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116
The Sect and Nation of the Sikhs.

(Feb. which devolve to them again on the the attainment of some prize or spoil; decease of the mother.

beyond which their comprehension When Choonda-bund is adopted, seems unable to extend itself. equal divisions are first made accord- With respect to the military spirit ing to the number of wives, and then and bravery of the Sikhs, we must not each division is portioned out to the judge from their conduct during the number of sons which each may have. Goorkah campaign. It required all the So that one son may obtain as much moral courage of British soldiers to as half a dozen born of another wife. overcome the chilling influence of the All the sons establish distinct chief. dreary mountain chain, and to sustain ships, and are entirely independent of vigorous warfare in a scene so diseach other; for the Sikhs consider it heartening. Among themselves they “ wrong, and out of the question,” are certainly not deficient in courage, that one brother should have authority and often throw away their lives in over another. Therefore most of the wanton contentions, though they know chiefships would ere this have dwin- that the matter might immediately be dled into mere Zimeendaries, had not settled by reference. The principal their incessant wars, added to their occasions of disputes among themdebaucheries, generally reduced the selves are, respecting the boundaries heirs to one or two. And, if more of villages, acts of violence, thefts existed, contentions destroyed some of committed by the subjects of one on them, or intrigues prevented the en those of another, claims of inheri. joyment of their rights.

tance, also respecting provisions for The same divisions take place in the the females of the deceased. There is shares of horsemen; so that one share not yet so much moral and civil knowis often divided into five or six por- ledge among them, as mutually to retions. If there are no sons or grand spect rights and property. They have sons, the widow or widows succeed. all risen and supported themselves by The chiefs have generally from three the sword; and, before they came unto even five or six wives. But, if the der the protection of the British Go. husband regularly adopted an heir, vernment, power constituted right. who is held in all respects equal to a The introduction of order, and of atson, in this case the widows obtain tention to property and equity, re. provisions only. As widows are not quired all the ability of the agent seallowed to adopt, and succession is lected for that duty, Sir David Ochternot admitted in the female line, the lony; whose accurate and prompt chiefship would, in former times, have judgment, combined with conciliatory been a matter of contention among the conduct, brought them to a better neighbouring powers, or would have sense and estimation of observances fallen to the principal chief, if it had necessary to the maintenance of interbeen one of the subordinate states. In nal tranquillity. like manner the component shares of The Sikh women, in consequence of the inferior estates fall to the head, in their husbands' dissipation and inatfailure of acknowledged heirs. Indeed tention to business, obtain consideraa great part of the country between ble sway, and assume great authority the Jumna and the Sutlug may ere in the management of affairs. They long pass into other hands, from fail- are said to be often faithless to their ure of heirs ; such is the debauchery husbands, and certainly require reof the present chiefs, several of whom straint when widows. This occasions have only one son, and others none. every chief to demand, as a point of The number of widows now in posses honour, authority over his female resion shews the fatal effects of the li- latives, and even over his mother, as a centious lives of the men, who drink check upon their conduct. Hence to excess. Some take an ardent spirit arises great animosity; and the moprepared by themselves with rose-wa- ther and the son are generally at enter, spices, and other ingredients, ac- mity after the decease of the father, cording to their tastes, Others take either on account of the transfer of bung, and opium : and their soldiers her power to the son's wife, or beare said to be plentifully supplied with cause he does not allow her sufficient these stimulants, when on any service. provision, or because he restrains her By these they are wound up to a pitch in her pleasures. The women very of wild blind fury, looking solely to rarely drink any kind of spirits, but

1831.]
The Sikhs.-Celts of Spain,

117 are generally addicted to opium; the swivel-guns, or mounted to convey effect of which, combined with a milk dispatches. He has a great force of diet, they consider salutary after the artillery of all descriptions : this army age of forty. So much do they sup- consists principally of those whom he pose that milk counteracts the baneful has subdued; whose chief, if able and effects of opium, that a woman has worthy to lead them, he generally embeen reported as intending to destroy ploys, or else requires him to furnish herself, who took the latter only. And an effective officer. On such condithat the use of both together is not tions he allows most of those whom injurious, seems to be proved by the he has conquered to continue on their many instances of longevity among possessions, calling them to his stanthe women.

dard as occasion may require. The women's upper deputtah (or dress) is of muslin, or of coarser materials, according to their condition.

Mr. URBAN, Mere, Jan. 30. Their petticoat is of chintz or satin ; THE last number of the Gentleand both of all colours. The upper man's Magazine contains a letter, wrapper of the men is much like the dated at Paris, from your correspondScotch plaids. They seldom wear ent “W. S. B.” on the subject of any clothing under it; they tie it Celtic Civilization. I find much inround their waists and across their formation about the Celts and Celtibodies, rolled in all ways, to be out of berians of Spain, in the “Histoire the way, as occasion may require, for Générale de l'Espagne,” by Depping, action or for warmth.

Paris, 1814. It should be stated that, as the Sikhs. It will be recollected that there were possess the country as conquerors, anciently two distinct races of men in they all live as soldiers; and none of Spain—the Celts and Iberians; and the nation act as artizans or labourers that the Celtiberians were a mixture in any way: they make those whom of these two. But whether the Celts they subdue work for them. Add to of Gaul were descended from those of this brief account of the protected Sikh Spain, or the reverse, is a problem States between the Jumna and the which has never been decidedly solved. Sutlug rivers, over which the British The Celtic Academy of Paris argue Government assumed authority in strongly for the former hypothesis, 1809-10, that all beyond or to the and Masden, a Spaniard, with others, north-west of the Sutlug is indepen- as forcibly for the latter. dent, and now governed by Maha Ra. That the Basque, or Vascuence, was jah Rungeet Sing, a Sikh chieftain, the language of the ancient Celts of whose enterprising and warlike spirit Spain, and that it was widely spread gained him the ascendancy to the In- in the Peninsula, cannot be doubted, dus. He has also taken Cashmere and since we do not find the traces of any other States on the mountain frontier, other distinct language there ; and it greatly extending his dominions also is that which has given names to many to the south. Indeed he is now the cities, rivers, &c. all over the land; greatest potentate in Hindostan; and as may be seen in the “ Alfabeto de has shown himself wise enough not to la lengua primitiva," by Erro y Asoppose the British Government, or to piroz, and in Depping's “ Histoire de interfere where he had not a good l’Espagne," &c. chance of success, or where it might With regard to the civilization of otherwise have been impolitic. His the Spanish Celts, I think it would be army consists of from sixty to eighty found, by a cool and unbiassed investhousand men; more than two-thirds tigation, that it was much above that of which are horsemen. He has five of the “Indians of America” which regiments of infantry, armed, dressed, “W. S. B.” alludes to, and considerand trained in the European Sepoyably below that of the Romans. style. A considerable body of his Strabo says (lib. 3.) that the Turcavalry is also dressed in British cloth, detains of Andalusia passed for the about three thousand, who act as most learned among the Spaniards ; his body-guard; and their horses are that they knew grammar, had annals caparisoned with the same, as also all of six thousand years, and poems and his elephants and camels carrying laws in verse. Now, putting aside

118

On the Civilization of the Spanish Celts. [Feh. the annals of six thousand years with Their food was simple, consisting those of Egypt and China, if knowing partly of nuts and other fruit; and grammar, and having poems and laws the wine which they drank was bought in verse, put the Turdetains above the of trading outcomers : facts which other Spaniards, it put them above the seem to favour the opinion of their Celts of Navarre ; who, we may con- rather low civilization. clude, either had not the knowledge of Their houses were simple but durable. grammar and poetry at all, or had it They had a manner of building them only in a lower degree.

which in some parts of Spain is still Phylarcus (Athen. 2.) calls the Ibe. common. They built the walls with rians 66 dovolwtárous tv avOpw- a mixture of earth and brick, or little

”—the richest of men-alluding stones, and then covered them with to their mines of the precious metals; planks of hard wood. These houses from which it seems that they (and they called hormazos (from the basque we may conclude their neighbours, the horma, a wall), that is, walled houses ; Celts) knew how to work those mines perhaps to distinguish them from some and metals, a knowledge that implies dwellings of a meaner kind. Pliny a rather high degree of civilization.

calls them formacei, and thought, erBut the ancient authors put the roneously, that the word was derived knowledge of metallurgy among the from the Latin forma. These bricks, Spaniards beyond a doubt. In Plin. and planks of wood, however, involve Hist. Nat. lib. xxx., lib. xxxiii., and a knowledge of brick burning, and lib. xxxiv. Diodorus v., and Strabo iii., timber-cutting tools. their manner of working their mines They had a code of laws. For caand metals is partly described. They pital crimes the culprit was stoned, or had a method of giving different

thrown from a rock. (Strabo, lib. iii.) colours to silver. Their steel was

Their amusements were chiefly warmost excellent, and consequently their like exercises ; one of the chief of arms were exceedingly good.' (See which (as appears by their medals and Martial. lib. x. Epigr. 103). The Ro the like) was the bullfight; so that mans borrowed the Spanish sword the supposition of its originating from from them. (Tit. Liv. lib. viii. and the Roman sports of the amphitheatre Polyb. lib. vi.), and it would be no is wrong. bad weapon to be taken as a pattern

Their religion must have been much by a people of such a warlike genius

F a warlike cenius like that of the Gauls and Britons ; as the Romans. They struck medals rocking stones, cromlechs, and the like, and money, of which as much as two being found in Spain as well as in thousand pieces has been found at France and England. once. But they might or might not

Depping draws some conclusions have learnt the art of working metals

about the civilization of the Celts of from the Phænicians.

Spain, from the Basque language ; The men occupied themselves in the which, he observes, is regular, forcible, exercises of war, and left tillage to and harmonious, founded on logic and the women : which seems to prove sound reason; is not a jargon, but a that they were in a rather low state of language of which the principles will civilization, and that they did not undergo the most rigorous analysis ; work their mines very extensively till and that we may conclude that the after the incoming of the Phænicians : Spanish nation attained, at an early for, if warlike exercises kept them from

time, to a certain degree of civilization. following agriculture, it most likely

This inference, however, may be false; kept them from other arts. However, for the construction of a language does the custom of leaving field labour 'to not depend on civilization; the Spaniards the women is found in some parts of were civilized very early indeed, if Spain even now. Larruga, a Spanish they were so before they had formed a writer, blames it very strongly; ob- language. serving that, while the women are in

The basque word for 1000 is milla, the field, many of the men are spends from the Latin mille, which seems to ing their time in idleness, “ en las indicate that before the incoming of plazas y otras diversiones.” Many of the Romans they had not frequent the medals represent their agricultural need to express that number, and that, tools.

consequently, they had not much cul. They wore woollen and linen clothes. tivated the mathematical sciences.

W. BARNES.

1831.] Celts in Spain.- Patriotic Verses by Rev. W. Birch. 119

There are, it seems, in the Basque, is not a jargon, and Russian is not a compositions on poetical prose,-pro- jargon; because these languages are bably bard-songs, like Ossian's poems, self-enriched and consistent, and their

—and others in metre and rhyme; derivative words can be analysed into which seems to confirm the opinion of simple etymons of their own. the existence of Celtic literature,

Yours, &c. The state of Roman refinement, as compared with the habits of the Celti Mr. URBAN, berians, is given by Martial, lib. x. I KNOW you will not be displeased Epigr. 65. An eagle and a dove, a lion to insert the following verses, written and a deer, he says, are not so unlike in a truly national spirit, at the time of as were the hardy Spaniard and the the universally tyrannising domination soft Roman.

under Bonaparte, Great Britain alone Among the curious monuments of excepted from it. They were comSpain, was once a rocking-stone in posed by the late Rev. Walter Birch, the port of Mongia; it was of enormous Rector of Stanway, Essex; and spoken size, cut in the form of a ship, with at The Encænia at Oxford, by Mr. masts and sails; and placed on a rock Smith, Demy of Magdalen College, on that rose out of the water. A great Friday, July 6, 1810.

H. B. number of oxen (says Molina, a Spanish

Genius, or Muse! or, if thy sacred claim writer that has described it) could not

Be some yet loftier, some diviner name ;

Be derange this heavy mass ; and yet a Felt in the solemn, soul-evnobling hour, push of the hand would make it rock When Plato reason'd in th' Athenian bower ; as easily as a bit of wood swimming Felt in the Pythian and Olympian fane, on the water. If this could be proved The vaulted roof re-echoing Pindar's strain; to be of Celtic origin, it would show Thou, in all climes, where Freedom stands that they had considerable knowledge

enshrin'd, of navigation ; but in examining sub And wakes to mightiest energies the mind, jects connected with the civilization of In the calm classic shade art wont to dwell; the ancient Spaniards, it is difficult to And hallowest oft the Student's vightly ceil decide what is originally Spanish, and

With hovering gleam of orient splendour, what was borrowed from the Phæni.

shed

Full on the Poet's, on the Sage's head; cians, Greeks, and Romans.

As in these twilight groves,and cloisters hoar, It may be questioned whether the Thy pure empyreal radiance dawn'd of yore, ancient inhabitants of Celtic Spain, On Hooker's brows in lambent glory shune, Gaul, Britain, and Ireland, were fa. Or beam'd angelic grace on Adilison. milies of the same nation. The High- Sure, now, as in her best and brightest landers and Irish are we know; and

hours, so were the Gauls and Britons. But Thou sit'st exulting on Oxonia's towers ; the Basque language is very unlike Sure, o'er the much-lov'd scene thy guarthe Welch, and that very different from

dian eye the Gaelic. The patronymics of those

Glows, as of old, with sacred ectasy;

And bails the rising years, whilst all around languages are examples of it; the pa

Peals of applause to Grenville's name retronymic of the Gaelic is mac; as

sound, Adam, mac Adam ; of the Welch ap as

And many a voice, and many a votive lay, Howel. ap Howel: and of the Basque, With happiest presage greet this festal day. ez (adopted in Spanish), as Sancho, Fly hence, Despondence! fly, ye Fears, Sanchez.

away,

[day!" I cannot conclude, without observ. That darkly whisper, “ Clos'd is England's ing, that I think M. de Fortia (quoted Still to these fanes, devote to virtuous truth, by your correspondent), a little too Lo ! crond, in mingling tribes, the British loud a praiser of old times, when he

youth;

[lore ; lays down his hypothesis of universal Drink the deep draught of ancient Freedom's falling off from civilization, and states

Her living form, Britannia's boast, adore ; that the ancient languages were su

Muse on high thoughts, and give the flame perior to one another according to

That fir'd a Falkland's or a Windham's soul; their early or late origin; and that P

Pale Papic, and his boding cry, disdain ; they are all superior to our modern

rn Sweep the loud strings, and pour a nobler

Sween the loud stripes, and jargons. If by jargons he means

strain. French, English, and a few other cor. What, tho' yon wide-o'erwhelming cloud rupted dialects, the observation may

of war have some truth in it; but High Dutch With Stygian gloom comes rolling from afar;

to roll

120 Newspapers.—" Female." Anagram on William IV. (Feb. Tho' dire Despair and Slavery's lurid form yet I believe it does not support even Triumphant ride the desolating storm;

one journal of any description, whilst And, as the lightning's vollied vengeance in America, a country which has been fies,

appropriately said to be “ rotten beGroans of an agonizing world arise ;

fore it is ripe,” they abound in such Still, on her firm foundations towering high

numbers as to outstrip calculation. Of pure Religion, Reason, Liberty, In majesty serene shall Britain stand,

By the Gentleman's Magazine for Her banner waving to each injur'd laud :

1731, it appears the number of news. Still, on the frowning cliff her trident wield, papers then printed in England was Or elevate her broad impassive shield,

40; in America 2: in England, by the And shine, amidst this awful night of fate, same authority, the number has now Guardian august of all that's fair and great. increased to 100, and, according to Hers is the noble ardour in the chase the tables of M. Balbï, the periodical Of Honour's meed, and Glory's generous works of all descriptions now pub. race;

[joia'd; lished in the United States only Hers modest worth with matchless courage

ceed six hundred! The high, heroic, independent mind, That just, aor studious of itself alone,

The word “ female” has become a Reveres all others' claims, but knows her own.

vast "favourite with the persons who Lo! on the glorious Form attendant seen write in newspapers, who generally Two kindred graces of celestial mien! use it as a noun. An affectation of Bounty, like Morn, as in the vernal sky delicacy seems to have produced this, She dawos, and wakes the woodland melody; although in reality the expression is And Charity, upon whose balmy breast extremely indelicate. The word is in An infant Negro, smiling, sinks to rest.

fact an adjective, and the wise men of Hail! Britain, hail! ordaio'd of Heaven

Gotham who use it in the now common to prove Hope of the world, her wonder, and her love:

method, might as well talk of a young, Thou refuge of the virtuous, brave, and free,

or a great, without the accompanying Beats there a generous heart, it beats fur

noun, as of “ an interesting female," thee.

without adding" of the human species,” O'er many a famous clime though Freedom to let us know that they are not talkroam,

(home; ing of an ape or a bonassus. Thine she proclaims her country, thine her The following anagram on the name happier hour,

“William the Fourth,” is not a strictly Thine the dread source, from whence, in The fervid life-blood shall resistless pour

legitimate one, inasmuch as some of In refluent ride through Europe's palsied

the letters are made use of more than frame;

once. But the declaration they are Shall raise her head from misery and shame, the means of making, is so cheering, And give her life and health, and liberty, that I have thought it worthy of a and fame. *

place in my scraps : it is as follows :

-" William the Fourth"-" I will SCRAPS FROM A Note-Book.-No.II.

reform the Lawforthwith, without Hurt.NEWSPAPERS have been pro

The present system of naming the nounced, by a distinguished political

towns in our colonies and new settlecharacter, the “ best possible public

ments, is a very bad one. Generally instructors.” The correctness of this

the pithy epithet “ New" is tacked to assertion, however, may well be doubt

the name of some well-known town in ed, when it is recollected that the ca-,

the mother-country, and the thing is pital of the best instructed (generally)

done. Sometimes even this ceremony country in Europe, Scotland, does

is not observed, but the aspiring young not maintain a single daily journal,

city in embryo, figures under the apwhile, on the contrary, the Metropolis

pellation of Liverpool, York, &c. withof Ireland, the land unhappily so deeply

out the slightest addition or distincsunk in ignorance and superstition,

tion. This is a very miserable mode has to boast of several. We are told

of proceeding, and likely to be protoo, that the inhabitants of Iceland

ductive of much confusion, especially are a remarkably well-informed people,

to the future historian. Yet all this is

easily obviated. The history and lite* The writer of these verses was in

rature of Britain can certainly furnish debted to his friend the Rev. Wm. Digby, a sufficient number of names for a cenPrebendary of Worcester, for the five con tury or two to come. It is true, the duding lines.

names of eminent statesmen and war

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