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little building, like the base of a round tower. It is circular, and 13 feet 6 inches in internal diameter, shelf to shelf, or 17 feet from wall to wall; the walls 2 feet 8 inches thick, and 10 feet high to the spring of the domed roof, which is formed, by corbelling, with a large circular ope and two external cornices. There is a low square door to the west, 3 feet 7 inches high, and 2 feet 10 inches wide. The outer face destroyed. Inside were eight rows of stone recesses for the doves; they are 13 inches deep, and about twenty-eight to each ring. The greater number are now destroyed, probably by cattle, which can enter the structure through a large break to the east. It is 18 feet high in all.

It is very like the pigeon-house at Adare, but much less perfect. The latter has been figured in the "Journal of the Limerick Field Club'" in 1897 ; with a photograph and careful section, its resemblance to that of Old Abbey is very noteworthy, though it is a little smaller.

Forts.—Not far to the south-east of the gate, in the adjoining field, is a ruined caher, of irregular oval outline, with stone walk about 5 feet high, and 8 feet to 10 feet thick. It is about 110 feet in diameter, and greatly overgrown. No traces of the gateway and inner structures remain. It is girt by a slight fosse internally.

Further to the south is a good specimen of the earth fort named Lisnabrock, "Badgers' Fort," which has a deep fosse, and outer and inner ring mounds. The inner was once faced with stone. It is thickly covered with hawthorns.

The slight foundations of a levelled caher, with looped enclosures and radiating walls, lie in a field to the west of Old Abbey House. There is said to have been a "ring " or group of pillars about 5 feet high in the field to the east of the orchard. The cist and skeleton found near the house have been already noted by Mr. Wardell.

I have described the structure with what to many may seem unnecessary detail; but the very decayed condition of the " Abbey," and the fact that several portions have fallen, even since I first visited it, call for a careful record. Limerick has suffered to an unusual degree from the destruction of its religious houses without adequate, and too often without any, description and illustration. But for the anonymous Elizabethan and Cromwellian map-makers and Thomas Dyneley we should not even have a shadow to show us the form of the conventual buildings of Limerick city, of St. John's Church, St. Michael's, Singland with its Round Tower, Grene Church, and the noble Cistercian House of Wetheney. This description is only an endeavour to place on record all that can be found remaining of " the house of St. Katherine in Oconyll.'

1 Vol. i, Part 2, p. 37, by Mr. G. J. Hewson. It is 11 feet shelf to shelf, 13 feet wall to w all, 10 feet to spring of corbelled dome, and 16 feet high in all.



He following notices are a copy of a Ms. Annals of Cork, written by

some member of the Morris family, of Castle Salem, which cnme into the hands of Mr. Abraham Abel, together with many other papers of theirs in 1838. This sis. which I have copied, and which is now for the first time printed, is preserved in the Royal Irish Academy :—

"1644. James Lumsden elected mayor, but not sworn. The Irish inhabitants expelled out of Cork.1

July 26, 1644. No mayor elected for ten years. 1683. John Wright, mayor. The steeple belonging to Peter's Church built.2

1685. Chris. Crofts, mayor. Earl of Clarendon, Lord Lieutenant, came to Cork, and was highly entertained by the said mayor.3

1688. Pat. Roche, mayor. King James1 arrived at Kinsale on the

1 This or a like expulsion is said to have taken place in 1656—according to some, in 1666. Richard Coppinger was mayor in 1644.

Smith soys that " the steeple is detached a considerable way to the west of the church, and served as a tower to defend the city wall." Writing in 1850, Windele adds—"The belfry of the old church stood detached at the west side of the graveyard, close to the city wall. It was taken down in 1683." (Windele's Hist. Notices of Cork, p. 59.)

3 Henry, Earl of Clarendon, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was presented with his freedom of the city of Cork, in a gold box, by the Corporation. (Smith, History* vol. ii., p. 195.)

4 James landed at Kinsale, March 12th, 1689, and proceeded to Cork. On the Sunday following his arrival in the city, he attended mass at a new chapel, recently erected near the Franciscan Friary, or North Abbey. Crofton Croker says, in his lute on the Mucarite Excidium, "James landed at Kinsale on the 12th March, and on fbefollowing day proceeded to Cork. He remained until the 20th." ("Narratives illustrative of the contests in Ireland in 1641 and 1690." Edited for the Camden Society by Thomas Crofton Croker, p. 117—note.)

The King was supported through the street by two Franciscan Friars, and attended ly many others in their habits. (Smith, tit sup.) Bishop Downes says:—" St. Francis Abbey, in the north suburbs of Cork, belonged to the Franciscans. Half a ploughland near the Abbey, and several other parcels of land in the country, belong to 'his Abbey, May, 1700. The site of it contains a few gardens on the side of the hill iearth-e Abbey." "In King James' time, a new chapel was built by the Friars on part of the Abbey, but not where the former chapel stood—some Friars lived there. In the time of the siege the rest of the suburbs was burnt. A good strong steeple ^mains standing." (Bp. Downes' MS. Journal.) The suburbs were burned byMr. McEllicott, Governor of the City, despite his promise to spare them, on receipt °f a lai-ge sum of money. The steeple has disappeared.

[Submitted March 31, 1903.]

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12th of March, 1689, and came to Cork, and was lodged at St. Dominick's ■without South Gate, and went through the town three several times to mass without North Gate. Cork taken hy the English, 29th of Sept., 1690. Dom. Sarsfield turned out, and Wm. Ballard, the former mayor, restored.

1714. John Allen, mayor. Great fireworks made in Cork on account of King George's arrival to the Crown of Great Britain.

1717. Wm. Lambley, mayor. Oct., 1717. Henry Luttrell was shot going home in his chair in Dublin.

Feb. 8th, 1717. Christ Church began to be pulled down.1

1719. April 5, 1718. The foundation laid of Christ Church. Abraham French, mayor.

1719. Christ Church finished, but not steeple. 1719. The Alms' House adjoining the Greencoat Hospital built. 1719. John Morley, mayor.

1720. John Terry, mayor.2 James Cotter was hanged the 7th of May on a single post at the Gallows Green, by a staple, and ring (the gallows being broken down the night before), for committing a rape on Elizabeth Squib, a Quaker, in a wood near Fermoy. Said Cotter, the day before he suffered, having procured a blunderbuss and caseof pistols to be conveyed to him in the gaol, got his bolts off, and endeavoured to make his escape, but was stopped in the street by the sentinel, and Taylor and his assistants at the stairfoot.

1723. Dan. Pierce, mayor. A great drought of dry weather, so that no water ran at the south end of the town of Cork, insomuch that at last the inhabitants were forced to plough up the ground with horses where the river used to run at Gillabbey, to let the water down, but all would not do till the rain came, Aug., 1723.

1724. Ed. Brocklesby, mayor. All the old trees in St. Fin Barry's churchyard, with the great tree in which the bell formerly hung, culd (sic) (cut ?) down, and young trees planted. 1724. A long easterly wind, which continued 7 weeks constantly from 22nd Feb., 1724, to year (*;'<;) 13 April, 1725, the like not having been known in these parts of the world by any man living in this age.

1 Christ Church. Said to have been founded by the Knights Templars. There was a Preceptory in Cork, for we find William le Chaplain, Master, eire. 1292. The building suffered severely during the siege (Sept. 28, 1C90), from the fire of the besiegers (one shell fell through the roof), but quite as much from the defenders, who pulled up the pavement and used the materials to repair the neighbouring breach in the city wall. "From these injuries," says Windele, •' it never recovered, and in 1717 it was taken down." The new church was erected by Coltsman. {Records, vol. i., p. 109.) The register, from July, 1643, to February, 1668, was printed by Dr. Caulfield in 1877. It we except some fragments of old walls in the crypt, no part of the ancient structure now remains.

8 The apparent discrepancy between the dates assigned to the elections of mayors in the local Histories and the text may be accounted for by the different methods respectively adopted in calculating the commencement of the year. This may probably also explain the seeming anomaly in the record of occurrences under 1724,

1726. Ambrose Cramer, mayor. May 28th and 29th. Very great thunder and lightning each night from 8 to 11 o'clock. May 30 and 31 st. Ambrose Cramer, then mayor, with the freemen and trades of the city, rode the fringes, or liberties thereof, in great order, with their cockades in their hats; the South liberties on Whitsun Monday, and the North on Tuesday. Sunday, June 19. Great thunder and lightning about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. It broke in the east end of St. Nicholas' Church without South Gate, burnt two large holes in the velvet cloth that covered the communion table, and shivered two of the panels in pieces.

1727. Robt. Atkins, mayor. May 29th. 89 thatched houses burnt, with the capell (chapel ?) in the street leading to Douglas.

1732. Jas. Huleat, mayor. The Quaker meeting-house with the bridge by it, joining Hammond's Marsh, built 1732. On Whit Monday and "Whit Tuesday in the year 1732, the cloathiers walked through the town in companies, their wigs of all shapes, made of combed wool, their hatts edged with the same; one representing Bp. Blaze.

June 29th, 1732. The Butchers and Coopers walked through the town; the Grenadiers with caps and adzes; the rest with wooden falchions; representing of Alexander the Great, with Diogenes in a Tub.

June 27th, 1732. St. Paul's Church on the marsh consecrated, but built two years before.1

1733. Samuel Croker, mayor. William Newingham and Adam Newman, Sheriffs. On Thursday, the 13th Dec, the Dragon was blown off from the top of the Exchange by a high wind.*

1734. Thomas Pembroke, mayor. An extraordinary clap of thunder and lighting which damaged the houses near Peter's Church in Corke, throwing down a chimney, ripping up a floor over a cellar, broke several windows—frames and all, and shattered the roofs of several houses in 'lifferent places; it happened the 21st of Sept., 1734, about 3 p.m.

1739. Adam Newman, mayor. A great frost which began on Christmas Eve, so that all the town waked (walked'?) upon the river, and meat dressed, and liquors sold on the river; also abundance of snow fell; the frost lield for two months, 1739.

1742. Richard Bradshaw, mayor. St. Anne's Church,8 out of South Gate, restored and consecrated on Monday, 18th day of Oct., 1742.

1 In Tuekey's Cork Remembrances, the date assigned to this church is 1723. Smith says that divine service was celebrated for the first time in St. Paul's in 1726 by Rev. E. Sampson, and Windele states that the church was built in 1723, probably following Tuckcy. A sum of £100 towards finishing the edifice was grunted by the Corporation to be paid May 1, 1728. Council Boole, edit, by Caulfield, p. 466.

* Dr. Caulfield writes that when the Exchange was taken down, the dragon referred to was sent to the Cork Institution, where it remained in the hall for some years, but was stolen in 1858, and was recovered with the loss of its tail. A woman stole it, but it was again recovered minus, this time, its head. The mutilated trunk was sold as lumber in 1865. It was made of copper, and thickly gilt, which seems to have excited the cupidity of the several thieves (note by Mr. Copinger in new edition of Smith's Cork, p. 431).

3 St. Anne's (Shandon), the church probably referred to, was, and still remains,


1743. Randall "Westropp, mayor. Feb. 21st. An account came by express to Corke from Dublin that there were seven Popish priests taken up in Dublin and put in prison; and that all the French ships lying in that harbour were stripped of their seals (sails ?) and their crews put on board the English men-of-war, and that the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs were searching all Popish houses for arms.

1755. John Eeily, mayor. Nov. 1st. A slight shock of an earthquake was felt in Corke, but happily did no mischief here. It was dreadful in Spaine and Barbary, and particularly soe in Portugall, where it overthrew every house and building; the sea overflowing a great part of the rich and famous city of Lisbon. Above a hundred thousand people perished in the ruins, Feb. 6th"a genuine fact."—(End of the " Annals.")

The "walls Op Cork.

'' To His Grace The Duke Of Bolton, Lord Lieut.-general And General Governor Of Ireland.

"The "Humble Petition of the Mayor and Sheriffs and Commonalty of His Majesty's loyal city of Cork, sheweth :—

"That the said citty of Cork is a very ancient citty, and a place of considerable trade, and pays a very great revenue to His Majesty. That in the late King James' time, your petitioners suffered very much for their adherence to the Protestant interest; were putt into prison, and their suburbs, which make a considerable part of the citty, were set on fire, and burned to the ground by the then Popish Governor— Makillicuddy; notwithstanding that he had beforehand agreed and promised to save the said suburbs upon the payment of a considerable sum of money to him by your petitioners. That your petitioners were relieved from their prisons and their miseries by King William, of glorious memory, under the command of your Majesty's renowned and valiant general, his Grace the Duke of Marlborough, who besieged the said citty and took it in the year 1690. That soon afterwards your petitioners supplied several Regiments of King William's Army with several considerable sums of money for their subsistence, for which your petitioners never received any satisfaction, which has been a great loss to your petitioners, who have but a very small and precarious revenue

on the north side of the city. In addition to the Cathedral, there were originally eleven parish churches in and about Cork, as appears from a paragraph in King Edward IV.'s Charter, 1462. For these the citizens paid 24 marks annually to the Crown; "but upon consideration that the said churches were destroyed by Irish rebels, and intestine wurs, which continued fifteen years, occasioning great decay and poverty to the city," the tax was remitted. The churches on the south side of the river were—at that time—extra muroa :—St. John's, St. Nicholas, St. Bridget's, St. Mary Nard (or Spikenard) ; St. Stephen's, and St. Laurence's Chapel, near South Gate ; but St. Anne's and St. Paul's were not then built. See Smith, vol. i., p. 371. St. Anne's was begun in 1720, and the spire built 1749. Tuckey, ad «»«■ The church of St. Mary de Nard occupied the site of Elizabeth Fort, and St. Bridget's that of Cat Fort. 1 The earthquake at Lisbon was on November 1st.

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