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pasture called Jefferd's Grove, in the parish of Cromlyn, County of Dublin, possessions of the late Hospital of S. John of Jerusalem, in Ireland (rent 10s. 8rf.); a tenement in S. Patrick's-street, by Dublin, belonging to late Friars Preachers, Dublin (6s.); a garden in Thomasstreet, in the suburbs of Dublin, belonging to late Monastery of Thomas'court (13s. 4d.); a messuage and 32 acres in Cromlyn, County of Dublin, belonging to late Hospital of S. John of Jerusalem (30s.). To hold for ever in free socage. 28th August.

Grant under same letter. Lands of Enesco, in County "Westmeath, parcel of the possessions of the late Monastery of S. Peter of the Newtown, by Tryme. To hold for ever in free socage, rent £4. 28th August, 1575.

Grant under same letter. Lands of Annaghe, in Barony of Foure, County Westmeath, part of possessions of late Priory of Molingar. To hold for ever in socage, rent 26s. Gd.

Grant under Queen's letter of 18th November, 1578. Rectory of Drumrath, County "Westmeath. To hold for ever in common socage, rent 40s.

Grant under same letter. Land of Donabroke, County Dublin, called Kilmacargin, part of the possessions of S. John of Jerusalem, in Ireland, rent 10s., and a garden in the parish of Blessed Mary of lez Dames, in the city of Dublin, called Powers' Inns, of ancient inheritance of the Crown (10s.), a garden in said parish in Castell-street (12rf.), a garden in the parish of St. Olave's in Fishamble-street, Dublin (12d.), possessions of the Abbey of the B. V. M. in Dublin. To- hold for ever in free socage, rent 22s., as above.

Sir George Bourchier was knighted by Lord Deputy Drury, 15th or 16th Nov., 1579, at Aharlow, in camp near where the rebels lay.—Ware. These rebels were evidently Desmond's followers, though he himself was apparently friendly, and in constant communication witli Drury. The latter was very ill, and scarcely able to sit on his horse; he died shortly afterwards in Waterford.

There are no references of consequence to Sir George Bourchier in the State Papers after this period, until the following year, when the Desmond Rebellion had again placed Kilmallock in danger. James Golde, the Attorney in Munster, informed Sir Nicholas Malbie, by his letter of November 27th, 1579, that Sir George Bourchier was charged with the keeping of Kilmallock; and on December 3rd, Ormond wrote to Pelhara—" I send enclosed letters from Captain Bourchier and the Sovereign of Kilmallock. It seems strange that 130 men should not suffice to guard Kilmallock, unless the townsmen should betray the town, as at Toughall they did most traitorously."

Sir George Bourchier to the Earl of Ormond (enclosed letter)—" I have received your order to repair to you. Our case is very hard. I never received but £250 for four months' pay, which amounts to £500. The townsmen have utterly refused to stay within the town, and will leave the same if I go away. The Earl (Desmond) is looked for daily here. He has his brother here upon the borders to plague the town continually. I desire that whenever you call me away, I may carry with me my whole company; so shall I avoid the slander of losing my place. I have not fifty pounds of powder. You promised me my passport into England.

Kilmallocke, 23rd November, 1759."

"Postscript—I beseech you to send some other to guard the town that I may meet you."

Sovereign And Inhabitants Of Kilmallocke To The Earl Of Ormond.

"You wrote to Bourcher to take half his company with him. If you were acquainted with the weakness of the town, you would have thought 200 soldiers little enough to defend it—Sir George was so earnest to go, as I was fain to keep the keys of the gates from him."

Signed, John Verdon, Sovereign, and by sundry of the inhabitants.

On 29th January, 1580, Lord Justice Pelham and the Privy Council in Dublin wrote to the Council in London informing them that " the rebels are divided into two companies, the one in Imokillie, and the country between Youghal and Cork; and the other in the great wood and Arlowe (Aherlow).

"We have sent to Youghal 300 footmen, and 100 horsemen; 500 footmen and one company of horsemen shall be residing in Kilmallock under Sir George Bourchier. There is great scarcity of money and victuals."

Signed by Pelham and Ormond.

Pelham to the Privy Council, Limerick, 11th April. On the 8th I sent Sir George Bourchier and Captain Mackworth to Kilmallock with 200 footmen, and Captains Sentleger and Apslie with two gidons, containing both about 100 horsemen, besides 100 of Sir George's company that was remaining in that town.

On 16th April, Pelham informed the Council that Sir George Bourchier with 200 footmen, and Captain Sentleger with his band of fifty horses, made a journey to beat the great woods adjoining the river of Maie; and having preyed the same, were set upon in their return, with twenty shot (musqueteers ?), 200 footmen, and twenty horsemen of the rebels, which they repulsed, slew about sixty of them, and recovered (returned to) Kilmallock with the prey.

The Lord Justice Pelham and Council in Munster to the Lord Deputy and Council at Dublin.

"We have received your letters. "We shall presently repair thither. In the absence of me, the Lord Justice, absolute authority rests in the Earl of Ormond, as General, to prosecute the war, to -whom we have written, but lest he might be impedited, we have authorised Sir George Bourchier to be Colonel in our absence. Asketten, 23rd August, 1580. (Signed) Wm. Pelham, H. Wallop, L. Dillon, Ed. Waterhouse, G. Fenton."

On same date Pelham writes that he has left Sir George Bourchier in his place, as he was going to Dublin to present the sword to the Lord Graie. He also wrote to Sir William Winter: "I have substituted in my place Sir George Bourchier, to remain at Asketton as Colonel of the army in Munster, with power (saving in the County of Cork) to prosecute the wars."

The Commission was as follows :—To be Colonel and Governor under the Earl of Ormond, of all Her Majesty's forces in Munster. Under the Privy Signet at Limerick, 27th August, 1580. Signed by the Lord Justice and Council.

Instructions for Sir George Bourchier. Repair into Kerrie, and prey, burn, spoil, and destroy all that you may, of the traitors' goods, cattle, and corn. Advertise the Lord General of Province. You may parley with the traitors, and protect such of them as you think good, for forty days, except the Earl, Sir John, Doctor Sanders, and the Seneschal.

As you shall be driven to maintain a table for your own diet, and for such as shall resort unto you, you shall have allowance of the sum of 20s. ster. per diem, to bear the charge thereof. Various other directions follow.

Limerick, 27th August 1580.

Signed by the Lord Justice and Council.

From a return printed in the State Papers, the whole number of the forces left in Munster by Lord Justice Pelham amounted only to 3,215 men.

On September 16th, it was reported to the Privy Council that a great prey of cattle had been taken by Sir George Bourchier, who had sent 1400 cows and stud (horses?) to Askeaton. On September 22nd his march into Kerry was reported, where he burned the north and south sides of Slieve Mish, meaning probably the Dingle promontory.

On October 5th, it was mentioned that Ormond and Bourchier will take the field from Liscarroll the 8th of October.

On February 24th following, Bourchier was again in garrison at Kilmallock, whence he wrote to the Council that there was not enough of victual at Limerick to serve 400 soldiers eight days; Ormond reported this to Walsyngham from Cork.

(To be continued.).

ENNISCORTHY IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY—WHO
BUILT THE CASTLE?

BY WILLIAM H. URATTAN FLOOD.
[Submitted May 30, 1904.]

Qo much legend has attached to the building of Enniscorthy Castle, including its traditional ascription to Raymond le Gros, that it may be well to place before the members of this Society some reliable facts. Strongbow and King John are also quoted as builders of this fine old keep on the Slaney, but the majority of guide-books incline to Raymond le Gros.

In the present Paper I mean to make clear two facts. First, that Enniscorthy Castle was not built by Raymond le Gros. Secondly, that it was built by Gerald Prendergast, between the years 1232 and 1240.

Enniscorthy, as a place-name, means ' the island of the pillar-stones, or the standing-stones '—at least such is the meaning of the Irish name, Inis-coirthe. Passing over the pre-Norman period, let us at, once come to the year 1170, when Raymond le Gros came to Baginbun, County Wexford.

It is certain that Raymond, in December, 1170, went to Aquitaine, at the request of Strongbow, as ambassador, offering the fraits of the Earl's conquest to King Henry II. At this date the O'Briens were Lords of the Duffrey (Dubh-thir = black [turfy] land), in which Enniscorthy was situated—the name still surviving in the present Deaneiy of the Duffrey.

On August 10th, 1173, Strongbow was appointed Yiceroy of Ireland in conjunction with Raymond, and both warriors returned from Normandy in October of the same year to take up their new positions. Some months later, Raymond retired to Carew Castle, in "Wales, mortally offended, as Strongbow had given the Constableship of Leinstcr to Hervey de Montomariseo, and given away his sister, Basilia, to Robert de Quineey, who became, in her right, Baron of the Duffrey.

Owing to the defeat of the Anglo-Normans, under Hervey de Montemarisco, at Thurles, in 1174, by Roderic O'Connor, King of Ireland, Strongbow determined to recall Raymond le Gros, promising him the hand of his sister, Basilia, and other valuable gifts. Raymond returned to Ireland in September, 1174, and facilitated Strongbow's escape from Waterford, whence both marched to Wexford. Selskar Abbey was the scene of an important event in March, 1175, when Raymond was married to Basilia de Clare; and Strongbow gave his brother-in-law the Constableship of Leinster, and the lands of Forth, Idrone, and Glascarrig. Forth and Idrone are in County Carlow, whilst Glascarrig is in the north-east of County Wexford—twenty-two miles from Enniscorthy.

Thus, in 1175, Raymond le Gros was lord of certain lands in County Carlow, and a small tract in County "Wexford; but he had no connexion whatever with Enniscorthy. It also appears that Enniscorthy, which was then in the parish of Templeshanbo, belonged to the Church, but it was claimed by Maud de Quincey, in right of her father Robert, and supposed to devolve on her husband, Philip de Prendergast.

A further proof—if needs be—that Raymond had naught to do with the erection of Enniscorthy Castle, is the fact that he built the Castle of Forth O'Nolan, County Carlow, in 1180, and he died, without issue, early in 1186, after which his widow took another husband in the person of Geoffrey FitzRobert, an illegitimate son of Robert FitzStephen.

In 1198, Philip Prendergast married Maud de Quincey, and thus acquired the lordship of the Duffrey, including Killoughrini; but Ennis.corthy was a separate estate, belonging to the See of Ferns, then ruled by Bishop O'Molloy. We know that Bishop O'Molloy was an upholder of the rights of the Church, and he took good care that the lands of Enniscorthy should not be " grabbed " by Philip Prendergast—a Welsh adventurer.

From Sweetman's " Calendar of Documents" we learn that Bishop St. John, the successor of Bishop O'Molloy, on July 7th, 1225, was granted by King Henry III. a weekly market at his manor of "Senebod," or Templeshanbo. This Bishop of Ferns, who was also Treasurer of Ireland, was granted by the King on July 6th, 1226, a weekly market at his manor of "Ferles," or Ferns, and an annual fair there for eight days from the Vigil of Pentecost till the Feast of the Holy Trinity.

And now we come to the positive proof that Enniscorthy was a manor of the See of Ferns in 1226. Under date of July 6th, 1226, as is recorded in the Close Rolls of Henry III., the King granted to Bishop St. John "a weekly market on Tuesday at his manor of Enniscorthy.'" Sweetman prints the name as "Iscordy," and fails to identify it with Enniscorthy; but it is absolutely certain that the scribe's attempt at the Irish placename, hiis-coirthe, resulted in "Iscordy." The Bishop was also granted an annual fair at his manor of Enniscorthy, and at his manor of "Senebald," or Shanbo [Templeshanbo].

In 1226, Ferns Castle was finished, and Bishop St. John took up his residence therein. A year later, Philip Prendergast was anxious to build a suitable fortress to defend his Duffrey estate, and he accordingly entered into negotiation with Bishop St. John for the purchase of the manor of Enniscorthy. Accordingly, on April 8th, 1227, Bishop St. John, with the consent of the Chapter of Ferns, exchanged the manor of Enniscorthy for six ploughlands for ever, the deed being sealed by the

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