Pan-American idea in the First International Conference of American Republics held in this capital twenty years ago. We have watched its growth year by year with ardent solicitude. From the first the people of the United States, through their Government and Congress, have lent hearty and effective aid to the great enterprise. The representatives of all the Republics of the West have met, in cordial harmony, under the international Pan-American banner, as the honored guests of the American Union; and this nation, in turn, never unmindful of the sacred duties of a host, has taken part as a simple colaborer in the tasks of the great body politic which has been created by the concurrent efforts of all. It is a logical consequence of that dual relationship that the home of the International Bureau, in which we are to-day assembled, is the gift in a large part of a citizen of the United States to all the peoples of the Western Republics, and that we of the United States, in common with our Pan-American brethren, accept that noble gift, firm in the conviction that it will be a worthy instrument toward the attainment of the high aims of the International Bureau, and, with devout hearts, we supplicate the Giver of all Good that the efforts of our association may be thrice blessed and through its influence the nations of Pan-America may, year by year, be brought into closer accord and more benevolent community of interests.

Senator Root, whose speech, to quote the President's happy phrase, “ was as perfect in its way as the architecture of the building,” said in part:

The active interest of President Taft and Secretary Knox are evidence that the policy of Pan-American friendship reinauguarated by the sympathetic genius of Secretary Blaine is continuous and permanent in the United States; and the harmony in which the members of the Governing Board have worked to this end is a good omen for the future.

This building is to be in its most manifest utilitarian service a convenient instrument for association and growth of mutual knowledge among the people of the different Republics. The library maintained here, the books and journals accessible here, the useful and interesting publications of the Bureau, the enor. mous correspondence carried on with seekers for knowledge about American countries. the opportunities now afforded for further growth in all those activi. ties, justify the pains and the expense.

The building is more important, however, as the symbol, the ever-present reminder, the perpetual assertion of unity of common interest and purpose and hope among all the Republics. This building is a confession of faith, a covenant of fraternal duty, a declaration of allegiance to an ideal. The members of the Hague Conference of 1907 described the Conference in the preamble of its great Arbitration Convention as —

“Animated by the sincere desire to work for the maintenance of general peace.

“Resolved to promote by all the efforts in their power the friendly settlement of international disputes.

“Recognizing the solidarity uniting the members of the society of civilized nations.

“ Desirous of extending the empire of law and of strengthening the appreciation of international justice.”

That is the meaning of this building for the Republics of America. That sentiment which all the best in modern civilization is trying to live up to we have written here in marble for the people of the American continents.

The process of civilization is by association. In isolation, men, communities, nations, tend back toward savagery. Repellant differences and dislikes separate them from mankind. In association, similarities and attractions are felt and differences are forgotten. There is so much more good than evil in men that liking comes by knowing. We have here the product of mutual knowledge, cooperation, harmony, friendship. Here is an evidence of what these can accomplish. Here is an earnest of what may be done in the future. From these windows the Governing Board of the International Union will look down upon the noble river that flows by the home of Washington. They will sit beneath the shadow of the simple and majestic monument which illustrates our conception of his character, the character that, beyond all others in human history, rises above jealousy and envy and ignoble strife. All the nations acknowledge his preeminent influence. He belongs to them all. No man lives in freedom any. where on earth that is not his debtor and his follower. We dedicate this place to the service of the political faith in which he lived and wrought. Long may this structure stand, while within its walls and under the influence of the benign purpose from which it sprang the habit and the power of self-control, of mutual consideration, and kindly judgment more and more exclude the narrowness and selfishness and prejudice of ignorance and the hasty impulses of supersensitive amour-propre. May men hereafter come to see that here is set a milestone in the path of American civilization toward the reign of that universal public opinion which shall condemn all who through contentious spirit or greed or selfish ambition or lust for power disturb the public peace, as enemies of the general good of the American Republic.

One voice that should have spoken here to-day is silent, but many of us can not forget or cease to mourn and to honor our dear and noble friend, Joaquim Nabuco. Ambassador from Brazil, Dean of the American Diplomatic Corps, respected, admired, trusted, loved, and followed by all of us, he was a commanding figure in the international movement of which the erection of this building is a part. The breadth of his political philosophy, the nobility of his idealism, the prophetic vision of his poetic imagination, were joined to wisdom, to the practical sagacity of statesmanship, to a sympathetic knowledge of men, and to a heart as sensitive and tender as a woman's. He followed the design and construction of this building with the deepest interest. His beneficent influence impressed itself upon all of our actions. No benison can be pronounced upon this great institution so rich in promise for its future as the wish that his ennobling memory may endure and his civilizing spirit may control in the councils of the International Union of American Republics.

Mr. Carnegie, the generous donor of the building, spoke not merely as a philanthropist but as a surviving member of the first conference, and in the course of his remarks paid a well merited tribute to Secretary Knox's proposed constitution of the Court of Arbitral Justice.

Mr. CHAIRMAN, MR. PRESIDENT, DIPLOMATS, LADIES, AND GENTLEMEN: As one of the remaining members of the First International Conference of the American Republics, whose interest in the cause has increased with the years, no duty could be assigned me more pleasing than that I am now called upon to perform by the favor of the Governing Board of the International Bureau of the American Republics - that of participating in the dedication of this beautiful structure to its noble mission of promoting the reign of peace and good will, and of progress, moral and material, over the Republics of this vast continent. Nor would we exclude from friendly cooperation our growing neighbor of the north, who enjoys like ourselves government of, and for, and by the people, should she

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