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The spaces included in the engine room, under the Panama rules, are specifically stated in Article XIII. The engine-room spaces include the engine. room itself and the boiler room, together with the spaces strictly required for the working of the engines and boilers with the addition of the spaces taken up by shaft trunks (in vessels with screw propellers), the spaces which inclose the funnels and the spaces which are within the light and air casings up to the uppermost full-length deck, or to the covering of the first tier of side-to-side erections, if any, upon that deck, and the spaces occupied by the donkey engine and boiler when the donkey engine and boiler are within the boundary of the main engine room or of the light and air casing above it, and when used in connection with the main propelling machinery.

The cubical contents of the engine-room spaces are to be determined by the method of measurement included in the Moorsom system of measurement. Presumably, ships measured for national registry will have had the contents of their engine rooms measured by applying this method. The method is, however, included in the Panama rules to be applied to the measurement of the engine-room spaces when those spaces have not been measured by rules substantially the same as the method stated in the Panama rules.

The method of measuring fuel spaces when deductions are made by the actual measurement of spaces occupied by machinery and fuel are stated in Article XIV; and, in order to secure absolute uniformity in measurement practice, Article XIV stipulates what spaces shall be measured when propelling-power deductions are made by actual measurement. The spaces to be measured include the engine room as defined in Article XIII, and, in addition thereto, fixed coal bunkers, fuel-oil tanks, and such double-bottom compartments as are fitted for the stowage of fuel oil, provided such bunkers, tanks, and fuel comparments have been certified by official marking to be spaces for the vessel's fuel. The Panama rules also provide, as do the regulations issued by the British Board of Trade, that the bunkers measured for fuel deduction shall include only those bunkers that are absolutely permanent from which the coal can be trimmed directly into the engine room or stokehole, and into which access can be obtained only through the ordinary coal chutes on deck and from doors opening into the engine room or stokehole. Thwartship bunkers that can be in any way extended are not to be included in the measurement for deductions.

The Panama rules apply the same method of determining propelling-power deductions to vessels equipped with internal-combustion engines as is applied to vessels having steam engines, i. e., the propelling-power deduction in the case of internal-combustion engines may be made either by the Danube rule or by the actual measurement of machinery and fuel spaces.

The total deductions for machinery and fuel spaces, whether made in accordance with the Danube rule or by the actual measurement of the spaces deducted, shall not exceed 50 per cent of the gross tonnage. This rule is the same as that contained in the Suez Canal Co.'s regulations and results in a maximum percentage deduction that is practically equivalent to the percentage which the British measurement rules permit after the 1st of January, 1914, when the deductions under the British rule are to be limited to 55 per cent of the gross tonnage remaining after all other deductions have been made. In the Panama, as in the Suez and other measurement, rules, tugs used exclusively as tugs are exempted from this limitation.

In the determination of net tonnage, no space shall be deducted unless it has been included in gross tonnage (Art. XV). This provision is to be found in most measurement rules.

The use of the whole or any portion of a deducted space, other than fuel spaces deducted in accordance with the Danube rule, to stow cargo of any kind or stores other than boatswain's stores or to provide passenger accommodations shall be evidence that the entire space thus wholly or partially occupied is a part of the actual earning capacity of the ship and the entire space shall be added to, and become a permanent part of, the net tonnage upon which Panama Canal tolls shall be collected.

MEASUREMENT OFFICIALS AUTHORIZED TO ISSUE PANAMA CANAL TONNAGE CERTIFICATES.

The rules provide, in Articles XVI to XVIII, that vessels may be measured for Panama Canal tonnage certificates, and that the certificates may be issued by, (1) such officials as are authorized to measure vessels at ports of the United States for purposes of national registry, (2) such officials as are authorized in the several foreign countries to measure vessels for national registry, and (3) such other officials as may be authorized by the President of the United States, or those acting for him, to issue Panama Canal tonnage certificates.

It is expected that new vessels, American and foreign, will be measured for Panama Canal tonnage certificates at the time the vessels are measured for national registry, and that such vessels as are in service at the time the Panama Canal is opened will be measured for Panama Canal tonnage when at their home ports, before clearing therefrom for voyages that will take them through the Panama Canal. Should any vessel other than a warship arrive at the canal without a Panama Canal tonnage certificate, it will need to be measured by the officials at the Isthmus before the ship is allowed to pass through the canal or to clear therefrom.

All tonnage certificates presented by vessels at the canal are subject to correction by the officials authorized by the President of the United States, or by those acting for him, to administer the Panama measurement rules. Tonnage certificates presented by the masters of vessels upon application for passage through the canal may be changed by the officials at the canal in so far as may be necessary to make the certificates and the tonnage of vessels conform to the requirements of the Panama measurement rules. The tonnage certificates issued by the measurement authorities of all countries must correspond in substance and form to the Panama . Canal tonnage certificate accompanying, and forming a part of, the Panama measurement rules. It is expected that the measurement authorities of foreign countries will issue, in their respective languages, Panama Canal tonnage certificates corresponding in substance and form to the official Panama Canal tonnage certificate appended to the Panama measurement rules.

If

any vessel applying for passage through the Panama Canal has deck cargo on board, the space occupied by that cargo shall be measured by the officials at the Isthmus, and the tonnage of the space thus occupied shall be added to the vessel's net tonnage upon which tolls are paid. Article VII of the rules designates what shall be considered as deck cargo, and states the method to be followed in measuring the spaces occupied by such cargo.

RULES FOR DETERMINING THE ACTUAL DISPLACEMENT OF VESSELS OF WAR OTHER THAN ARMY

AND NAVY TRANSPORTS, COLLIERS, SUPPLY SHIPS, AND HOSPITAL SHIPS.

Panama tolls upon warships other than Army and Navy transports, colliers, supply ships, and hospital ships are payable upon the actual displacement of the vessels at the time of their application for passage through the canal, and before the vessels have taken on such fuel, stores, or şupplies as may be purchased after arrival at the canal. “Warships,” in the meaning of the Panama rules, are vessels of war, other than Army and Navy transports, colliers, hospital ships, and supply ships (as supply ships and colliers are defined in Article I of the rules). Warships must be vessels of Government ownership that are being employed by their owners for military or naval purposes.

The actual displacement of a warship draft upon arrival at the canal shall be ascertained from the official document or documents which a vessel of war regularly carries—its curve of displacement, its curves for addition to displacement for change of trim, and its displacement scale stating the tonnage of displacement at each possible mean draft. Warships are to pay Panama Canal tolls on the tonnage of actual displacement as shown by these official documents, duly authenticated; and if the tonnage of displacement is stated in metric tons, the tonnage is to be changed to English long tons.

If for any reason, which the Governor of the Panama Canal or the official authorized to act for him deems to be satisfactory, the commander of a warship applying for passage through the Panama Canal is unable to present a duly certified document from which the vessel's actual displacement tonnage may be read or calculated, the measuring officials at the canal shall determine the vessel's approximate tonnage of displacement from such reliable data as may be available or by taking such dimensions of the vessel and using such approximate methods as may be considered necessary and practicable.

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE AND LIST OF PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED.

Tonnage and vessel measurement are large subjects concerning which there is much printed information. The list here presented includes the titles of only the principal works used in preparing this report; and the books, reports, and papers consulted furnished only a part of the data required in the preparation of the report, much information having been obtained by correspondence and conference with shipowners, the builders of ships and engines, and government officials in charge of vessel measurement. Especially valuable information was given by the Principal Surveyor to Lloyd's Register for the United States and Canada and by the Chief of the Bureau of Construction and Repair of the Navy Department. The United States Commissioner of Navigation, Hon. E. T. Chamberlain, has been frequently consulted. His knowledge and experience were of much assistance.

The leading printed sources consulted may be conveniently grouped with reference to three subjects: (1) Tonnage and vessel measurement, (2) types of vessels and ship construction, and (3) internal-combustion engines and oil-burning steam engines.

The materials on tonnage and vessel measurement are scattered and fragmentary, and have been printed at different times since 1850. The measurement rules and instructions of the leading countries and of the Suez Canal Co. are reproduced in the appendices of this report. The appendices also contain the Report of the International Tonnage Commission of 1873, the Report of the British Royal Commission on Tonnage of 1881, and extracts from Lieut. V. Béret's Étude Sur le Juageage. Béret's work contains the only recent comparison of the leading codes of measurement rules. It also presents briefly the history of measurement.

Among the principal historical sources are the Report, Minutes of Evidence, and Appendices to the Report of the British Royal Commission on Tonnage of 1881, the Report and Minutes of Evidence of the Select Parliamentary Committee on Tonnage of 1874, and the correspondence of the British delegates and Procés-Verbaux of the meetings held by the International Tonnage Commission of 1873. The Nautical Magazine published a series of 10 articles on “Tonnage, Past and Present,” during 1889 and 1890, which contain much historical data. Good, but brief, historical chapters may be found in White's Manual of Naval Architecture, and in Lloyd's Calendar of 1911.

Of the books on types of vessels and on ship construction, in their bearing upon tonnage, special mention may be made of Walton's Present-Day Shipbuilding; Capt. Paasch's Marine Dictionary (From Keel to Truck); Holm's Practical Shipbuilding; and Bile's The Design and Construction of Ships. The types, construction, and tonnage of warships are well described in Attwood's War Ships, Robinson's Naval Construction, and in the Instructions for Standard Ship Calculations of the United States Bureau of Construction and Repair.

Internal-combustion marine engines and oil-burning steam marine engines are of recent development. The references given below include the titles of several books on ordinary gas engines; but the up-to-date and most instructive material on the Diesel and other internalcombustion oil engines for seagoing vessels is to be found mainly in technical journals and in the proceedings of the associations of marine engineers and of naval architects. Special mention, however, should be made of Chalkley's excellent book on Diesel Engines for Land and Marine Work (1912). Technical papers of special value are to be found in the proceedings of the Institute of Marine Engineers of Great Britain (1910–11 and 1911-12), and the Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects of Great Britain (1911 and 1912). An instructive address by Dr. Rudolf Diesel on the “Present Status of the Diesel Engine in Europe," has been printed in pamphlet form. These and other works on oil engines, however, treat tonnage questions only

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