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TABLE XII.- Treatment (in 1913) of superstructures and shelter-deck spaces under the measurement rules of Great Britain,

the Suez Canal Co., Germany, and the United States Continued.

Portion of vessel.

United Kingdom.

Suez Canal.

Germany.

United States.

Light and air and funnel Owner given option... Owner given option under Owner given option...... Owner given option. spaces above engine room.

Danube rule, but if measured he forfeits certain exemptions; if German rule is applied they

are measured. Companion houses..

Measured if used as smoking. Same as United Kingdom. Same as United Kingdom. Same as United Kingdom.

room; otherwiseexempted. Passageways... Measured when serving ..do..

.do.

Do.
measured spaces.
Toilets, lavatories, and bath- Measured.

Measured.
Measured..

Measured.
rooms.
Crew and officers' quarters...

..do.
..do.
.do.

Do. Superstructures above first Treated the same as the first Measured if "closed-in" Same as United Kingdom. Cabins and staterooms are deck that is not a deck to tier of superstructures.

under the national and

exempted. the hull.

Suez rules; portions in
way of side openings are
exempted if "open" un-
der the national rules
but “closed-in" under

Suez rules.
Shelters for deck passengers | Exempted with consent of Exempted if“open". Exempted with consent Exempted with consent
on short voyages.
Board of Trade.

of Bureau of Registry. of Commissioner of Navi

gation. Shelter deck spaces..

Exempted if "open" ac- Measured if “closed-in" Same as United Kingdom. Measured unless "open" cording to court decision under national and Suez

according to rules of Comand Board of Trade in- rules; portions in way

missioner of Navigation. structions. Shelter decks of side openings are ex

Definition of "open' are ordinarily exempted. empted it“ open”under

stricter than in United the national rules but

Kingdom and Germany. “closed-in" under Suez

Shelter decks are ordinarules. The presence of

rily measured. cargo requires measure

ment forever thereafter. Deck loads. Added to net tonnage for Exempted....

Exempted.....

Exempted. tonnage taxation.

CHAPTER XII.

INTERNATIONAL UNIFORMITY IN TONNAGE AND MEASUREMENT: PAST EFFORTS, FUTURE

POSSIBILITIES.

61861°-13-13

185

.

11

CHAPTER XII.

INTERNATIONAL UNIFORMITY IN TONNAGE AND MEASUREMENT: PAST EFFORTS,

FUTURE POSSIBILITIES.

In 1862 the British Board of Trade, in a Memorandum Pointing Out the Importance of the Uniform System of Tonnage Measurement, stated that:

If one system could be adopted by all maritime nations, so that the capacity of any given ship, when once officially ascertained and denoted on her official papers, could be everywhere understood and recognized as valid, the advantages gained would be very great. The statistics of navigation would be rendered more simple, intelligible, and accurate. The merchant or shipowner would at once understand the size and capacity of the ships he employs or purchases; he would also escape the annoyance and expense of remeasurement; and, lastly, taxation when imposed would be rendered more simple and more just. Under these circumstances there can be but one opinion as to the utility, if not the necessity, of some general system of measuring merchant shipping.'

During the half century that has elapsed since this admirable statement was made of the reasons for the international unification of the rules governing the measurement and tonnage of vessels the world's commerce and shipping have increased many fold; the Suez, Amsterdam, Kiel, Corinth, and Manchester ocean ship canals have been brought into existence, and the second of the world's great interoceanic highways—the Panama Canal—has been brought near completion. The importance of international tonnage unity has grown greater with the progress of commercial intercourse among nations, but diversity still prevails in vessel measurement rules.

The opening of the Panama Canal, which will be a commercial event of world-wide influence, suggests, as did the opening of the Suez Canal more than four decades ago, that serious consideration should be given to the necessity of unifying tonnage and vessel-measurement rules. Possibly the completion of the Panama Canal may, as is greatly to be desired, cause efforts to be made to bring about uniform tonnage rules. Should an earnest attempt now be made by Great Britain, the United States, and the other leading commercial nations, the probability of the successful unification of tonnage and measurement rules would doubtless be greater than it was 40 and 50 years ago. The countries of the world are to-day closely united commercially, and their experience in solving problems of mutual interest has lessened the obstacles to international cooperation.

In various parts of this report and of the appendices the differences in the vessel-measurement rules of Great Britain, Germany, France, the United States, and the Suez Canal Co. are pointed out. This indicates what needs to be done to bring about the unification of tonnage practice. A history of the past efforts to accomplish this result will show that the importance of the subject is appreciated by maritime countries and may possibly facilitate the initiation of future negotiations among the leading nations with a view to the early establishment of a single international code of rules for the measuring of vessels and for the determination of the tonnage upon which shipping charges shall be paid in all the ports of the world and at all ocean ship canals. It is for these reasons that this chapter is included in this report upon rules for the measurement of vessels using the Panama Canal.

STANFORD LIBRARIES

THE EFFORTS OF THE

EUROPEAN COMMISSION OF THE DANUBE TO BRING ABOUT INTER

NATIONAL TONNAGE UNIFORMITY.

The treaty of Paris, by which, in 1856, the European Commission of the Danube was established, provided that “all vessels (using the port of Sulina and navigating the lower Danube) should pay alike without distinction of flags.” This treaty, like the concession which the Suez

1 See Report of Select Committee on Tonnage, 1874, p. 231.

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