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1831.] Intricacies in the Harcourt Pedigrees.

395 claimant or heir of a distinguished preserved it, began with M. because honour.

Thomas Harcourt, husband of this Collins, in his Baronetage, vol. iii. lady, and who died in 1460, is related deduces the Harcourts as follows: by Collins to have had to wife Joane “ From Sir Richard Harcourt, second Fraunceys: and if, according to others, son of Sir Robert, by Anne, daughter his second wife was Elizabeth .... of Thomas Limerick, is the (then) although she might have been the daugh. Lord Viscount Harcourt descended,” ter of Arthur Atherton, and might have and afterwards proceeds in substance died in 1454, and might have been the as follows:

mother of George Alys and Isabel Sir Robert Harcourt, K.G. buried Harcourt, whose portraiture is deat Stanton Harcourt, was succeeded scribed by Collins on the tomb at by another Sir Robert, who was made Stanton, her name could not have been K. B. at the creation of the Duke of correctly indicated by his M. Perhaps York, 10 Hen. VII. and Sir Simon an attentive examination of the monu. Harcourt (of whom this author had ment, if still remaining, or the acgiven no previous account) was knight. counts preserved of it by Ashmole, or ed at the battle of Spurs, 5 Hen. VIII. some authentic pedigree in the hands married Mary Aston, had issue Sir of the family, may enable some of Walter, who by Dorothy his wife had your Correspondents to disperse the Robert Harcourt, who by Frances, mist which envelopes these accounts, grand-daughter of John Earl of Ox- so apparently contradictory, in a pediford, had three sons, the eldest of gree of very great importance to many whom was Sir Simon (mentioned in now living, and which may eventually the Epistle to the Reader, prefixed to be of still greater interest to the geneVere'sCommentaries), who was knight rations to come. ed in 1627, married Anne, daughter In Betham's Baronetage, vol. i. p. of William Lord Paget, and left issue 416, the alliance of William Boughton, Sir Philip, father of Simon first Lord the Esquire of the body to King Henry Harcourt, Lord Keeper, father (by his VIII. (or his son) with the family of first wife) of Simon, second Lord Har- Danvers of Waterstock, co. Oxon, is court, immediate ancestors of that mentioned as in other books he. Lord, whom this Baronagian had just raldry: but qu.? is there not a misbefore said was descended from Sir take about this match, and was not Richard Harcourt. But in the Eng- the name Broughton instead of Boughlish Compendium, the same nobleman ton: or have those two names been is directly deduced from Sir Thomas confused like those of Davers and Harcourt, by Elizabeth his second Danvers, which have been the inces. wife, which Sir Thomas was the son sant stumbling-blocks to Genealogists? of William, and grandson of Sir John The descent of the more modern Harcourt.

branches of the family of Boughton, Collins says, that Sir Robert Har- is plainly enough delivered by Betham, court, K.G. who was slain 16 Edw. IV. but in many old MSS. the name of and whose wife's name was Margaret, the gentleman who intermarried with was succeeded by another Sir Robert, the Danverses of Waterstock, is as who 10 Hen. VII. was K. B. and af- plainly written Broughton: and so octerwards a Banneret, passing over Sir curs in the public records, and ancient John, who according to other autho- registers.

X. rity was son of the first Robert, and father of the second, by Anne Morris Mr. URBAN, or Norris, of Bray, co. Berks., and IT is indisputably certain that the giving no account of the issue male western countries of Europe were foror female of the latter Sir Robert; merly in the possession of the Celtic but jumping to Sir Simon, father of nation, who not only inhabited those Walter, progenitor of the Viscounts parts which border on the British isles, and Earls Harcourt.

but extended so far that Ptolemy and Upon what authority Sir Robert Ephorus have denominated Europe Harcourt, K.G. is made to descend "Celtica.” from Thomas, does not appear, nor is “We see every nation in Europe,” it very clear to whom the inscription says General Vallancey, " looking up on brass, in Stanton Harcourt Church, to the Celtic as their mar tongue." can relate, if her name, as Collins has M. Boullet, in his

are thus

race."

396

Resemblance of the Names of British Rivers. [May, language, states, that the Latin, Italian, have great affinity, he adds,

“ WhoSpanish, French, English, Swedish, ever takes notice of a great many Runic, Anglo-Saxon, and other lan- names of rivers and mountains through guages owe their origin to this. out the kingdom, will find no reason

Davies, in his Celtic Researches, to doubt, but that the Irish must have has remarked, that as the inhabitants been the inhabitants when those names of Armorica or Brittany emphatically were imposed upon them.” styled themselves Celtæ, and as that Stukeley had the same opinion. “At tongue has maintained its purity in this very day,” says he, in his Essay that peculiar district, we

on Stonehenge, “'in Wales they call enabled to determine what are the every antiquated appearance beyond pure Celtic dialects.

memory Irish.' În the north they " To the Armorican, the Cornish and call old foundations · Peights-houses.' Welsh are two sisters, and the Erse and Every thing is Pictish whose origin Waldensic have a general affinity and corre- they do not know. These people are spondence in their dialects. The Irislı, conscious that they are not the aborifrom its more striking similarity, may be gines.". presumed to be a language of the Celtic

Davies remarks," many roots which

have been long obsolete in the Welsh From the connection of the Irish and Armorican, are supplied by the language with Chaldaic, Arabic, Cop- Irish, although I would not be undertic, and Phænician, he supposes that stood as meaning that our Welsh it may have been in use among the came into the possessions of a difCeltæ, or descendants of Gomer in ferent family, who spoke the Irish lanAsia, who after the dispersion passed guage.to western Europe.

Camden, speaking of the difference This supposition that the Irish is

of names, says,

We ourselves in the primeval language of the descen- England are called by the Welchmen, dants of Japhet, is confirmed by proofs Irishmen,' and the highland Scots of its great prevalence among ancient Sassons.' nations.

We know from Bede, Gildas, and The names of men, places, and Giraldus Cambrensis, that Ireland is towns, says Davies, in Belgium, among the native place of the Scots, which the Tectosages in Aquitania, and of name, says Davies, is the same with the tribes on the banks of the Danube, Cotti, who dwelt near the Alps. may be resolved with great facility A Spanish author, Florianus del into Irish. In Pannonia, Rhætia, and Campo,* agrees with the Irish antiVindelicia, from the similitude of the quaries that the Brigantes owe their names, we may suppose ourselves to origin to Spain, and from thence came be on Scottish or Irish ground. Irish, into Ireland, and afterwards passed or a congenial dialect, was spoken in into Wales. In showing the probaThrace. The Waldenses, who inhabit bility of a connection between the the Alpine vallies near the fountains people of Spain and Ireland, General of the Po, use the same.

Vallancey has given the names of O'Connor, in his Chronicles of Eri, rivers in both countries, which seem in which occurs a list of words corre- to be almost similar. " The rivers of sponding in the Greek, Latin, and ancient Ireland were the Dur, DauIrish languages, has given in the latter rana, Brigus, Limni, Liboei, Madotongue the derivations of names of nus, &c. The rivers of Ancient Gal. places in Scythia, on the Euphrates, licia were the Dour, Dourana, Douro, on the Caspian, of the different dis

Brigantius or Brigus, Limeas, Motricts of Greece, Italy, Spain, Britain, noda,” &c. and other countries,

From the above it is evident that Edward Llwyd, a celebrated Welsh we must look to the Irish language scholar, and well acquainted with for the derivation of the greater part Irish, finding that the names of places, of the names of the rivers and mounlands, waters, hills and dales in this tains in the British islands; and we island were in the Irish language, hope that some able scholar in that supposed that Britain must formerly tongue will shortly elucidate this sub. have been occupied by that people. ject, which cannot fail to interest all Having mentioned that the Cantabrian, the Welsh, and the Irish languages, it Vallancey's Irish Grammar, p. 31.

1831.] Resemblance of the Names of British Rivers.

397 those who take delight in the study of and the Tees of the Brigantes, all English topography.

named by the same race. The signification of a few of the

From“

Taoi” winding, also is denames of rivers which occur in Great rived the Towy of Wales. The Tay is Britain, has been copied in the present found in China. The Taw is in Depaper from O'Connor's Chronicles; vonshire, and the Tavy and Tamai of the rest are mentioned merely on ac- the same county is probably Ta Vech count of the similarity of their con- and Ta Maur, " the Great and Little struction.

Tay.” The Tees occurs again in HampThe Avon, a British word for a river, shire. pronounced by the Irish Aune, gives The Dart is from “ Dorta," poured name to

out with violence. 1. The Stratford Avon, which rising The Camel in Cornwall, and Cam near Naseby in Northamptonshire, in Cambridgeshire, from Cam,” passes Rugby, Warwick, and Strat- crooked. The Cam occurs again in ford, and falls into the Severn at Gloucestershire. There is a river Tewksbury.

called the Kama in Russia. 2. The Salisbury Avon, rising near The Thames is derived from “Tam,” Great Bedwin in Wilts, falls into the still or quiet. The river Temes gives English Channel at Christchurch Bay. name to Temeswar in Hungary. The

3. The Lower Avon rises at Tet. Teme flows into the Severn near Worbury in Gloucestershire, and passing cester; the Tame runs through StafChippenham, Bath, and Bristol, falls fordshire ; the Taume is a river of into the Severn.

Yorkshire and Lancashire. 4. The Avon in Monmouthshire, The Axe, which occurs in Somerset which falls into the Usk at Caerleon. and Dorsetshire, is from “ Uisge, 5. The Avon of Devonshire.

Water," from which are derived the 6. The Avon in Merionethshire falls rivers Esk, and the Exe or Isca. into the sea at Barmouth.

The Clyst, from“ Clist," swift. 7. The Avon in Glamorganshire falls From "Tave,” still, quiet, which is into the Severn near Neath.

properly spelt Tam, is derived the 8. The Little Avon in Gloucester- Tave, and perhaps the Tavy. The shire, rising at Chipping Sodbury, falls Tave occurs in Caermarthen and Breckinto the Severn at Berkely.

nockshire. The Tava flows into the 9. The Avon in Stirlingshire falls Danube; another river of the same into the Forth,

name in Moravia, empties itself into 10. The Aven in Bamffshire falls the Morava. into the Spey.

In Monmouthshire, the Rhymny is 11. The Aven in Lanarkshire falls Rannwye, “ the Water of Division,” into the Clyde.

from the Iberian Ranu, “ Division,” The Aven also occurs in Bretagny. and the British word “Wye,” a river. The Nen is the ancient Aufona. The Rhee, a Saxon term for a river, The Alan, from Al Aune, the Great rises at Ashwell in Hertfordshire; the River, occurs in Cornwall.

Rhea is a river of Worcestershire; the The Allan is in Denbighshire. Rea in Shropshire; the Rhie in York

Alaunus, or Alne, in Northumber- shire runs into the Derwent; in clasland, flows into the sea.

sical Geography the Rha flows into The Allen in Dorsetshire.

the Tanais; the Rha is the ancient The Alon in Northumberland flows name of the Volga. into the Tyne.

The Dee in Scotland runs through The Allen in Flintshire.

Kircudbrightshire; another river of The Alne in Warwickshire.

the same name passes Aberdeen ; the The Tay in Scotland, is derived from Dee in Wales runs through Merioneth Taoi, winding. So meandering are and Cheshire; the latter is supposed these waters, that the stream is re- to mean

“ Holy Water." dundantly called by those who do not In Wales the Cledaugh is from understand the meaning of the name, “ Clodach," dirty, or slimy. The winding Tay.” The river Theiss The Munnou, from “ Min,” Iberian or Tobiske, the western limit of the for smooth, and the British Wye, a Daci, is of the same name, as well as river, The Minho of Spain is from the Taw or Tajus in Portugal, and many rivers in the lands of the Silures, * O'Connor's Chronicles, i. 335.

sea.

land;

398

Resemblance of the Names of British Rivers. [May, the same. The Minio, also in Italy, name runs near Aberdeen, The Don now the Mignone, falls into the Tuscan of Eastern Europe is supposed to be

derived from“ Duna,” a Median term The Dore of Herefordshire, from for a river. Duor," water; from the same deri. The Cher is a river of France; the vation is the Douro of Spain, and the Char runs through Dorsetshire; the ancient Dur of Ireland; as well as Ceira occurs near Coimbra in Spain. the four English rivers Derwent. The The Cherwell falls into the Isis. Duranius or Dordogne falls into the The Ivel falls into the Ouse in Bed. Garonne, and the Dora into the Po. fordshire; another Ivel occurs in So

The Lug, from “ Luga,” the lesser, mersetshire. in comparison with the Wye.

The Mease falls into the Trent near The Lon of Lancaster, from Lonn, Derby; the Maese is a river of Hol“ strong, fretful;” the Lune runs the Meuse of France falls into through Durham.

the Rhine; the Muesa of Switzerland The Ken from Cean, “ the Head,” falls into the Ticino. occurs in Kircudbright, Westmore- The Lee runs through Hertfordland, and Devonshire. The Kennett shire, and also occurs in Cheshire. In from “ Cen Tath,” the river at the Ireland the Lee flows near Cork; the head of the land, occurs in Wiltshire Ley occurs in Holland. and Cambridgeshire,

The Oke is a river of Devonshire ; The Abusor Humber, from "Aibeis," the Oak of Berkshire; the Ochus is in an estuary.

Asia. The Swale, from “ Suet,” leaping. The Wye, signifying “ water," oc

The Calder, Cal Duor," the water curs in Monmouthshire and Derbythat encloses. This river divided the shire. The Wey is a river of DorsetBrigantes of Lancaster and York. shire; another Wey of Surrey falls

The Wharf, from Garbh,” rough into the Thames. or boisterous. The Gare or Yare runs through

“And chalky Whey that rolls a milky wave." Norfolk ; and another river of that The Eider is a river of Ireland; the name is in the Isle of Wight.

Eyder, of Denmark.
The Loder, from“
Laider,” strong.

The Laine of Cornwall runs into The Eimot, from“

Eim," quick. the Camel ; the Lane is a river in Loch Lomond, “ Loc Lo Aman,” a Kerry; the Lahn flows into the Rhine. lake, the water of which is the expan- The Sure passes Waterford ; the sion of a river. The same name as Sure also empties itself into the MoLacus Lemannus, the Lake of Ge- selle in Luxembourgh. neva, and Loc Leiman, the Lake of The Stour occurs in Warwickshire, Killarney.

Dorset, Worcestershire, Suffolk, CamThe Ouse, from “Uisge,” water, bridgeshire, and Kent. Nearchus, by occurs in Yorkshire, Huntingdon, and the command of Alexander the Great, Sussex, The Ousa is in Siberia, the sailed down the Stour, a branch of Great Owzen in Russia. The Isis the Indus. The Stura falls into the springs in Gloucestershire, the Ise in Po. Lunenburg, in Lower Saxony, flows

The Senus is one of the ancient into the Weser; the Oise occurs in rivers of Ireland; the Saone flows into Holland; in France the Oise falls into the Rhone; the Seine passes Paris. the Seine.

The Rother occurs in Yorkshire, The Adur occurs in Sussex; the Sussex, and Kent; the City of RotterAdour flows into the sea near Bayonne,

dam takes its name from the Rotte, The Brent is a river of Middlesex. which there flows into the Maese. The Brant of Anglesey rises near The Roth falls into the Inn. Beaumaris. The Brenta runs through The Leche of Gloucestershire falls the Venetian territory; the Brentz is into the Thames; the Lichus or Lech a river of Wirtemberg, which falls in Germany flows into the Danube ; into the Danube.

the Lick of East Prussia flows into The river Colne occurs in Middle- the Vistula. sex and Essex; the Colun or Clun is The Laden is a river of Durham ; in Shropshire.

the Ladon is in Arcadia. The Don gives name to Doncaster From Dobh, pronounced Dhove, in Yorkshire ; another river of this “ the Swelling Flood,” is probably

1831.]
On the Character of the Pretender.

399 derived the Dove of Derbyshire, and their results, we are enabled to take the Dove or Dyffi of Merioneth. an impartial and unempassioned re

The Frome occurs in Herefordshire, view of events. The reflections of Dorset, and Somersetshire.

your correspondent I. S. M. at the The Nid is a river of Yorkshire; the tomb of Prince Charles Stuart (see Nidus or Nith of Dumfries, the Neath vol. c. part ii. p. 396), are in one of Glamorgan.

view pleasing and natural, but on The Usk of Monmouthshire is from a cool consideration of the conduct “Uisge,” water; the Uzka flows into of “the Chevalier,” connected with the Dneister. The Wiske is a river of his descent on the Highlands, we shall Yorkshire, a river whose name bears not perhaps be able to say that he was a closer resemblance to “Uisge.” all that his enthusiastic adherents The Aisch occurs in Franconia. fondly believed him to be.

The Clyde, a river of Flintshire, oc- The effect to be apprehended from curs again at Glasgow.

his obstinate rashness, in commencing The Villy runs into the Nith in hostilities against the advice of his Scotland; a similar river, the Willy, best friends, was prevented by the gave name to Wilton and Wiltshire. heroism of his devoted followers, but

The Ure is a river of Yorkshire ; a if he came “ to gain a crown or a stream of the same name falls into coffin,” he should have, if disappointed the Moselle.

of the first, shown himself at least not The Tone gives name to Taunton afraid of the last. When he fastened in Somersetshire; the Tun to Tun- his brogues, which were not to be bridge in Kent.

unloosed until he conquered his right The Tyne occurs in Northumberland —when he drew the claymore which and Cumberland. The Teino flows was not to be sheathed until he by Pavia into the Po. The Teign in triumphed over his foes— he should Devonshire falls into the sea at Teign- have endeavoured to be consistent. mouth.

The Prince, who had, without hesitaThe Clare, a name of a river in Suf. tion, committed his gallant followers, folk, occurs again in Ireland.

fled from Culloden, and saved his own The Trent has been supposed to be life by submitting to the most distressderived from the French “Trente,” in ing privations; heedless of the fate of allusion to its thirty tributary streams. so many of the best nobles, gentry, The Trent in Dorsetshire falls into and commons of the land, who had the Frome.

risked their all, even life itself, for his Of Foreign Rivers, as affording evi- cause. His hitherto victorious fol. dence of the connexion of distant na- lowers, who burned to revenge their tions, it has been remarked by an disgrace on this occasion, were uneminent writer of the last century that feelingly commanded by their idolized the rivers which occur in India, the leader to shift for themselves, and Hypanis, Baris, Chobar, Soana, Co- were left, apparently without remorse, phis, Phasis, and Indus, are all to be to the cruel fate which speedily overfound in the West. The Indus is a took them. river of Caria, the Inda of Lapland. Had his ill-concerted expedition deThe Choaspes also, a branch of the pended on the valour and perseverance Tigris, which flows through Chusis- of his troops, for never had adventan in Persia, has the name of an In- turer a band of more faithful and chi. dian stream. The rivers Belus and valrous followers, it might not have Adonis, in Phænicia, were probably so terminated. The consequence of named in honour of those deities. The this last “ rising" was the abolition Acheron, a river of Egypt, occurs in of the most ancient system of governElis, Epirus, Pontus, and near Cuma ment in Europe, which was perhaps in Campania.

E. W. not ill fitted to the people and coun

try. The repression of their primitive Mr. URBAN,

March 10. institutions has destroyed the inteAFTER the excitation of feeling at. grity of the Highland character, and tendant on the espousal of a cause,

left us the ruins, which in different presumed (not without reason) to be views have so forcibly interested sojust, has subsided, and the lapse of ciety in later periods. The destiny of years has weakened the sensations Britain was not to be longer ruled by produced by transactions important in the race of Stewart; but, under the

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