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Review.-Hamilton's Progress of Society.

151 “The necessary or ordinary expenses of earning any thing, how is it possible the labouring part of the community in that they can be duly maintained upon Britain, including men, women, and chil

only 221. 10s.? and if this family be dren, may be taken at six pence a day, or doubled, as is sometimes the case, the pine pounds a year each.p. 101.

income of each will be only between “ As the labouring part of the commu

21. and 3l. per annum. pity seldom accumulate much wealth, their annual earnings are nearly equal to their “ To persons in these circumstances food annual outgoings. This we have stated at is the principal article of expense. Accordnine pounds a year each. If a family con- ing to Sir Frederick Eden, it amounts to sist of five persons, a man, his wife, two three-fourths of the whole. The income of children, and an infant, their aggregate ex- a labourer is burthened with a part of the pense amounts to forty-five pounds. If the taxes, which supply the national revenue. man gain eighteen pence a day for three He pays little in direct taxation, but he hundred working days, his wages amount pays indirectly in the price of beer, leather, to twenty-two pounds ten shillings in the candles, soap, tobacco, and other articles.” year."-p. 103.

Now if we take, as here stated, the The net income of the different minimum of expense for such a fa

fa- classes, excluding professional men, mily to be 45l. per annum, and the Dr. Hamilton nakes to be the followwife and children to be incapable of ing: Proprietors of land, gross income

£.55,000,000 Deduct tithes, poor's rates, and other local taxes, £.10,000,000, and land-tax, £.1,200,000


p. 104.



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Amount of public burthens

67,000,000 Deduct the part which falls upon the national creditors, public officers, and clergy

. 9,000,000




Amount of national income

(pp. 115, 116.) In p. 113, Dr. Hamilton assumes that there are ten millions of labourers

and their families, whose income at gl. per head, amounts to 90,000,000,

per head.


Review.-Hamilton's Progress of Society. [Feb. out of which deduct 10,000,000 taxes, cabbages. The tithe-owner then reremainder is 80,000,000, to which add ceives six cabbages or pence instead of poor's rates, 6,000,000, making 86,000, three, and thus levies a new tax upon 000, and leaving only 4,000,000 de- the capital (i. e. the manure) which ficient, to complete the 90,000,000 has caused the increase. But does requisite for their maintenance at gl. this rise of lithe depress agriculture?

Most certainly not, unless it can be According, therefore, to these state- proved that a inan who can gain nine ments, the funds requisite for support- parts out of ten will forego these being the poor are nearly tantamount 10 cause he grudges the odd ienth? Ifa the demand. But here lies the rub. It man expends his capital in any comhas been before shown that a family of mercial transaction whatever, he pays five persons ought to have 45l. per ann, as much more in customs, excise, or (5 x 9=45); but instead of this, if other taxes to the State, as the farmer four out of the five earn nothing, then does in regard to the increase of tithe, the utmost a labourer can make by and if he did not pay it to the parson, working at 18d. a day, will only he would to the landlord in the addiamount to 221. 10s. per annum, leav- tional amount of rent. It is very true ing him in want of a full half of a that there ought to be no tax whatever competent support. If luxurious ha- upon capital expended to increase probits be added, ihe want will be further duction, and it is frequently guarded aggravated.

against by leases. Nevertheless, why As to the other point of public in- is an inevitable circumstance common terest, ihe education of the poor, Dr. to every kind of improved property, Hamilton shows us, from the example ascribed to tithes in particular? It of Scotland, its good effect, and he might be supposed that people made says, in reference to those with whom such improvements not for their own the education has been carried as high benefit or pleasure, but for that of as Mechanics’ Institutes and similar others. Do not the very improvers societies for diffusion of knowledge, themselves endeavour to gain from the

“We have never observed that persons public far more than they themselves of this character were less diligent than are called upon to pay, in consequence others in their ordinary occupations, and of their improvements ? they are seldom or never addicted to intem- In p. 252, Dr. Hamilton has a chapperance."-p. 251.

ter upon the “ Effect of Numbers in a No truth is more manifest, than State." Here we shall notice the misthat the farmer gains more by paying take of those who suppose that the evil a composition to the clergyman for can be cured by breaking up fresh land. his tithes, than he would if he paid It has been before shown that a lathat assessment in the form of increased bourer with a wise and three children rent to his landlord, together with a can earn only 221. 10s. per annum. government impost for the support of Unless, therefore, bis income can be the Church. It is, we repeat utterly raised to 45l. per annum, it is to no impossible to get rid of the payment of purpose. To make the position good, tithe in some form or other; and we it ought to be shown that such emare exceedingly surprised to see such a ployment upon a new soil will aug. man as Dr. Hamilton was, losing sight ment his wages to the amount desired. in p. 167, of this palpable faci, and Whereas, instead of doing this, it will treating the payment as if it was capa- only multiply the labouring class, and ble of utter extinction.

of course make more paupers. Labour As Dr. Hamilton proceeds, he makes, never rises to a fair and adequate mainas do others, tithe to be a tax upon ca- tenance price in over peopled counpital, and the position is marshalled in tries, and emigration is the only means an algebraic array of indicatory letters of preserving society in a state of welland figures. The simplification of all being. this parade is as follows: A has a plot We cannot take leave of this work of ground, upon which he raises thirty without again reverting to the state of cabbages, worth say one penny each. the labourer before alluded to. It The tithe-owner takes his tenih, viz. seems clear that the ninely millions is three cabbages, or three pence. A sufficient for the support of len milthen manures the said plot, and has an lions of labourers at gl. a head per anincreased crop to the amount of sixty num; but that the women and chil

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1831.) REVIEW.-Nicolas's Expenses of Elizabeth of York. 153 dren commonly act as a dead weight, the distribution of alms on her journeys ; for want of employ; and thus, that for the maintenance of her daughter the their respective portions of gl. each, Queen of Scots, for whose use clothes and are lost to the father of the family, musical instruments were repeatedly purwho is obliged to maintain thein out chased; for repairs of Baynard's Castle ; of his own personal share, the gl. and for gifts at christeninys; for setting anwhat he can add to it by the ne plus bonfires ; for gratuities to old servants, to

thems and carols at Christmas ; for making ultra of his exertions, and a bounty the King's painter, and to others who had from poor's rates. We do not profess done any thing acceptable to her; for minto offer a remedy for this state of ihings, strels; for the support of children which but we are sure that by whatever means,

were presented to ber; for the trifling whether by emigration or profitable losses she incurred at cards, dice, and the employ, children are taken off their tables ; for boat-hire ; for the attendance parents' hands, the poor are most es- of physicians and apothecaries, and for mesentially beneficed.

dicine ; for the wages of priests, and for

making nuns and a monk, &c."-p. cii. Privy-purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York: The same custom of mean persons

Wardrobe Accounts of Edward the Fourth, continually making trifling presents to With a Memoir of Elizabeth of York, and their superiors, and even the Sovereign, Notes. By Nicholas Harris Nicolas, Esq. which we noticed in Henry the Eighth's 8vo. Pp. 378. Pickering.

accounts, is equally displayed in the THE utility of this species of re

present : cord was exemplified in our last number (p. 53), by much important infor- received, nor was any person deemed too

“ Nothing was too contemptible to be mation derived from the Privy.purse humble to be permitted to testify his respect Expenses of Henry the Seventh, intro- in this manner. Among the articles preduced in the Excerpta Historica. The sented to Elizabeth were fish, fruit, fowls, present work is ediied upon the same puddings, tripe, a crane, woodcocks, a poplan as the Privy-purse Expenses of pinjay, quails, and other birds, pork, rabHenry the Eighth, published in 1828, bits, Lanthony cheeses, pease-cods, cakes, with which it forms a correspondent a wild boar, malmsey wine, Aowers, chiefly solume.

roses, bucks, sweetmeats, rose-water, a These accounts of Queen Elizabeth cushion, and a pair of clarycords, a kind of of York extend only over one year,

virginal.”—p. ci. 1502, which was the last of her life; Rewards were given in return, and but the valuable illustrations they al- “the dovation, though generally proford of the manners, arts, and manu- portionate to the article given, was factures of the age, in addition to va. sometimes of


value." rious points of historical interest, will The total amount expended in the be apparent from the Editor's own year to which these accounts relate was summary of their contents :

34111. 5s. 9d. The highest salary “ The disbursements were for servants' of the Queen's ladies was 331. 6s. 8d. wages ; for preparing apartments for her and the lowest 51. For the diet of her Majesty when she removed from one place two nephews and niece, two female to another; for conveying her clothes and servauts, and a groom, only 135. 4d. a necessary furniture; for messengers; for week were allowed ; and when Lord the repairs of her barge, and the pay of the Edward Courtenay died, the allowance bargemen; for her chairs and litters; for

was reduced to gs. Their clothes were the purchase of household articles; for pilks, satins, damask, cloth of gold, velvet, separately provided ; and, as a specie

men of the manner in which the ac, linen, gowos, kirtles, petticoats, for her

counts are kept, we quote the followown use, or the use of the ladies whom she maintained; for jewellery, trappings for ing, entry relative to these high-born

children. horses, furs, gold chains, &c.; for the charges of her stable and greyhounds; for the sa- “ It'm, the xth day of Juyn to Robert laries of her ladies ;' for annuities to her Hed of London, tailloure, for making of sisters, and the entire support of the chil- twoo cooles of blake chamlet for my youg dren of Katherine Lady Courtenay; for the Lordes Henry Courtney and Edward Courtclothing and board of her fool ; for her nu

ney, at ijs. the coote, iiijs. ayenst Christmas merous offerings, and other demands for

Bono xvjmo. It'm, for making of twoo cootes religious purposes, principally in sendiug of blake velvet for the same yong lordes persons on pilgrimages in her name ; for aganst Estre thao next ensuyng iijs. deliGent. Mag. February, 1831.

15+ Review.-Nicolas's Expenses of Elizabeth of York. [Feb. verd by William Bailly. It'm, for making cited in their favour, was induced to of twoo cootes of blake chamlet the same court popularity by solemnly promising tyme for the said lordes deliverd by Elys them his protection, and a sufficient Hiltone, iiijs. . .

xijs. provision.* The words of this engageThe younger son, Lord Edward, is ment, to which he swore before ine not named in the Peerages, and his

Lords spiritual and temporal, and the existence is first shown by these ac

Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London, counts. He died July 13, 1502 ; and

are preserved, and therein his nieces the Queen paid the expenses of his

are simply designated as “ the doughfuneral (probably at Havering in Es

ters of Dame Elizabeth Gray, lale callsex, where the children were nursed), ing her selff Quene of England, that

is to wit, Elizabeth, Cecill, Anne, 41. 188. 4d. As an introduction to the volume Sharon Turner remarks, that “there

Kateryn, and Briggille;" on which Mr. are given biographical notices of all the children of Edward the Fourth by power in not calling them Princesses

was indeed an unworthy jealousy of Queen Elizabeth Wydeville, and an

in his oath, and in the idea of marelaborate memoir of Queen Elizabeth rying them as private gentlewomen of York. To the former a correspon- merely.” Now the fact was, that dent of our own has furnished some

“ The marriage of their mother had just important additions, which were print. before been declared invalid, and they based in our last number, pp. 23—25. tardized, by the Act of Settlement; hence, Both articles, in the words of the pre- if Richard'had styled them · Priucesses,' or face,“ present new facts, and it is treated them in any other way than as pripresumed correct many important er- vate gentlewomen, he would have contrarors, in the history of the reigns of dicted the Act of Parliament, and have imRichard the Third and Henry the Se- peached his own title to the Crown." -p.xlii. venih."

With the same genealogical pene. It would be too much to assert that tration Mr. Nicolas suggests, that, if genealogists make the best historians; the Duke of Buckingham, as his first yet it is certain that no historian can motive for rebellion, entertained (as be a master of his subject, especially it is probable he did) a hope of allainduring the dominion of feudal arrange- ing the Crown bimself, his claim was ments, who does not keep constantly founded upon his descent from Thomas in view the ties of family descent, re- of Gloucester, the youngest son of Edlationship, and connection; and en- ward the Third; and not, as suggested deavour io inform himself with accu. in the apocryphal speech ascribed to racy of the dates when changes took him by the chronicler Grafton, upon place in those circumstances, whether his mother's being the heiress of the by births, marriages, or deaths, or by house of Beaufort, since it is highly the less obvious processes of legitima. improbable he should ever have been tion, betrothings, attainders, or resto ignorant of the superior claims of his rations in blood. That constant vigi- cousin, the Countess of Richmond, Jance in these particulars is necessary, the heiress of the elder evident, when we find Mr. Sharon p. xxxvi. Turner, an historian who is allowed Regarding the marriage which the the merit of unusual research, falling historianst of Richard the Third have into erroneous conclusions from its all hinted that he proposed with Eli. non-observance. The instance is this. zabeth of York, Mr. Nicolas considers After Queen Elizabeth Wydeville and it improbable that he entertained such her five daughters had lain for ten a project, as several political objections months in sanctuary, during the first would militate against it; in which year of King Richard's reign, the usur- view we coincide. The objections of per, observing the general symi pathyes. the illegality of such an union, and the


** All things requisite and necessary for their exibicion and findings as my kynnes

The term “ exhibition " is now applied only to the other sex, and confined, we believe, to the Universities.-For “th' exhibicion and finding of the said dane Elizabeth Gray" the sum of doc marks was allowed, that is 4661. 135. 4d.; which is misprinted 2661. 135. 4d. in p. xl, and 2331, in p. Ixxvii.

+ Among these writers (pp. xlvi. and l.) Sir Thomas More should not have been included, as his history breaks off in the middle of the Duke of Buckingham's business.

The only



1831.) Review.-Nicolas's Expenses of Elizabeth of York.

155 disgust which it might have created, sion for her support ; that in 1486 she the author is inclined to combat: was Prince Arthur's godmother, and

“The Pope not only might, but often present at his christening at Winchesdid, authorize the marriage of uncles and ier; that in Nov. 1487, Henry was nieces; and where would have been the willing that she should become the crime, if Richard, as a son of the Church wise of the King of Scots; and that of Rome, had sought to fortify his throne, she was present at court when her and prevent a civil war, by availing himself daughter gave audience to the French of an indulgence which then, as now, is ambassador in Nov. 1489. held in all Catholic countries to be strictly mention of Bermondsey Abbey is in legal? It is true that in England relatives so closely connected seldom married; and lodging within that monastery, he

her will; it is presumed she was then excepting under urgent circumstances, nuight not have been wise to deviate so

cause the Abbot was witness to the much from the general custom ; but all

instrument; but she gives “ directions which is contended is, that an act which

which indicate that she would be inwas not unusual in other countries, which terred wherever she might desire, and was not forbidden by the common law, and that her funeral would be conducted, which could be rendered lawful in the eyes not like that of a disgraced prisover, of the Church, might have been contem- but according to her elevated rank.” plated by Richard the Third, without ren- “Her not having any property to bedering him the incestuous monster he has queath, arose from her interest in her been represented." - p. xlv.

income and lands being for life only.” We are not sufficiently informed on It appears that when the MSS. Jately this subject, to know whether this li- transferred from the Royal Society ió beriy, which in more recent times has the British Museum are arranged, indeed been 100 cominon in ihe Royal account of her funeral, and of the at. houses of ihe Romish communion, was tention and kindness of her daughters in the fifteenth century " not unusual to her in her illness,” will be accesin other countries,” at the same time sible.-P. Ixxx. when consanguinity so much more At the same time that Henry's bedistant required the papal dispensation haviour towards his wife and motherto legalise marriage; but when it is in-law is by investigation relieved from stated that it “seldom” happened in opprobrium, it is undeniable that, beEngland, we think the words .. if ever" fore he would conclude the marriage, might have been safely added, as we he took every possible care that he never heard of a single instance. should be in no wise considered as in

From the cenour of various entries debied for the throne to his intended in these accounts, and those of Henry union with the heiress of York, but VII., and the inquiries to which they that the right should be acknowledged have led, Mr. Nicolas finds no reason as entirely vested in himself. Sensible to suppose that Henry was either un- that his title by descent was too defec. kind to his wife, or severe to her mo- tive to be relied on,* rather than derive ther; both which charges were not any title from his bride, he put for. discredited by any writer before the ward that of conquest, declaring, in his recent work of Dr. Lingard. With first speech to parliament, that it was regard to Queen Elizabeth Wydeville as well by just hereditary title as by historians have been contented to state, the sure judgment of God, which was that she passed her latter years in a manifested by giving him the victory in melancholy seclusion, approaching to the held over his enemy.” Although imprisonnent, at Bermondsey Abbey; the Parliament, in their act of Settlebui, on collecting the remaining pare ment, took no notice of this, contenta ticulars of her history, after her daugh. ing themselves with declaring the inter's marriage, it appears that the King heritance of the Crown to be in the at different times made proper provi- person of “our now + Severeign Lord

* A favourable point in Henry's title has been recently discovered, namely, that in the original patent of Legitimation to the Beauforts (which, as it was ratified by Parliament, Parliameot alone could alter), the exception of inheritance to the Kingdom does not occur; the worils " excepta dignitate regali" being inserted only by the caution of Henry the Fourth, in his confirmatiou, ten years after. See the Excerpta Historica, p. 153. But it is extremely doubtful if Henry himself was aware that his maternal pedigree was free from the defect so confidently ascribed to it." -Memoir of Elizabeth of York, p. Ix.

+ By a very urforkers, or of the press, this word is in p. Ixii. misprinted “new."

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