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greatest military chiefs of the republic, and what Buonaparte wifhed and aimed at, the union of all parties. It ferved alfo, in fome meafure, to lull all fufpicion of an approaching political explosion. It could fcarcely be expected that any plots were hatching in an affembly convened for the expreffion of common fentiments, and harmonized by the power of music. The Temple of Victory was adorned for the occafion in the most magnificent manner. There was a difplay of the most beautiful tapestries of the gobelins, and the walls were decorated with an immenfe number of standards, taken in the course of the war from the enemies of the republic. On the organ of the church, or temple, various airs were played, iuitable to the occafion. To this feaft there were no women* admitted, nor yet any fpectators. The number of guefts was feven hundred and fifty. At the head of the principal table was placed the prefident of the council of elders; on his right hand Gohier, the prefident of the directory; on his left, general Moreau; next in order

came Lucian Buonaparte, prefident of the council of five hundred, and then the general, his brother, Among the toafts that were given there were two, which were fuppofed to exprefs the fentiments of the better and founder part of the nation. The prefident of the directory gave for his toaft, "peace:" general Buonaparte, "the union of all Frenchmen." Neither the generals Jourdan and Augereau, nor Briot, nor fome others of the moft active jacobins, though members of the legiflature, came to this entertainment: the tone of which was not fuited to their tempers. It was characterized from beginning to end by filence, and an air of conftraint. There was no other converfation than fome obfervations on the mufic. After fome public toafts Buonaparte disappeared, and the feast was over in little more than an hour.

In proportion as matters were concerted between Buonaparte and Sieyes, and Roederer, whom they admitted as their confident and co-adjutor, and as their project feemed practicable rife for execution,


The women in France, after all their zealous fervices in the revolution, have been but very fcurvily treated by their countrymen, " mark too what return the women have met with for all their horrid fervices, where, to exprefs their fentiments of civism and abhorrence of royalty, they threw away the character of their fex, and cut the amputated limbs of their murdered countrymen. Surely thefe patriotic women merited that the rights of their fex fhould be confidered in full council, and they were well entitled to a feat; but there is not a fingle act of their government, in which the sex is confidered as having any rights whatever, or that they are things to be cared for."Profeffor Robinson's proefs of a confpiracy against all the religions and governments of Europe.

Roederer, originally from Lorraine, and formerly a counfellor in the parliament of Metz, was appointed a member of the conftituent affembly. He then became a procureur fyndic of the department of Paris, journalist and political writer. He was a valuable tool to most of the jacobins that fucceeded each other in the government. He efcaped through them all, and cultivated the favour of all who were willing to employ him. He is charged by many with deceit, perfidy, and roguery. These charges may be the offspring, in times of fuch fierce contention, ef hatred and envy. It is, however, univerfally allowed that no one in Paris, not even a lawyer, deferved a higher reputation for intrigue, pliability, and artifice. He certainly was not defi

exécution, it was communicated to wider and wider circles of fuch members of the legislative affemblies, as they reckoned with confidence among their friends and adherents. And, what is remarkable in fo communicative a nation, the fecret, though neceffarily impart ed to a great number of perfons, was kept till the moment of the intended explosion. On the evening of the day after the feaft, twenty members of both councils affembled at the houfe of Lemercier, prefident of the council of elders. Thefe were Lucian Buonaparte, Boulay de la Meurthe, Lemercier, Courtois, Cabarus, Regnier, Fargues, Villetard, Chazal, Barillon, Bouteville, Cornet, Wimar,, Delecloy, Fregeville, le Hatry, Goupil, Prelelyn, Rouffeau, Herwyn, Cornudet. Thele legislators, after taking an oath of fecrecy, feparated, for the purpofe of preparing as many as they could truft for the new


By an article of the conftitution of the third year of the republic, 1795, it was established " that the council of elders might change whenever they should think proper, the refidence of the legislative bodies; that in this cafe they should appoint a new place and time for the meeting of the two councils; and that whatever the elders fhould decree, with regard to this point, hould be held irrevocable. This fundamental law, which had been adopted on the recommendation and authority of abbé Sieyes, who had been a member of the commiflion for framing the conftitution, be

came the fulcrum, as it were, of a new revolution. A majority of the commiffion of infpectors, agreably to what had been agreed on, on the pretext of jacobin confpiracies. ready to burft forth in Paris (an alarm for which, according to some writers, there was not a little foundation), fent letters of convocation to the members of the council of elders, with the exception of fuch as were diftinguifhed by an excefs of jacobinical ardour, and at eight o'clock in the morning of the ninth of November, the members, to whom letters had been fent, at five, affembled at their ufual place of meeting. The greatest number, ignorant of the cause of this unufnal convocation, were informed, by thofe in the fecret, of a confpiracy that was brewing, and advifed the adoption of whatever ́ effectual meafures fhould be propofed för averting the danger. As foon as the aflembly was formed, Carnot, one of the infpectors, having af cended the tribune, reprefented the dangers which threatened the country, and expatiated on the neceffity of fpeedy and effective meafures for its deliverance. He was followed in the fame, but in a more animated and alarming strain by Regnier, who, in conclufion, declared, that the remedy which had been prepared, was, to trantport the legiflative body to a com mune near Paris, where they might deliberate fafely on the measures neceflary for the falvation of the country. He allured the council, at the fame time, that Buonaparte was ready to undertake the execu

cient in the knowledge of men and bufinefs. This is the fame Reederer that is noticed in our volume for 1792, on the occafion of the kings throwing himself into the arms of the conftituent affembly. See volume XXXIV. of this work-History of Europe, page 42.

tion of whatever decree he might be charged with. Regnier, therefore moved, that the council should be referred to St. Cloud. The difcuffion of other motions, made by different members, was overvoted, and Regnier's carried by a great majority. It was farther moved and agreed to, that this tranflation fhould take place on the following day; that Buonaparte fhould be charged with the execution of the decree, and to take the necellary measures for the fecurity of the national representation; that, for this end, he should be invefted with the general command of every kind of armed force at Paris; that he fhould be called into the council to take the requifite oaths; and, finally, that a message, containing the refolution of the council, fhould be sent to the directory, and to the council of five hundred. An addrefs was alfo voted to the French people, ftating the right poffeffed by the council of elders to remove the legiflative body to St. Cloud, and allo the motives which had induced them to use this privilege in the prefent circumstances. Their general object, they alleged, was, to reprefs a fpirit. of infubordination, faction, and endless commotion, and to obtain a speedy peace both within and without the territories of the republic. This addrefs had the defired effect. The Parisians, defirous of peace, confident in Buonaparte, and breathing inceffantly after fomething new, waited calmly for the developement and catafirophe of the piece now to be acted. Buonaparte, thus invested with irresistible military power, obeyed the welcome fumirons, and appeared in the hall of the aflembly, accompanied by Berthier, Lefebre,

Macdonald, and other general offieers. He pronounced a fhort speech at the bar, and swore that he would execute the decree of the council in his own name, and that of his companions in arms. "Woe be to thofe, he faid, who wish for commotion and diforder. Affifted by my brave companions I will put a ftop to them. Examples are not to be looked for in paft times. Nothing in hiftory resembles the close of the eighteenth century: nor is any thing in the clofe of the eighteenth century like the prefent moment. We want a republic founded on civil liberty; or a national representation. We fhall have it. I fwear we fhall." The meffage of the elders being read at the bar of the council of five hundred, the deputies, who were not in the fecret, or who were of the democratical party, were ftruck with aftonishment, but kept filence. All deliberation was fufpended, and the house adjourned till next day, at twelve o'clock. On going out of the hall, fome of the memhers cried vive la republique. Others who began to entertain fome vague fufpicions of what was intended, added, vive la conflitution !-Meanwhile, the walls of Paris were covered with proclamations prepared for the occafion. In one of thefe Buonaparte acquainted the national guard with the measures that had been taken by the council of elders. In another he informed the foldiers of the command which had been conferred on him, inviting them to fecond him with their accustomed courage and firmness, promifing them that liberty, victory, and peace, and to restore the republic to the rank which two years ago


it bad held in Europe, and which
incapacity and treafon had brought
to the verge of deftruction. To
the officers of the national feden-
tary guard, at Paris, he declared, in
a third, that a new order of things
was on the point of being fettled,
that the council of elders was go-
ing to fave the ftate, and that who-
ever thould oppofe their defign,
fhould perifh by the bayonet of the
foldier. At the fame time care
was taken that, thefe proclama-
tions fhould be fupported by a due
military force. But fill every at-
tempt was made to colour the en-
terprize as much as poffible, not
only with patriotic profethons but
legal appearances. For this end,
a pamphlet, on the fame day, No:
vember 9, was diftributed at the
doors of the two councils, and
throughout all Paris, entitled " A
Dialogue between a Member of the
Council of Elders, and a Member of
the Council of Five Hundred." The
former endeavours to overcome the
objections, and to allay the fears of
the latter, refpecting the tranflations
of the councils, by obferving that
it was a conftitutional measure;
that in the prefent circumstances,
it was neceffary to the freedom of
deliberation and debate; that, as
to infuring the execution of this
menfure, by an armed force, this
alfo must be confidered as a thing
conftitutional, or clearly within the
powers of the council of elders,
who, if they would change the re-
fidence of the legislature must alfo
be fuppofed to pollefs the means of
changing it in peace and fafety;
that the Parifians would have no
reafon to complain of it, as the
councils would remain at St. Cloud,
only for a few days; that protec-
tion was going to be afforded to li-


berty and property, the conftitution reftored, the reign of terror and factious intrigue overthrown; and a bafis eftablifhed, on which foreign powers would treat with confidence for peace, which was the grand object of the prefent meafure. To this reafoning the member of the council of five hundred made little objection. "But," faid he,, " between ourfelves, my friend, I dread, in this affair, the interference of Buonaparte. His renown, his authority, the juft confidence that the army place in his talents, and, above all, his talents themfelves, may place in his lands the inoft formidable afcendency over the deftinies of the republic. What, if he fhould prove a Cæfar or a Cromwell? Here the elder quoted the words of Buonaparte, that "He would be a fool who fhould fport the glory of hav ing contributed to the establishment of liberty and a republic against the fovereignty of Europe." He went ftill farther and affirmed that Buonaparte's ready acceptance of the commiffion which he had been called on to execute, by the elders, was a moft unequivocal proof of his moderation and fubmiffion to his country. If he had refused to accept it what would have been faid of him by any man of judgement and pene. tration? Why nothing elfe, but that his refufal was the relult of profound ambition. Every thing tends faft to anarchy and confufion. The republic is on the point of diffolution. Edonaparte, amidst a thousand excoffes and horrors, will afk the com mand of the army and will obtain it. Every citizen, wearied with fruitles attempts to bring the guilty to juf tice, or to find an afylum for himTelf, will turn his eyes to the gene. ral, throw himself into his arms, and demand


demand from him vengeance, juftice, and protection In order to be invefted with arbitrary power, it would then be only neceflary for him to accept it.".

The general, on the night between the eighth and ninth, fent a confiderable orce to the palace of the elders, while he himself, with a great number of fiaff officers, repaired to the Thuilleries; all the avenues of which were hut up from the public. A ftrong detacli ment of cavalry was ftationed near the ball of the council of five hundred. Thele different bodies were reinforced in the morning by additional troops, and particularly by cavalry and artillery.

Of the five directors, Sieyes alone was privy all along to what was going forward. Ducos was admitted into the fecret afterwards. Barras was informed of the change that had taken place early on the morning of the ninth, and invited to give in his refignation. He hefitated for fome time, but at length fent in his refignation into the hands of general Buonaparte, who had come to the Thuilleries, at eleven, by Bottot, about twelve o'clock. The general, when Bottot arrived, had juft gone out to harangue the officers, foldiers, and citizens, in some of the adjoining courts, and garden. Bottot whispered to the general the object of his million. Buonaparte with his left hand took hold of Bottot's arm, and placed him a little behind, and then began his fpeech to the troops, the exordium of which was "The army has cordially united with me, as I cordially act with the legislative body." Some fentences in this harangue, reflecting on the conduct of adminiftration, were afterwards mifreprefent

ed as addreffed to Bottot, and point ed particularly againft Barras. But the fact has been fully afcertained to have been otherwife. When, this fpeech, which was followed by repeated acclamations of vive la Republic! vive Buonaparte! was finifhed, Buonaparte, took Bottot afide and defired him to tell Barras that he was inviolably attached to him, and would protect him against the violence of his enemies..

Gohier, who did not rife from bed il late in the morning, was furprifed to find on his table the decree of the council of elders for changing the refidence of the legiflature. He repaired to the councilroom of the directory, where he met Moulins as much furprized and perplexed as himself. Their perplexity was increased when they discovered that Sieyes and Ducos, in confes quence of a meffage from the elders, had repaired to the Thuilleries, The fecretary was called to write their orders, but it was observed that two members did not form a majority. They repeatedly fent for Barras, who pofitively refused to join in their deliberations. As the only refource that now remained was that of military force, they fent orders to general Lefebre, who commanded the 17th divifion, to furround the honfe of Buonaparte, with a frong party of the directorial guard. But general Lefebre fent for anfwer, that he was then under the orders of Buonaparte, on whom the chief command of all the troops, in and near Paris, had been conferred, by the council of elders. And it was quickly discovered that the directorial guard had gone over to the fide of the general, and had joined a large body of other troops, in the garden of the Thuilleries.


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