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perhaps, owing to that eafe and gaiety of manner that he obtained, in the end, all that he had demanded. A degree of misunderstanding had taken place for fome time be tween the English, as individuals, and the Auftrians. The former reproached the latter with the great length to which the fiege had been protracted. Maflena endeavoured to widen and to take advantage of this want of harmony, by flattering the pride of one party at the expenfe of the felf-love of the other. He faid to lord Keith, "Do you, my lord, only permit a little grain to be carried into Genoa, and I give you my word that these gentlemen (looking at the Auftrian generals) fhall never fet foot there." Toward the end of the conference he again addreffed lord Keith, perfonally: My lord, if France and England could only understand one another, they would govern the world." In the whole of this conference, lord Keith treated Malena, as the general often acknowledged, in a very civil and handsome manner. His lordship ditclaimed all hard conditions. He always faid, "General, the defence you have made has been fo heroic, that it is impoffible to re
fufe you any thing that you ask.” At length, at feven o'clock at night, Maffena figned the treaty for the evacuation of Genoa, and the contracting parties mutually gave hoftages. The fubftance of the treaty was, that the right wing of the French army, charged with the defence of Genoa, and the com¬ mander-in-chief with his ftaff, should go out of Genoa with their arms and baggage, in order to rejoin the centre of the faid army by land.--The fame liberty was granted to eight thoufand one hundred men, who had permiffion to enter France by Nice. The reft were tranl ported by fea to Antibes, and were duly provided with provitions.Due attention was allo paid to the hofpitals and the prifoners. Pall ports were granted to the Genoele patriots. The Auftrians took poffeflion of the gates of the city, and the English of the entrance into the harbour. French commiflioners remained at Genoa to fee the articles, that had been agreed on refpecting the fick, and the hofpitals, duly executed. Mallena was allowed to fend a courier, with a pallport, to Buonaparte, to announce the evacuation of Genoa.
This is a compliment very common in the mouths of all Frenchmen to the Erglith nation. But if ever the English fhould join France, for fubduing and governing the world, they must lay their account with either fubching the French, or being, themselves, as well as the rest of the world, fubdued by them. It would be better for both the French and English nations, if they would let the world alone.
CHA P. XII.
Army of Referve.-Plan of Buonaparte for retrieving the French Affairs in Italy. He Marches his Army across the Alps.Takes Poffeffion of Milan.-Decifive Battle of Maringo.
AD any difafter happened to
ing the campaign, Buonaparte might have been induced to balance the neceflity of fending relief to the
army of Italy, with that of fending fuccours to Germany. The fplendid fucceffes of Moreau, left him at liberty to do that to which he was moft inclined: to fend the army of referve into Italy. This army was ordered to Geneva, through the Païs de Vaud, and the lower Valais to Martigny, a village fix leagues from the Great St. Bernard, where the firft conful, leaving Paris on the fixth of May, joined it, and made a ftay of three days, during which preparations were made for the afcent of the mountain."
The firft conful had determined upon the measure of marching an army to Italy with the utmoft expedition, on account of the fituation in which Matiena was then placed; who was shut up in Genoa, and reduced to great firaights, by general Melas. In this extremity, Buonaparte had refolved to fur. mount every difficulty in the pailge of the Alps, in order to attack the rear of the Auftrian army.
Fortunately, about this time, geDeflaix had arrived at Paris t; and, as the firft con
ful was well acquainted with the
was glad of his affiftance in this enterprize.
The principal part of the army was intended to pafs by Mount St. Bernard; other divifions, were intended to crofs by Mount Cenis, the Simplon, and Mount St. Gothard.
On the fifteenth of May, Buona, parte paffed St. Bernard, and at Remi, diftant fix leagues from the monaftry, firft law the Auftrians, who, though inferior in numbers, difputed the ground ftep by step with the republicans, until they faw another part of the army defeending, as if with intent to attack them in the rear.
No part of the artillery of this army had at that time crofled the mountains. It had been collected at the village of St. Pierre, and it may be fuppofed it was a work of no fmall difficulty to tranfport it acrofs the Alps. It was, however, effentially neceffary that fuch a tranfport fhould be made, and the following means was used to effect it:
Every piece of cannon was dif mounted, and placed in troughs hollowed out of trees cut down for the purpose. These were drawn by five or fix hundred men, according to the fize and weight of
the piece. The wheels fixed to poles, were borne on mens' fhoulders; the tumbrils were emptied, and placed on fledges, together with the axle-trees. The ammunition, packed up in boxes, was carried on the backs of mules. To encourage the men, from four to five hundred franks were allowed for every piece of artillery thus tranfported. One half of a regi. ment was employed in drawing cannon, whilft the other half bore the neceffary baggage belonging to their corps. The men proceeded in fingle files, it being impoffible for two to draw abreaft, or to pals each other without danger of falling down the precipices on the fide. The man who led, stopped, from time to time, when every one took the refreshment of buifcuit, moiftened in fnow water. It was the labour of five hours to reach the monaftery of St. Bernard, when each man was refreshed with a glafs of wine. They had then eighteen miles of defcent, by far the most difficult and hazardous, which they did not accomplish till nine the next night, being ten hours-in performing it. Buonaparte, and his ftaff, marched on foot, and were in feveral places obliged to flide down feated on the fnow.
On the fixteenth of May, the vanguard reached Aofta, garrifoned by a Hungarian battalion, which, after tome lois, evacuated the place, when a deputation from the town waited upon the conful to furrender it.
The van-guard now proceeded to the attack of Chatillon, near which place general Lannes was imformed the Auftrians were preparing to oppole his paffage over a bridge thrown acrols a precipice; but the Auftrians were fo vigorously at
tacked by a body of huffars, that they were foon driven off the bridge with a contiderable lois, and fut themselves up in Fort De Barre, built on an inacceffible rock.
This fort, from its fituation in a narrow neck, appeared to flop the progrefs of the whole army; and, if it could not be reduced in four days, every foldier muft have perifhed through hunger, as the provifions were nearly exhaufted, and no means left of procuring an additional fupply. Had general Meias forefeen this obftacle, he might, by a timely oppofition, have frufirated the fuc cels of Buonaparte's expedition.
The rock on which the fort is built, is in the fhape of a fugarloaf; the pafs at its foot is fkirted by a deep and rapid river, called the Doria; on the oppofite fide of which is a feep inacceffible rock. There was no alternative; the fort muft either be taken or another paffage fought. Each had its difficulties, but Buonaparte's genius furmounted them.
The fuburb was taken poffeffion of by three companies of granadiers previous to an attack on the fort, which was defended by five hundred men, and twenty-two pieces of cannon.
The attack was made at night, when the republicans climbed up the rocks and over the pallifade amidft a fhower of balls, and drove the Auftrians from the works, but were at laft obliged to retreat themfelves.
This check made the conful refolve to find out another paflage, when a way was difcovered up the rock Albaredo; which afcent gained, might with a like difficulty, be defcended. But the artillery could not polibly be tranfported this way; it was therefore refolved, at
every hazard, to pafs the carriages through the fuburb. Every means was ufed, by letting out in the dark, and by fpreading litter along the way to deaden the found, and prevent fufpicion in the garrifon; yet, these precautions did not prevent the Auftrians from difcovering their defign, and the men were fired upon and killed by every difcharge. At length, Buonaparte ordered a cannon to be raised, and placed upon the top of the church, which fo effectually battered the tower over the gate, that the garrifon, fearing a fecond affault, furrendered at difcretion.
A paffage was now opened to the republican army, which experienced no farther obftruction until it reached Ivrea, a town betwixt Aofta and Turin, from both which places it is diftant about eight leagues; and whither the army proceeded as foon as the foldiers had refreshed themselves with the provifions found in Fort De Barre.This place was efcaladed and taken, with fourteen pieces of cannon, on the twenty-third of May, by a divifion under general Boudet, before the main army reached it.
Buonaparte, inftead of continuing his courfe fouthwards, to Turin, turned off to Romagno, eastwards, having received intelligence of a force collected there of fix thoufand men, partly compofed of Auftrian troops, which he had driven before him, and a number drawn from Turin. This body had taken a pofition at Romagno, and was intrenched behind the Sefia, a deep and rapid river. They appeared to be ignorant as well of the ftrength of the French army, as that it had Buonaparte with it, and treated its defigns with contempt, but were
the next day convinced of their mif take, when general Lannes forced their entrenchments, and cut them to pieces, notwithstanding their ca valry made fome shew of resistance.
On the twenty-fixth of May, Buonaparte gave orders for two divifions to march towards Turin, whilft his van-guard bore upon Chiufella and the Po. This was done in order to deceive the Auftrians, who thereupon croffed that river, and took a pofition on the right bank. Whilt the attention of the Auftrians was taken up with this manœuvre, gereral Murat, at the head of a divifion of cavalry, entered Vercelli the next day, on the road to Milan. Other divifions, about the fame time, took poffeffion of Suza and Brunette, and Ariolo.
The Auftrians, finding themfelves not in fufficient force to defend Milan, against the republican army, evacuated that city on the fecond of June, after a flight oppofition; and it appears that the French were well received by the inhabitants, who were already revolutionized.
After fome short ftay at Milan, the van-guard of the army marched and took poffeffion of Pavia, on the fifth of June, on which day Genoa furrendered to the allies; and on which very day orders were fent to general Ott to raise the fiege. At Pavia, the republican army found confiderable magazines, and five hundred pieces of cannon, with a large quantity of ammunition.
During this time, general Melas was at Turin, and the greatest part of his army in the Genoefe territory, a pofifion which he preferved too long; perhaps, partly owing to orders he had received from Vienna, and partly to his ignorance of Buonaparte's real ftrength. To
this fecurity the mifcarriages and misfortunes of the Auftrian army, which followed, may be attributed. To make a powerful diverfion, Melas detached general O'Reilly to Placentia, and general Otto, upon the Teffino. A detachment of fix thousand men was likewife fent to Chivallo, upon the Po, which, turning off to Vercelli, retook three hundred Auftrian prifoners.
The manoeuvre of advancing as far as Chiavaffo, which is within fifteen miles of Turin, was a faint for mifleading the Auftrians, by seeming to threaten that city.
The concentration of the Auftrian forces feemed to discover an inten-, tion of offering battle. General Murat defeated O'Reilly, and made himself master of Placentia, from whence O'Reilly fell back upon Otto, at Stradello and Montebello. The French army had now taken a pofition on the Po, where it is joined to the Teffino, and becomes then of equal depth with the Rhine. The republicans had no longer to do with fmall detachments, but were met by the Auftrian advanced-guard of eighteen thousand men. The French army was now encreafing, and was joined by a divifion of the army of the Rhine, which had feparated at Ulm, and had pafled the Alps, by Mount St. Gothard.
The French van-guard croffed the Po, and made a vigorous attack upon the Auftrian army, which they drove before them into the marthes, until night put a stop to the parfuit, which was followed the next day by the battle of Montebello.
The battle of Montebello was very bloody; that place was taken and retaken by the contending arVOL. XLII.
mies. The van-guard, under general Lannes, had fuffered confiderably, when it was reinforced by general Watrin's divifion, which decided the battle in favour of the republicans; and, the Auftrians having loft fix thoufand prifoners, and twelve pieces of canrion, with feveral fficers of diftinction, killed or wounded, were forced to retreat to Voguera.
The day following, the French army marched through Voguera, and took fome pofitions before Tortona, which city the van-guard furrounded without oppofition. The Auftrian army had now arrived from Genoa, and had fixed its headquarters at Alexandria. As a general engagement appeared to be unavoidable, every preparation was made for it.
The French army quitted its po fition near Tortona, and advanced into the plain betwixt that city and Alexandria, forming in order of battle, as the feveral divifions arrived. Meanwhile Buonaparte carefully examined the plain and village of Maringo; but, the day proving wet, nothing was done until the following (the fixteenth of June), which was ushered in by feveral difcharges of cannon; and the preparatives on the fide of the Auftrians appeared to be decifive for
battle before noon.
Buonaparte and Berthier had entered the plain, and the fire of cannon and mutketty began to be brifk. The Austrian line extended fix miles in length, and fteadily preferved its pofitions, particularly at the bridge over the Bormida; but, the principal point of action, and whereto they directed their chief attention, was at Sans-Stefano, from which point the Auftrians