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LETTER OF SUBMITTAL.

WASHINGTON, D. C., October 2, 1913. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith a report upon the Measurement of Vessels for the Panama Canal. The report is made pursuant to instructions received from the Secretary of War, September 1, 1911, to formulate rules and regulations governing the measurement of ships going through the canal, and to make an investigation and recommendation regarding the tolls to be charged."

A report upon Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls was submitted to the Secretary of War, August 7, 1912, and the rates of toll recommended in that report were established by a proclamation of the President, issued November 13, 1912. The proclamation fixing tolls also announced that “The Secretary of War will prepare and prescribe such rules for the measurement of vessels and such regulations as may be necessary and proper to carry this proclamation into full force and effect."

The report herewith submitted considers in detail the problems of tonnage and vessel measurement, and contains a set of rules which it is recommended be followed in determining the tonnage upon which Panama Canal tolls shall be paid. The principles upon which the rules are based are discussed in the report, and reasons are given for each of the main provisions contained in the code of rules recommended. The introductory chapter presents a short summary of the report and the concluding chapter contains a brief explanation of the main features of the proposed Panama measurement rules.

In preparing this report I have been greatly aided by my assistant, Grover G. Huebner, Ph.D., of the University of Pennsylvania, whose cooperation has made possible the collection, analysis, and presentation of much of the detail embodied in the report.

My thanks are due to Chief Constructor Richard Morgan Watt and other officers of the Bureau of Construction and Repair Department of the Navy, who have cooperated in drafting the rules to determine the tonnage upon which warships shall pay tolls; and I am also indebted to Mr. James H. Mancor, Principal Surveyor, United States and Canada, for Lloyd's Register of Shipping, and to Mr. Hugo P. Frear, Naval Architect, to both of whom the proposed measurement rules were submitted for criticism. Very respectfully,

EMORY R. JOHNSON, Special Commissioner on Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls. The SECRETARY OF WAR.

CONTENTS.

Part 1.-TONNAGE AND MEASUREMENT RULES.

Page.

3

Chapter I. Introduction. Scope of the report...

13

II. Types of vessels distinguished and illustrated..

III. Cargo tonnage, displacement, and dead-weight tonnage.

31

IV. Gross tonnage and its measurement.

43

V. Net tonnage..

71

Part [.-PRINCIPLES CONTROLLING PANAMA MEASUREMENT RULES.

VI. Displacement tonnage the basis of tolls upon warships.....

97

VII. Net tonnage the basis of tolls on merchant ships......

107

VIII. The necessity for special Panama measurement rules......

115

IX. Deductions for propelling power; history and criticism of rules...

125

X. Propelling power deductions for vessels equipped with oil and gas engines..

143

XI. Rules concerning superstructures and "shelter” decks; history and criticism.....

163

XII. International uniformity in tonnage and measurement; past efforts, future possibilities..

185

XIII. Comparison of the Panama and Suez measurement rules...

199

XIV. Main features of the Panama measurement rules.....

207

Bibliographical note and list of principal works consulted...

215

Part III.-RULES FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS FOR THE PANAMA CANAL.

Rules applying to vessels of commerce, Army and Navy transports, colliers, supply ships, and hospital ships.. 225

Deductions from the gross tonnage to ascertain the net tonnage....

236

Rules applying to vessels of war, other than Army and Navy transports, colliers, supply ships, and hospital

ships ......

241

FIGURES.

1. Midship section, showing beams and pillars for lower and main decks..
2. Midship section of two-deck vessel.....

17
3. Midship section of web frame steamer having cellular double-bottom, lower deck dispensed with Face 17
4. Midship section of a steamer with three decks and a shelter deck, lower deck dispensed with..

18
5. Profile of a two-deck ship with forecastle, bridge, and poop....

19
6. Profile of a raised quarter-deck, well-deck steamer .

19
7. Profile of a two-deck, "well”-deck steamer..

Face 20
8. Profile of a steamer having lower, main, and "shelter” decks.

Face 20
9. Profile of a steamer with three decks and a “shelter" deck

Face 20
10. Profile of vessel with shade deck......

22
11. Midship section of freight and passenger vessel, Panama Canal service..

Face 23
12. Profiles of triple-screw steamship, designed for the Panama Canal service..

Face 23
13. Midship section of typical coastwise steamer for Panama Canal service

Face 23
14. Profile of typical coastwise steamer for Panama Canal service...

Face 23
15. Midship section of freight steamer for Panama Canal service...

Face 24
16. Profile of freight steamer for Panama Canal service.......

Face 24
17. Midship section of turret steamer with lower and main (harbor) decks.

25
18. Hold view of self-trimming turret steamer.

Face 26
19. Midship section of trunk steamer....

26
20. Hold view of self-trimming, three-deck steamer.

27
21. Elevation and deck plan of an oil tank steamer.

Face 28
22. Midship section of an oil tank steamer.

Face 28
23. Section in way of fore hold of oil tank steamer.

Face 28

16

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