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Civics

What Every Citizen Should Know

Abolitionists.—Those who contended for “immediate” as opposed to “gradual” abolition of slavery in the United States. William Lloyd Garrison in his paper, The Liberator, first advocated the demand. The National Anti-Slavery Society, whose members soon became known as Abolitionists, was organized in Philadelphia December, 1833.—See Horace Greeley's “ American Conflict"; biographies of “William Lloyd Garrison, Horace Greeley, Joshua R. Giddings, John Brown," etc.

Admiralty Courts.-District Courts of the United States whose jurisdiction extends to all matters arising out of the navigation of the high seas and of the public waters including lakes and navigable rivers in the United States.

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Ad Valorem.-Customs duties levied as a percentage on the value of the goods imported.

Adams, Charles Francis (1807-1886).—United States minister to Great Britain, 1861–1868, arbitrator in Alabama Claims. Son of John Quincy Adams and grandson of John Adams.—See biographies by Charles Francis Adams, Jr., and by Richard Henry Dana.

Adams, John (1735-1826).-Second President of the United States, 1796–1800. Vice-President during Washington's administrations.-See “Life of John Adams,” by John Quincy Adams and Charles Francis Adams, two vols.; “John Adams,” by John T. Morse, Jr., American Statesmon Series.

Adams, John Quincy (1767-1878). -- Sixth President of the United States, 1824–1830. Son of John Adams, Minister to Russia and to Great Britain. One of three commissioners to negotiate Treaty of Ghent (1814). Represen

ative from Massachusetts, 1831-1848. He was an anti-slavery man and his great service in Congress was upholding the right of petition. At eighty years of age he was known as “the old man eloquent."-See “Gag Resolutions : Life and Public Services of John Quincy Adams,” by William H. Seward; “John Quincy Adams," by John T. Morse, Jr., American Statesmen Series.

Adams, Samuel (1729-1803). — Frequently called “The First American Politician," also “The Man of Town Meetings.” Delegate to first Continental Congress (1774), and to second (1776), when he signed the Declaration of Independence. Elected Lieutenant-Governor and afterwards Governor of Massachusetts. He was second cousin to John Adams.See “Samuel Adams,” by J. K. Hosmer, American Statesmen Series.

Agriculture, Department of.—Organized in 1862. Raised to dignity of a representative in the Cabinet in 1889. The department conducts Experimental Stations and Entomological . Research, gives information when requested to individuals, distributes seeds and shade trees to congressional representatives for redistribution in their districts, publishes forecasts and reports of crops and markets throughout the world and in connection with the Signal Service Bureau sends warnings of sudden changes in weather which would be disastrous to crops, to certain stations well known to farmers.

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