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and the familiar mountains of Wicklow. The interesting district round Tuaiu was selected as a centre for the year's Summer Excursion.
To turn to the recorded work of the year in the volume now concluded—in Prehistoric Archaeology and field antiquities, other than ecclesiastical, may first be noted several short articles in the "Miscellanea." Perhaps the most important is the illustrated account, by Mr. George Coffey, of Stone Celts and Food Vessels found in the County of Monaghan in 1866, and now in Mr. Day's Collection. The importance of a find, including so good an example of Neolithic Pottery along with stone implements, needs no comment.
Bullaun-stones, in the County of Clare, are described by Miss G. C. Stacpoole; the Dolmen of Clontygora, by Mr. T. Hall; several Earthen Forts near Bodyke, County of Clare, by Mr. T. J. Westropp ; and the Ballindangan Gallaun in County of Cork, by Canon Courtenay Moore. The question of the origin and age of the Fethard and Baginbun Inscriptions is again discussed by Mr. Goddard Orpen and Mr. W. H. Lynn.
A contribution to the Volume from the pen of the late Rev. George R. Buick, Ll.d.—on the interesting "Daft" Stone" Cist near Moneydig, is well illustrated by Mr. S. K. Kirker. It is one of the few scribed cists outside East and West Meath. Several Forts, Souterrains, and Dolmens are noted or described in the account of the Society's visit to Tuam and its neighbourhood, and in the Papers arising therefrom.
Owing to the decision to publish the account of the Cruise around the Irish Coast as a separate Handbook, only a brief itinerary, by Mr. Cochrane, is embodied in the Journal.
On Defensive and Residential Buildings, will be found the conclusion of Mr. Westropp's Paper on Askeaton, giving a full account of its Castle. A Paper on Irish Motes and Early Norman Castles, by the same author, opens the question how far the views of certain English Antiquaries as to the exclusively Norman origin of the high motes applies to Ireland. The Bronze Age finds of implements and urn-burials not only in the "mount," but even in the "bailey," and rings of undoubtedly residential complex motes, and the numerous and unmistakable records of motes by pre-Norman writers, leave (for Ireland at least) the belief in the early origin of many high motes untouched. Mr. H. Grattan Flood treats of the origin and early history of the Castle of Enniscorthy in the thirteenth century.
Of Ecclesiastical History and Remains, Mr. Henry F. Berry carefully examines the history and scattered ruins of Kilcomenty Church, in the north of the County of Tipperary, with its remarkable well and bullauns. The folk-lore of the neighbouring Bird Hill is very curious. Mr. Cochrane gives the first full description of Abbey Knockmoy, a fine Cistercian House, and its curious Fresco Drawings. He also describes and figures the Round Tower and other remains at Kilmacduach. All these monuments are further elucidated in Papers by Mr. J. A. Glynn and the Very Rev. Dr. Fahey, the latter the historian of the Diocese of Kilmacduach, the seat of the famous St. Colman mac Duach. Dr. Costello and Mr. R. J. Kelly also contribute Papers on the Antiquities of Tuam and the district around.
The recent entire demolition of the South Wall of Kiltoola Church, County of Clare, by the local authorities, should warn Antiquaries to use great vigilance in keeping the Society informed as to any such future intended "conservations."
Taking the Papers implying historical research in the order of time, conies Mr. Westropp's Paper on Motes and Castles, collecting the history relating to these structures from the days of King Laoghaire to those of King Edward I., and the Norman " encastling" of Ireland.
Mr. Orpen's contributions on the landing of the English under Raymond le Gros at Baginbun, and the fateful Battle of Dundonnell, belong to the critical period of the first Anglo-Norman Settlements of the late twelfth century. He considers the Baginbun Stone as an actual relic of the invaders; but this idea is traversed, at the close of the volume, by Mr. Lynn.
The President's study of the M°Cragh Monument at Lismore brings out some interesting account of the career of the versatile Miler Magrath, Roman Catholic Bishop of Down, and Protestant Archbishop of Cashel, simultaneously; indeed, for some years he was probably a singular phenomenon even for that unsettled period.
Mr. Langrishe gives in his interesting Paper on the Bourchier Tablet in Kilkenny a valuable story of a family of the " Old Englishry" in Ireland during the later Middle Ages down to the end of the sixteenth century, with some very interesting studies in Irish Heraldry. The conclusion of Mr. Westropp's Paper on Askeaton deals mainly with the same period, and brings out the interesting fact of the vitality of the Franciscan monks—the list of Guardians being practically unbroken from 1714 to 1872.
Lord Walter Fitz Gerald goes at some length into the history of the march of the Earl of Essex, in 1599, through Queen's County, and his sharp contest in forcing the Pass of Barnaglitty, as the defile of Cashel came to be called from the plumes of the combatants.
Largely to the same and the following century belong the extracts from the records of Cork, published by Colonel Lunham, and those of Cashel by Dr. Laffan. The former extend from 1644 to 1755; the latter, however, include a series of older documents from 1230 to 1640.
Mr. Wardell gives an elaborate study of the History and Antiquities of St. Catherine's Old Abbey, in the County of Limerick, during the Elizabethan and Stuart periods. Mr. Westropp describes and illustrates the Conventual Buildings.
Mr. M'Enery's Paper on the Siege of Limerick gives the long-promised publication of a contemporary account—a diary—of 1642. It is a document of the greatest interest. The Author's perface is a just and thoughtful summary of the causes and grievances which led up to the great uprising of the Irish and Old English in 1641. The humanity of the Confederate Catholics to the garrison is well shown by the diarist, whose name is unfortunately unknown. He was a relation of the Stephensons.
Mr. Herbert Wood's Paper, "Addison's Connexion with Ireland," tells a chapter of Irish history under the rule of the last Stuart Queen, between 1708 and 1714. It gives a vivid picture of Governmental circles in Dublin at a time when even Irish-born Englishmen were not considered "safe" candidates for office. Among the many points of interest in the Paper, a glimpse is got of the Record Office of those days, as undervalued and inaccessible, so unlike the institution which nowadays has furnished so many of the workers of the Society. To the Cromwellian period belongs the struggle in Clonegal, well described by Canon ffrench, with interesting notes on the Antiquities of the surrounding country.
Last in time come the Papers on the Judges and Courts of Ireland in 1739, by Mr. Elrington Ball and Mr. Richard J. Kelly. Mr. Ball has elaborately studied the personal history of these officials, and continues the official history of Dublin almost from the time treated by Mr. Wood, far into the years of the present dynasty.
Thus the volume given to the Society this year