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NOTES ON THE EXCAVATIONS FOR THE NEW LONDON BRIDGE.
(Resumed from p. 197.) LONDON was formerly furnished sult. What then could be this wall, with a wall and towers on the south of which the honest monk so confiside, but the mighty fish-abounding dently speaks? The information which Thames in its flux and reflux to and I have liberally received from an infrom the sea, has undermined and telligent eye witness, t who has accuthrown them down. Such is the sub- rately noted every thing that appearstance of Fitz Stephen's assertion re. ed most worthy of remark in the prolative to the ancient boundary of Lon- gress of the works of the new London on the river side. * This early don Bridge, and who may I hope one Chronicler of the City's fame was born day give them in a detailed form to in the time of King Stephen, wrote in the respectable and useful Society of the reign of Henry II. and died A. D. which he is a member, will I think 1191, under that of Richard I. He enable us to draw a pretty strong conwas therefore likely enough to have clusion concerning the nature of Fitz heard by tradition that such a fortifi. Stephen's wall. cation of the southern side of the City In the deep excavations which have had existed in the Roman times; and been made for the land arches of the a massy vallum reared by that nation new London Bridge across Thamesdid certainly I believe exist ; not, how- street, and through the site of St. ever, to be ruined and swept away by Michael's Church, Crooked-lane, three the assaults of Neptune and Father distinct lines of embankment have Thames, but to repel their insults, and been discovered at about twenty feet confine their sway within due bounds. depth below the present surface of the
This vallum was not a wall in the streets. The first, on the spot now ocaccepted meaning of the latter word cupied by the south abutment of the in our language. Vallum in the La. Thames-street land arch, was comtin tongue may be extended, I con- posed of piles of oak and fir, and was ceive, to mean any rampire formed by backed with a quantity of Madrepore, piles or stakes; in short, any bulwark which had been brought, I suppose, (vallum), vallutum, vallis, between all by ships as ballast, and thrown against which words there is an easy and ob- the piles in that situation as rubbish vious connexion. Now had Fitz Ste. to fill up a vacant space. The second phen's vallum or wall been of stone, line of embankment was formed under it is natural to suppose, from the well- the north pier of the same land arch, known durability of ancient masonry, and consisted of huge trunks of oak that some traces of its foundations trees, very roughly squared by the would have been from time to time axe, against which had been nailed, or discovered in the prosecution of such rather spiked, the sort of sheathing public works as have necessarily used in facing wharfs, usually I be. made a section of the north bank of lieve called camp sheathing, but of the Thames to the low water mark; the most ponderous and substantial nay, which have probed the very bed character. There was yet a third emof the river, but without any such re- bankment seventy feet inwards of this
• Similiterque ab avstro Londonia turrita et murata fuit, sed fluvius maximus piscosus Thamesis mari' in fuo refluoque qui illàc allabitur, mænia illa tractu temporis alluit, labefactavit, dejecit.-Gulielm. Stephanides, De Firmitate Urbis.
+ W. Knight, esg. F.S.A. sub-architect of the New London Bridge,
Excavations for the New London Bridge. (May, last, that is still more northward, the would necessarily require, as ground structure of which was not so massive was gradually gained, successive emand substantial. Now the first line, bankments. A strong proof of this is from the circumstance of the Madre that the soil of the present Thamespore, was without doubt a compara street is that of a quagmire, and that tively modern work; the second was, hundreds of loads of solid materials I apprehend, constructed by the Ro- have been sunk in it, * before the able mans, and no other than that very architects of the new London Bridge vallum or bulwark, of which a vague would venture to place their abutments tradition had reached Fitz Stephen's upon such a suspicious foundation. + time; the third or innermost consti It is very natural to suppose that tuted, I suppose, a yet earlier line of the operations which have been cardefence against the waters, which ried on in the bed of the river Thames were reduced by degrees to their pre for the construction of the new Bridge, sent bounds by the conquerors and would bring to light some testimony civilizers of nations.
of a circumstantial nature, of the sackDugdale, indeed, in his Treatise on ing of London by the spirited BoadiEmbanking and Draining, with the cea, or Bonduca, wife of Prasutagus, strongest appearance of truth, sur. King of the Iceni. While the proflimises that the embanking of our prin- gate, the impious Nero was celebratcipal rivers was an operation of the ing his juvenilia on account of his first Romans, who were most enterprising being shaved! causing the hairs of his engineers. Now Llyn Dinas, ancient beard to be put into a golden box, Lyndun, or London, the Hill Town and consecrating them, ridiculously on the Lake, must before the embank- enough, to Jupiter Capitolinus, makment of the Thames have peculiarly ing the aged attend the feasts of this justified that appellation, I speak ra- farce, and join in the dance with the ther in confirmation of this idea than young ;-whilst he was singing as a claiming it as original. On the east harper, the fable of Acis and the Bacside it had low marshy grounds, which chantes, applauded by five thousand every flood tide must have submerged, soldiers, stationed for the purpose in and the southern boundary of the the theatre, who saluted him incombroad expanse of waters which lay at parable Cæsar, Apollo Pythicus; 1the foot of this slight eminence must whilst he was engaging the Imperial have been the hills of Peckham, Cam. City in these diversions, the disho. berwell, and New Cross near Dept. noured and incensed Queen of the ford : thus unconfined and unob. lceni, at the head of one hundred and structed in its progress, the flood tide twenty thousand of her countrymen, would not only spread over a large advanced to the ravage of the princisurface, but from having no deep and pal Roman colonies in the neighbourcompact column of water flowing from hood of her dominions, by fire and west to east to contend with, would sword. rise much higher than at present. As The historians Tacitus and Dio the Romans proceeded with the work usher in their accounts of this insurof embanking the Thames, this resist. rection with the relation of prodigies ing column was created ; the channel which occurred at Camelodunum preof the river, confined to a smaller cursive of the event, as if it were a space, deepened itself by the action matter of too fearful importance to be and reaction of its tides, and the wa- passed over in an ordinary way. Thus ters, which had formerly at high floods we hear of howlings and lamentations nearly laved the site of the Monu- in the empty theatre, of phantom ment' now on Fish-street Hill, were coursers, and the appearance of a degradually fenced out, which operation stroyed colony in the neighbouring
* Din, the same as Dinas, a city. Its primary signification is a fortified hill or mount ; hence the Roman terminations Dinum, Dinium, and Dunum. Dun in the Irish signifies a fort.-See Antig. Ling. Britann. Thesaurus, by Thos. Richards. + Information of W. Koight, esq. F.S.A.
Dion. Cassius, by Xiphilin. § Jam primum uxor Boodicea verberibus affecta et filiæ stupro violatæ sunt. Tacit. Annal. lib. xiv, p. 360. edit. Elzevir.
1831.) New London Bridge.-St, Saviour's Church. 389 æstuary.* Shakspeare has finely am- This I cannot think they are justified plified on similar circumstances in his in doing, but I have little doubt that Julius Cæsar :
on the utter devastation of the open “ A lioness hath whelped in the streets,
town Londinium by Boadicea, the And graves have yawn'd and yielded up their mass of the Roman population redead!
moved to the Southwark side, and Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds, that for a long period this suburb Jo ranks and squadrons, and right form of existed in comparative superior imwar,
portance by the ruin of its opposite Which drizzled blood upon the capitol!" neighbour.' In the name South wark,
In this revolt, which was at length i. e. south work, I may also incisubdued by the generalship of Sueto. dentally mention, that I think we have tonius Paulinus, Camelodunum, Veru. recorded the embankment which was lam, and London were sacked, and above necessarily raised on this spot by the seventy thousand Romans or their al. Romans, to keep out the waters of lies put to death with all the cruelty the Thames. of studied tortures. Such of the af. Allow me, Mr. Urban, before I confrighted Romans as were able to re- clude, to say a few words with regard move would naturally seek refuge on to the rumoured removal of the Lady the opposite shores of the river, into Chapel at the east end of St. Saviour's which much of their treasure and Church, which would be indeed an household goods was probably thrown; act of the grossest barbarism, and in accordingly the bottom of the Thames violation of every principle of taste or in the late excavations has afforded common sense. Had this appendage images of household gods, silver of the 13th century no other plea but keys, coins of Nero, and a closely its interior beauty, that would be sufparticular observation of the greater ficent to save it, but, added to this, it part of the relics and coins disco. has important historical associations, vered, † would I think be found which I need not particularize, dear further to confirm this suggestion, to every member of the Protestant This great calamity of the Roman co- community. The removal of the lonists may serve also to explain the Chapel of Bishop Andrews was judimarks of a dense population in the cious,-let the traces of the aperture Roman times, which have been found which was broken through for that in the borough of Southwark ; t to edifice be effaced, and let the Lady such an extent indeed as to induce Chapel resume its primitive external some antiquaries to transfer ancient appearance of four high pointed roofs, Londinium to that side of the water. twelve lancet windows united in
* I think I am justified in understanding that the Camelodunum mentioned by Dio and Tacitus, must have been some place in the immediate neighbourhood of an arm of the sea, and not very remote from the Straits of Calais. I apprehend it is rightly placed, by Camden and others, in Essex. Let any one examine the 9th Iter of Antoninus, from Venta Icenorum, the capital of the Iceni, to London, and he will see that Camelodunum would by that route be in the line of march of Bonduca from her capital on London. Notwithstanding the obvious pretensions of Maldon drawn from the affinity of its name, I should be inclined to agree with those who fix it at Colchester, where such numerous vestiges of Roman antiquity exist. There was certainly, I believe, another Camelodunum in the West, which may have increased the perplexity of antiquaries on this contested point.
t I have in my possession one of Nero, 3d brass, found in the new Bridge works; obverse, Nero.. ........ Reverse, the temple of Janus ; a square building, one side seen in perspective, in which is a gate closed. Legend, JANVM CLVSIT PACE POR: (i. e. Populo Romano,) VBIQ.PARTA.-S. C. I have also a silver key, found deep in the bed of the river at the same place, which has been already engraved in your vol. xcvii. i. p. 17.
I la the late excavations for the Southwark approaches of the new Bridge, one of the labourers told me they found Roman coins much more plentiful than on the London side, to use his own expression, " as thick as hops.”
& Mr. Knight, who has in the most friendly manner imparted to me several curious particulars relative to the excavations, has furnished me with a singular fact relative to the demolition of the old houses near this Chapel. Under the ground floor of one of these, they discovered four uncoffined human skeletons, probably of persons murdered in the notorious Winchester Stews. Mr. Knight possesses the jaw-bone of one of these, evidently of a young adult, being furnished with a most beautiful and perfect row of teeth.
392 Mining temp. Henry VIII.-Parliamentary Surveys. (May, a debt upon the Hospital,) was ex- of the Kinges mynde in Suff by the Kinges pended on repairs.
commaundement certefyed, &c. for their The two other papers are of less in costes and charges, and also for their wagis, terest; the first being an acknowledg
an acknowledo. werkiage, and laboringe there in the sayde
wer ment from the ten Beadswomen of the
mynde or myndes, for their finall dispaich receipt of their quarter salary, dated se
hether, vjli. xiijs. iiijd. 26 Dec. 1699, signed with their names, The above excerpts are made from and the other a petition of the upper a Household Book of Henry in the overseers and ancient inhabitants of library of the Royal Society, MS. the Hospital and precinct thereof, to Norf. 97, ff. 38, b. 39, b. and 35, and the Earl of Feversham, Master, de- they serve to illustrate a passage in a siring him to cause the fees of burial letter from the Bishop of Bayonne, in the church, choir, or church-yard, the French Embassador then resident to be made out and affixed in some in England, to M. de Montmorency, convenient place, so that for the fu- dated London, 25 Jan. 1529, in which ture no one might be “ vexatiously he writes : “Je ne veulx, Monsieur, burdned.”
K.N.: oublier à vous dire que l'Ambassa
deur de Hongrye a persuadé ung Os. Mr. URBAN,
sestre, qui estoit icy pour les Mines
d'or que le Roy d'Angleterre faisoit · IN the “ Privy Purse Expenses of
chercher, de s'en retourner en AlleHenry the Eighth,” p. 69, is an en
maigne," &c. See Le Grand's Hist. try of money, paid towards the work.
du Divorce de Henry VIII. tom. iii. ing of a mine belonging to the King
p. 285. at Lantrissen, in Glamorganshire. In
But the source whence the greatest the notes it is presumed by the Editor
light might be thrown on the subject to be a new fact, in Henry's charac
of mining in this and preceding reigns, ter, that he should have interested
is the Chapter House, where, accordhimself in mining. This is very true,
ing to the Report published by the possibly, so far as our historians are
Commissioners of Records in 1800, concerned in their view of the King's
p. 41, are preserved Leases of Mines reign and pursuits, but it is incorrect,
of gold and silver in Gloucestershire if supposed to rest on the sole autho
and Somersetshire, from the time of rity of the above passage. That Henry
Richard the Second, and several Bunspeculated also in the same way in
dles of Letters relative to the same, Suffolk (and probably elsewhere), but
with Instructions and Contracts, temp. the following extracts will prove his plans, like the El Dorado of adven
Henry VIII. turers of a subsequent reign, seem to
Yours, &c. have ended in disappointment :
In reply to the inquiry of ANTIQUARIUS, « July, ao xxx° [1538.] Item, payde to respecting a copy of the Parliamentary SurRichard Candishe by the Kinges commaunde- vey in 1650, besides the one at Lambeth, it ment, certefyed by my Lord Privy Sealis may be assumed, from the present defective l're, and other the Kingis Commissioners state of our knowledge as to what really exjoyned we him, to have the ouersight of the ists in Record Offices, that there is no other Kingis myndes of golde in Suffolke, and to complele copy in being. In the Official Reconvey certeyne fyners and other artifficers turn from the Land Revenue Office, is menthere, for the tryall of the vre there, the tioned « Parliamentary Surveys,” temp. somme of xx li.
Cromwell, in 14 vols. but these would appear " Item, paide to Will'm Wade, seruaunte not to be the Ecclesiastical Survey. Tranto Sr Piers Edgecombe, Knight, bxs. for scripts or duplicates of the possessions of his costes and expences bryngioge vp' he- the several Cathedrals of Bristol, Chichester, ther from Cornewalle, at his owne charge, Ely, Lichfield, St. Paul's, Salisbury, Wells, Mauuel George and Will'm Wynget, myn Winchester, and Worcester, are also preers, to be sent at this tyme into Suff', to served in the respective libraries of the trye and werke at the newe myne, to the Deans and Chapters, and probably more, saide George Manuel and Will’m for yis not specified in the slovenly Reports sent in charges, goyoge downe to Suff, vpon a to the Commissioners of Records. To these reconnynge of their wagis, by the Kingis may be added that a complete and accurate commaundement, certefyed, &c. vili. transcript of that part of Oliver's Survey,
" September, ao. xxx°. Item, payde to relating to Dorsetshire, has lately been purWill'm' Wyndet, mynder, and Manuell chased by the Trustees of the British MuGeorge, fyner, at this time depeched uute seum, for the use of the public.
1831.) St. Katharine's Hospital near the Tower. 391 Mr. URBAN,
May 5. tion according to the decree of the AMONG the additional MSS. in Lord Chancellor Somers. It comthe British Museum,* are preserved mences thus : three documents relative to the Hos. « St. Catherine's Hospitall neare the pital of St. Katharine's near the Tower of London is an ancient Royall founTower, the history of which has be. dac'on, composed of a Master, three Brocome interesting from its removal to thers (clergymen), three Sisters [widdows the Regent's Park. These papers and gentlewomen) and tenne Beadeswomen were unknown to Dr. Ducarel, when [poore and aged people). By the deprivahe wrote his valuable workt on the
wohle werkt an the c'on of Sr James Butler, late Master of the Hospital, nor have they been noticed
said Hospitall at Mich'mas 1698, on the så
visitac'on of the late Lord Chancellor Soin the recent account extracted from
mers, the Right Honble Lewis Earle of Fehis volume, and presented to the pub.
versham was appointed by the late Queeve lic in a more accessible form. The first is entitled “St. Catherine's Hos- “ All the lands, tenem's, and heredit'ts, pitall. A short State from Mich'as belonging to the said Hospitall, are in the 1698 to Mich'as 1707,” containing places and (then were) at che ancient rents an account of the annual revenue following (viz.) : of the Hospital, and its appropriaCounties. Premisses.
£. s. d. Hartfordshire.-The Mannor of Queensbury
The mannor of Queene's Court ...
9 0 0 Lands in Hartelipp parish
2 0 0 Middlesex and London. ---Fryer Mead in Stepney ...
0 1 0 Severall houses in and deare St. Catharine's precinct...248 8 4
£347 9 4
The improved vallue of all the estates (as in the hands of the tenants) belonging to the Hospitall, over and above the reserved rents, were computed to be per annum
... £5239 7 3 “At present are—Dr. Verney, Mr. Bissett, and Mr. Ley, Brothers; Mrs. Eagle, Mrs. Streete, and Mrs. Holloway, Sisters."
The paper then proceeds to state After this follow the directions of the the several sums paid by the Master Lord Chancellor, that the rents should out of the said reserved rent of 3471. be increased, and out of such increase 98. 4d. namely, to the Brothers of the the salaries or stipends should be augHospital 8l. per annum each, to the mented, viz. the Beadswomen from 41. eldest Sister" ill., and to the two to 81., the Brothers from 81. to 401., others 81. each, to the ten beads and the Sisters to 201. a year each. women 41. each, the High Steward a This had been partly carried into efsalary of 21., the High Bailiff 21., fect. In addition, it was ordered that the organist 18l., the organ bellows as all former Masters of the Hospital blower 21., the Chapel Clerk 21., the enjoyed the whole of the fines on the Surveyor General 101., the Receiver renewal of leases, so for the future General 61. 138. 4d. ; to the same for they should only take a third part, printed sermons, pens, ink, and pa. and of the other two-thirds, one part per 21., and the taxes 491. 108., mak. should be shared by the Brothers and ing a total of 1851. 38. 4d., “whereby Sisters, and the other go towards the the Master hath to himself the re- repairs of the building and incidental maining 1621. 68."
charges. • MSS. Add. *5017, f. 79.
It is then stated that the fines from + “ The History of the Royal Hospital
Michaelmas 1698 to Michaelmas 1707, and Collegiate Church of St. Katharine,"
being nine years, amounted to the &c. 4to. Lond. 1782. [No. V. of the Bibl.
sum of 28251, 10s. 6d. of which the Top. Brit.)
third part, 9411. 168. 10d. had been “ History of the Royal Hospital and
taken by the Master, another third by Collegiate Church of St. Katharine," &c.
the Brothers and Sisters, and the last 4to, 1824.
(together with about 2001. more, still