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fall of Wexford in the previous year, they may well have feared that their turn would come next. It would he better to extirpate this little band of foreigners, entrenched so near the mouth of their fiord, before they were reinforced by further troops. They had heard of the exploit* of FitzStephen, and they knew what masters of the art of war were these Norman kinsmen of theirs, with whom, however, they had lost all sense of kinship. Therefore, they did not despise Kaymond's little force, though it numbered hardly one hundred men. They took counsel with their neighbours, with whom they seem to have been on good terms, and organized a force of some 3000 men. O'Phelan, chieftain of the Decies, a large district adjoining their territory on the west, assisted them, and a contingent came from Ossory across the Suir, and even from Idrone in the modern county of Carlow. As neighbours to Dermot, the tribes of Ossory and Idrone were naturally his sworn foes. They all crossed the river, probably where the ferry now plies between Passage and Ballyhack, and having formed into three bands marched towards Raymond's camp. The two accounts of the ensuing battle which have come down to us, though not exactly inconsistent with each other, differ somewhat in details. Reconciling them as best we can, we conclude that Raymond, having driven the cattle within the lines, determined to sally forth and meet his opponents in the open. His little band, however, could not resist so great a multitude, but turned and fled back to the camp. So closely, indeed, were they pursued, that some of the enemy got inside the entrenchments before the barricades could be closed. Then Raymond, seeing the jeopardy that he and his men were in, faced the foe, and transfixed with his sword the first of his pursuers. It was probably at this crisis that a curious incident, preserved in the " Song of Dermot," occurred. The cattle, we are told, scared at the turmoil, rushed wildly through the entrance of the fort, and met the impetuous onset of the attacking party.

"This was the first company
That sallied from the fort, I trow,"

says the Norman rhymer, with a touch of humour. It is perhaps more probable that the cattle were stampeded by design. At least, this was a ruse not unknown to the Irish of a later day, and was practised as recently as 1798, at Enniscorthy. It also closely resembles the ruse more than once adopted in the Boer war by De Wet when in a tight place. Whether driven by accident or design, the maddened cattle put the ranks of the Irish into confusion; and then Raymond, who had in the meantime rallied his men, raised his battle-cry of " St. David!" and, throwing himself upon the disordered crowd, turned what seemed very nearly a crushing defeat into a complete victory.

The carnage, though nothing to our modern ears, was terrible. According to Gerald, upwards of 500 were killed, and when the victors were weary of striking, they threw vast numbers over the cliffs into the

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sea. In the quaint words of an early translator of the "Expugnatio "— 'Here the pride of Waterford fel; here al his royght went to noght. Her-of come [to] the Englysshe hope and comfort; and to the Iresshe dred and wanhope; for hyt was never ther-to-for I-herd that of so fewe men so grctt a Blaght was done."

The glory of victory was quickly tarnished by a deed of barbarity. The English had taken seventy of the principal townsmen of Waterford prisoners, and the question arose what was to be done with them. According to Gerald, Raymond and Hervey took opposite sides on this question. Raymond pleaded for mercy towards those who were no longer resisting, and urged that they should be held to ransom. Hervey argued that mercy was out of place while the people generally were unsubdued; that they had come to conquer and not to spare ; that the prisoners were more numerous than the guards, and would be an ever present danger in their midst in the event of a further attack. Finally, the crueller counsels prevailed, and the wretched captives had their limbs broken and were east headlong over those cliffs into the sea. If we are to believe the Norman rhymer, the captives suffered a further indignity. A woman was employed as executioner, a camp-follower who had lost her lover in the fray; and "with an axe of well-tempered steel" she cut off the heads of the captives before their bodies were thrown from the cliffs.

Is it any wonder that the recollection of this battle, in which the vanquished were to the victors as thirty to one, should have burnt itself into popular imagination, or that this spot was for centuries linked in memory with a battle fateful for Ireland, as recorded in the "olde ancient rithme " :—

At the creeke of Baginbunnc
Ireland was lost and won "?


[Communicated April 19, 1904.]

Hphis name is given to a district situated, since the passing of the Boundaries Act, 1903, within the city of Dublin, but until then lying, for the most part, immediately north of the city on both sides of the highway to Drogheda and Belfast, and south of the Eiver Tolka. Dr. Joyce explains the name as meaning 'meadow of herbs'; but Cardinal Moran, in his notes to Archdall's "Monasticon Hibernicum," referring to the ancient religious foundation here, interprets it 'plain of the Liffey.' If the latter interpretation be correct, it is possible that the present district of Clonliffe, which is some distance from the Liffey, was once more extensive, and comprised much of the present northern portion of the city. The adjoining townland of Clonturk is said to have taken its name from the Tolka, although at first sight one would be disposed to connect the word with the Irish, tore, 'boar,' which appears in the name of Tore Mountain, near "Killarney. It is a curious fact that the name Drumcondra, which is the designation of a townland lying beyond the Tolka from Dublin, has usurped the place of the name Clonliffe, the latter name being applied nowadays only to Clonlifferoad and the Diocesan Seminary of Holy Cross, which stands in tho demesne of old Clonliffe House.

The district is divided on the Ordnance Survey Map into three townlands, Clonliffe East, Clonliffe "West, and Clonliffe South. The last of these, Clonliffe South, was situated altogether within the municipal boundary, even before the passing of the recent Act. It extends from the Royal Canal on the north to the North Circular-road on the south, and from Lower Summerhill on the east to near the harbour branch of the Boyal Canal on the west. The Circular-road dates from 1768; and Clonliffe South has, for the most part, been covered by houses and streets since almost a century ago. If, however, we examine the excellent map, dated 1673, in Haliday's " Scandinavian Kingdom of Dublin," we shall see that all this part of Dublin, from the Tolka even to the Liffey, appears almost as a blank, and was altogether a rural district, the only roads marked being the highway to Swords, and that to Clontarf. The latter thoroughfare was more inland than the present North Strand-road, being indeed the road to Ballybough Bridge. It ran, nevertheless, close by the sea shore at that time. Far out to sea lay the Island of Clontarf. The mainland was brought to within a short distance of it by reclamation from the sea about '200 years ago; The island, which must have been conspicuous during the Battle of Clontarf, was a place of isolation during the plague of 1650. It is a prominent object in the old maps of Dublin, with its "Iland House"; but it has disappeared completely under the sea within the last few years.

On the map of 1673 is marked a single building," the Redd House," on the Clontarf-road; it seems to have stood near the present Clarke's Bridge over the canal at Summerhill. The district of Clonliffe probably included the site of Aldborough House. This imposing building, which is situated near the present boundary of Clonliffe South, was erected at the end of the eighteenth century by Edward Stratford, second Earl of Aldborough, whose family built Stratford-on-Slaney in Wicklow. Ho built a great house in London about the same time, and died in 1801. The ambitious structure in Dublin was a most complete mansion, containing even a theatre. It soon passed out of possession of the Aldborough family. A minor title of the family, Viscount Amiens, is commemorated in Amiens-street. The family became extinct by the death, in 1875, of the last Earl, at Alicante, in Spain. Aldborough House has seen many vicissitudes. About ninety years ago it was a Feinaglian School, called after Von Feinagle, a German, whose system of education, relying principally on the exercise of the memory, had then a great vogue. He died in Dublin in 1819. On maps of that time the house is marked Luxemburg. It was a military barrack a few years ago, and is now a department of the General Post Office. A much older house in this part of Dublin is Castle Forbes, Upper Sheriff-street, which bears the date 1729. Indeed, the only house in Dublin, known to the present writer, bearing an earlier date than this, is one in Sweeney's-lane, near Ardee-street, which bears date 1720.

The townlands of Clonliffe East and West, which were until recently extra-urban, for the most part, are separated from each other by the Drumcondra-road. Clonliffe West, which is west of that road, lies, for the most part, between the two thoroughfares connecting Drumcondra with Glasnevin, Botanic-avenue, and Whitworth-road. The former was called a few years ago Corey-lane, a corruption of Cody's-lane. The latter, like Whitworth-place adjoining, was called after the Whitworth Hospital, now called the Drumcondra Hospital, which was opened in 1818, the building having been begun in the Viceroyalty of Charles Earl Whitworth, famous some years before that as the British Ambassador to whom Napoleon announced in person that he intended to break the Peace of Amiens. This road is often popularly called the Bishop's-road, from the Right Rev. the Hon. Charles Lindsay, the last Protestant Bishop of Kildare, who died in 1846, whose property it adjoined. The neighbouring fields, called the Bishop's Fields, were the scene of a fatal duel in 1825, when Mr. John Brie, an able and popular young barrister, a native of Kerry, and an adherent of O'Connell in his agitation for Catholic Emancipation, was killed by Mr. William Hayes of Cork, who died only a few years ago at a very advanced age.

Clonliffe East extends from Drumcondra-road to Ballybough Bridge, and lies generally between the Tolka and the Eoyal Canal; but there is a smaller townland between Jones's-road and Ballybough-road, bearing the singular name of Love's Charity. This and the adjoining Love-lane, now Sackville-avenue, are called after a family of the surname of Love, who owned property here. A short distance from Ballybough Bridge is Philipsburg-avenue, which perhaps derives its name from Philipsburg on the Bhine, where the Duke of Berwick was killed in 1734. It is called Ellis's-lane on old maps, and was the principal avenue of a suburb once inhabited by the older colony of Jews in Dublin. Some of the older houses of Ellis's-lane have the entrance not in front but in the side, which is said to have been a Jewish custom. The Jewish buryingground, now disused, is situated between Ballybough Bridge and Philipsburg-avenue, and on the wall of the little mortuary chapel, which immediately adjoins the road, the strange inscription, "Built in the year 5618," confronts the passer-by. It corresponds to the year 1857-8 of the Christian era, beginning 24th September, 1857, and ending in the same month of 1858.

The present long, straight road called Clonliffe-road is about 100 years old. It was preceded by a more narrow and winding thoroughfare called Fortick's-lane. Clonliffe House and the demesne, which is now attached to Holy Cross College, were then called Fortick's Grove; and the name of the owner, Tristram Fortick, may still be seen in an inscription on an old almshouse at Little Denmark-street in the city. It was Frederick Jones, popularly known as Buck Jones, who restored the old Irish name of Clonliffe to the demesne. From him is named Jones'sroad, which runs from the gate of the demesne to Clonliffe Bridge over the Royal Canal. This bridge has no stone containing its name or date of erection, as the other bridges have on the Royal Canal; but it is named as above on the Ordnance Survey Map, and is of somewhat later date than the other bridges, as the maps of a century ago show Russell-street and the path through the fields which preceded Jones's-road extending to the water's edge, but unconnected. There is a curious story about the path in question in Gilbert's "History of Dublin," of a barrister named Comerford, a guest of Jones, who had a presentiment, unfortunately fulfilled, that he would be drowned in the canal when returning from Clonliffe to town. Yet he persisted in returning by the path instead of by Drumcondra or Ballybough-roads. Jones, who was a native of County Meath, was an energetic and competent manager of the principal Dublin theatre of his day. He died in 1834. After his time, the house was for some years a barrack of the Revenue Police, a force now extinct.

In 1859, the present Diocesan Seminary was founded. The fine college and chapel have altogether dwarfed old Clonliffe House, which still stands in the grounds, yet this has interesting memories too.

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