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MlLER Magkith.

As this notorious ecclesiastic was so connected with Lismore, and his name so associated with the monument ahove described, it seems desirable to append in chronological sequence a summary of the chief events in his remarkable career, especially as they have not been fully shown elsewhere. They have been chiefly taken from the Records, Cotton's "Fasti," Lord Belmore's papers in the Ulster Journal of Archaology, 1903, above referred to, Dr. Brady's "Episcopal Succession" (Rome, 1876). The Biography in the "Diet. Nat. Biog.," by Mr. Richard Bagwell, and Authorities there cited, should also be referred to.

[1521, about]—Born, son of Donagh, otherwise Gillagmana Magrath, of Termon-Magrath in Fermanagh (or a portion of Donegal there adjoining).

[ ?].—" At first a Franciscan Friar."

1565, October 12.—Bishop of Down and Connor by Papal provision [Brady] consecrated for it at Rome, "at the private charge of the Pope," and by the Pope in person.

1567, May 31.—" Conformed " at Drogheda; and made his submission to Queen Elizabeth before the Lord Deputy Sydney. (See Shirley's " Original Letters.")

1568? [but later].—In a report on Irish Bishoprics, printed by Cardinal Moran in his "Archbishops of Dublin," and reprinted by Dr. Brady ("Ep. Sue." iii. 337), the "Prince of Clogher" requested the Pope to remove two bishops whom he had provided to Clogher, and to substitute in their place, Miler Bishop of Down and Connor.

1570, September 10 (or 18).—Bishop of Clogher, appointed by Queen

Elizabeth, who had also appointed to Down and Connor John Merriman,who was consecrated 19th January, 1569. So Magrath probably ceased to hold it. But he may have continued to hold Clogher after being advanced a few months later by Elizabeth. He seems to have been for several years Roman Catholic Bishop of Down and Connor, and also a Protestant bishop at the same time!

1571, February 3.—Archbishop of Cashel (with Emly), and held it till

his death.

1580, March 14.—Deprived by the Tope of Down and Connor for heresy, &c. (Brady, "Episcopal Succession," i. 265.)

1582, Noveniber 11.—Bishoprics of Lismore and Waterford added in commendum and held with Cashel (except during three years of the Episcopate of Bishop Wetherhead, 1589 to 1592).

1608, Feb. 22.—Resigned these on obtaining instead, Jany. 10 previously, the Bishopric of Killala with Achonry, both in commeudam, and held till death.

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[1610.—A Coadjutor-Bishop appointed to Cashel.]

1621. —Magrath erects his own monument at Cashel.

1622, November 8.—Makes his (nuncupative) Will (proved 1624); which is printed in Lord Belmore's Paper, above cited.

„ November 14 [or December].—Dies, aged about 100.

Archbishop Magrath must have been a great traveller for the age he lived in. In early life he was much in Rome. He visited England in 1570, 1582, 1591, and 1600. He lived much away from Cashel in various parts of Ireland, such as his county, Fermanagh, where he was a landed proprietor.

A difference of opinion exists as to whether the effigy of au Archbishop under the inscribed tablet erected by Miler while bedridden the year before his death, was really his own or an appropriated predecessor. Walter Harris and Grose seem to have been of the opinion that it was designed for him during his lifetime. On the other hand, Lord Walter Fitz Gerald considers the effigy much earlier than Magrath's time (" Memorials," 1902), and that opinion is shared by good judges. The arms under the effigy, and at its head, are, however, unquestionably those of Miler, in one case divided saltire-wise by the cross and crozier— a curious arrangement. These arms are given in the Funeral Entries.

[For details about the Archbishop's family and descendants, refer to Lord Belmore's Papers, cited above.]

ON HUSH MOTES AND EARLY NORMAN CASTLES.

BY THOMAS J. WESTROPP, M.A., M.R.I.A., Vice-president.
[Read Octoiier 25, 1904.]

As ire pass through the plains of central Leinster, or parts of Ulster, and the eastern counties of Munster, our attention is sometimes arrested by a lofty flat-topped mound. Sometimes it is hare, save for the rich greensward, sometimes covered with brambles and those ragged bushes—which, as folk-lore asserts, '' grow out of the dust of the dead, blowing about"—or "bosomed high in tufted trees." We look at it and pass by, few even caring to ask the name of the "old fort." We

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might, indeed, ask in vain for more information, for among the many neglected branches of Irish archaeology none is more neglected than the study of the motes. We might ask whether the mound was carved out of a hummock or escar, or was heaped from the plain by the labour of countless slaves. Was it a tomb or a fortress? Did it stand, like its congeners in eastern Europe, " before the Olympiads, in the dew of the early dawn and dusk of time"? Was it made for a prehistoric hero, as legends asserted of Downpatrick mote—for Turgesius and his Norsemen, as Giraldus wrote—or only for a Norman subject of the Plantagenets? Let us try whether by groping into the past we may find an answer to any of these questions.

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