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PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND HISTOLOOY IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON,

AND

GEORGE DANCER THANE,
PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. 1.-PART II.

GENERAL ANATOMY OR HISTOLOGY

By PROFESSOR SCHÄFER.

ILLUSTRATED BY NEARLY 600 ENGRAVINGS, MANY OF WHICH ARE COLOURED.

Twelfth Edition.

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.,
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

1898

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In reprinting the 12th edition of this part, additions have been made in the form

of footnotes on the following pages, viz. 207, 210, 214, 221, 316 and 321.

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PAGE

GENERAL ANATOMY, DEFINITION OF 171

Structural elements.

172

Intercellular substance.

172

THE ANIMAL CELL

172

Structure of the cell-protoplasm

172

Chemical nature of protoplasm

174

Vital phenomena of protoplasm

174

Amboid movements

175

Inception of foreign particles

176

Conditions influencing the contraetile

manifestations of protoplasm. 176

Effect of electrical and other stimuli upon

protoplasm

177

Further considerations regarding the

structure of protoplasm ,

THE NUCLEUS OF THE CELL

179

Structure of the nucleus

179

Chemical nature of the nucleus

Functions of the nucleus

182

Tue DivisiON AND MULTIPLICATION OF

CELLS AND NUCLEI

183

Direct and indirect division of nuclei

183

Karyokinesis, indirect or mitotic division

of the nucleus

185

Historical.

191

Recent literature

192

THE EPITHELIAL TISSUES

Structure of epithelial tissue in general . 194

Classification of epithelia .

195

Stratified epithelium

195

Intercellular bridges and channels 196

Transitional epithelium

Pavement epithelium

Columnar epithelium

Glandular epithelium

Ciliated epithelium

Structure of ciliated epithelium.

Nature of ciliary movement and influence

of varying conditions and reagents. 204

Historical

205

Recent literature

206

THE CONNECTIVE TISSUES

207

THE BLOOD

207

Red corpuscles of the blood

208

Structure of the coloured blood-cor:

puscle

Structure of the nucleated red corpuscles

of the lower vertebrata .

Colourless corpuscles of the blood 213

General characters

213

Action of reagents on

214

Other microscopic elements in blood .

215

Corpuscles of the lymph and chyle 216

Lymph

. 216

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PAGE

The marrow

265

Blood-vessels of bone

. 267

Lymphatics

· 267

Nerves.

. 268

FormatiON AND GROWTH OF Bone

268

Intramembranous ossification

268

Ossification in cartilage

272

Growth and absorption .

280

Regeneration.

· 282

Recent literature

· 282

MUSCULAR TISSUE

285

Structure of cross-striated or skeletal

muscles.

285

Fasciculi

286

Fibres, their figure and measurement. 286

Structure of the fibres, sarcolemma 287

Muscular substance

287

Structure of the wing-muscles of insects 291

Comparison of the ordinary muscles of

insects and vertebrates with the wing

muscles of insects

293

Effect of the sarcoplasmic accumula-

tions upon the cross-striation of the

ordinary muscles,

293

Changes in contraction .

294

Appearances of muscle under polarised

light.

295

Historical .

296

Muscle-nuclei

Variations of structure in different

muscles, correlated with differences

of function

298

Mode of attachment of muscular fibres ;

ending of muscle in tendon

299

Blood-vessels.

299

Lymphatics

300

Nerves.

300

Development of voluntary muscular tissue 300

Growth

301

Regeneration

· 302

Plain or unstriped muscular tissue

302

Distribution

· 303

Development

• 303

Cardiac muscular tissue

· 304

Recent literature

305

NERVOUS SYSTEM

307

Nerve-fibres

Medullated nerve-fibres

Structure of medullated nerve-fibres · 309

Axis-cylinder

310

Medullary sheath

311

Nodes and internodes of Ranvier

311

Medullary segments

313

Rod-like and reticular structures in the

medullary sheath

313

Sheath of Schwann, primitive sheath or

neurolemma

315

Pale or non-medullated fibres ; fibres

of Remak

315

Nerve-cell

· 316

Structure

317

Sustentacular tissue of the

centres ; neuroglia .

322

Construction of the nerves and nerve.

roots

324

Vessels and lymphatics.

326

Course of the nerve-fibres in the nerve-

truuks

326

Origins or roots of the nerves

327

Construction of the ganglia

331

PAGK

Situation

331

Termination or peripheral distribution of

· 333

Termination of sensory nerves

334

Tactile cells

• 335

Tactile corpuscles or touch-bodies.

· 335

End-bulbs

337

Tactile end-organs of birds

340

Corpuscles of Herbst .

340

Corpuscles of Vater or Pacinian bodies 341

Other modes of ending of sensory

341

Nerve-endings in tendons

347

Termination of motor nerves

In the involuntary muscles

In the cardiac muscular tissue

Nerves of voluntary muscles .

349

Development of the nerves

352

Degeneration and regeneration 353

Recent literature

BLOOD-VESSELS

Arteries

Mode of distribution

Structure

Internal coat.

Middle coat

363

External coat

364

Vessels and nerves of arteries

365

Veins

Mode of distribution

Structure

Internal coạt

Middle coat

External coat

367

Valves.

367

Smaller arteries and veins and capillaries 368

Structure of the capillaries

370

Structure of the small arteries and veins 370

Development of the blood vessels

372

Recent literature

· 375

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM .

Distribution of lymphatic vessels

Origin

Structure.

Valves .

Relation of the lymphatics of origin to

the cells and cell-spaces of the connec-

tive tissue.

Termination of lymphatics

Lymphatic hearts.

Development of lymphatic vessels

Lymphatic glands

Other organs composed of lymphoid

tissue

Serous membranes

Form and arrangement.

Structure and properties

Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves 391

Synovial membranes

392

Articular

392

Vaginal

392

Vesicular or bursal

393

Structure.

393

Vessels and nerves

394

Development

395

Recent literature of lymphatic system · 395

SECRETING GLANDS

Changes in the cells during activity

Moditications in form of the secreting

surface

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