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and that fuccefs, which had hereto fore attended Buonaparte, feemed now unwillingly to forfake him.The divifions of Monnier and Def faix coming up, infured victory to the republican army, by infpiring it with renewed courage. To this, an unfortunate mistake, which Melas committed, about the fame time, did not a little contribute. That general, finding he could neither force the defile, nor make any impreffion on the centre of the French army, perhaps, prefuming too far on his fuccefs, and being moreover ignorant of the reinforcements which the republican army had received, weakened his line, by extenfion, in order to furround it.

Buonaparte faw the error Melas had been guilty of, and instantly availed himself of it, y the orders he gave. The troops of the republic quitted the defile, and, as they left it, formed in order of battle, and prefented a fresh and formidable front to the Auftrians, now nearly exhaufied and fatigued with fuccefs.

The Auftrians were now vigoroufly charged, and fell back in their turn: their numerous cavalry was thrown into diforder, and the French huffars hitherto inferior, now charged and difperfed the fugitives. On the right, Deffaix bore down all before him, while Victor, on the left, carried Maringo, and bore down rapidly on the Bormida; where, getting poffeffion of the bridge, he cut off the retreat of the Auftrians on that fide. At the moment that Defaix gaining SansStefano, cut off the Auftrian left wing, the younger Kellerman made prifoners of fix thoufand Hungarian grenadiers. The Auftrian general, Zach, was made a prifoner, and Deflaix, in the very inftant of victory,

tory, received a wound, of which he died. Night by this time approached, and found the Auftrians every where retreating before the victorious republicans.

The next morning prefented a field of battle covered with the wounded and the flain, and gave both armies an armiflice, and an opportunity to bury the dead, to attend the wounded, and to recover the wearied and haraffed foldier from his late fatigue.

It was computed by the French that the campaign of Buonaparte, from the time of his defcending from Mount St. Bernard, till the clofe of the day of Maringo, coft the Auftrians above fixty thoufand men. In the morning of that day, the French force amounted to about fifty thoufand men, of whom three thoufand were cavalry, and two companies of light artillery, with thirty pieces of cannon: the Auftrian force to about fixty thoufand, of which fifteen thousand were cavalry. In artillery, the Auftrians were fill more fuperior to the French. Buonaparte, in the bat tle of Maringo, had his clothes pierced with balls in different places. General Melas had two horfes killed under him, and received a contufion in his arm.

The reader of military hiftory may recolle that it was, in like manner, that the English, by breaking their lime, fuffered victory to elude their grafp at Fontenoy.

On the morning after the battle, the generals in chief of the French and imperial armies entered into a convention, by which an armiftice was established between the contending armies until an answer fhould be received from the court of Vienna. The imperialifts were

to occupy all the country compri-' fed between the Mincio and FoffaMaeftra, and the Po; that is to fay, Pefchiera, Mantua, Borgoforte, and thence the whole left bank of the Po. And on the right bank, the city and the citadel of Ferrara. The imperialifts were alfo to occupy Tufcany and An



The French army was to occupy the country comprised between the Chiefa, the Oglio, and the Po.—' The country between the Chiefa and the Mincio was not to be occupied by either of the two ar


The imperial army to draw fubfiftence from thofe parts of that country which made part of the dutchy of Mantua. The French' army to draw fubfiftence from those parts of that country which made part of the province of Brefcia. The caftles of Tortona, of Alexandria, of Milan, of Turin, of Pizzighetone, of Arona, and Placentia, were to be put into the hands of the French army, between the fixteenth and twentieth of June. The place of Coni, the caftles of Ceva, Savona, and the city of Genoa to be put into the hands of the French army between the twenty-fixth and twenty-fourth of June; and the fort of Urbino on the twenty-fixth. The artillery and the provisions of the places evacuated to be divided.-The garrifons to march out with military honours, and repair with arms and baggage, by the forteft route, to Mantua. No individual to be ill-treated on account of any fervice rendered the Auftrian army, or for any political opinions. The Auftrian general, on his part, alfo engaged to releafe all perfons in the ftrong places under his command, who might have been taken [02] up

up in the Cifalpine republic for political opinions. Whatever might be the answer from Vienna, neither of the two armies were to attack the other without ten days previous


The last article of this treaty was of very great military importance. It provided that, during the fufpenfion of arms, neither of the armies fhould fend detachments into Germany. The propofal for the armiftice was firft made, as will be readily fuppofed, by general Melas. Buonaparte's anfwer to the Auftrian general's meflage, refpecting terms, was remarkably laconic as well as dignified: dignified not by pride and loftinels, but moderation. "The Auftrian army fhall iminediately retire within the line which it fhould occupy, according to the treaty of Campo-Formio." He immediately difpatched a meffenger with an offer of a general peace to the emperor, on the fame bafis.

While the treaty for an armistice was drawn up, Buonaparte prepared to return to Milan, in order to re-organize the Cifalpine republic. Before he fet off, he fent general Melas a prefent of a Turkish fabre, brought from Egypt. General Melas faid, to the aid-decamp who delivered it to him"I am forry peace is fo long delayed: I fhall contribute my efforts to obtain it, that I may go and fee Buonaparte at Paris. I would even go to fee him in Egypt."

The prifoners made by the Auftrians were reftored on the fixteenth of June. And immediately thereafter the chief conful, efcorted by a body of chaffeurs, haftened to Milan, where he recognized and declared the Cifalpine republic to be a free and independent nation. He


established a provifional administra tion, and a confulto for preparing for the republic a conftitution and legiflature. He gave orders for refpecting religion, and the property

of all citizens without diftinction.Citizens, who had fled from their country, were invited to return; with the exception of fuch as had taken arms against the Cifalpine republic, after the treaty of CampoFormio. All fequeftrations were, taken off, whether placed upon property poffeffed either under the title of ancient property, or in virtue of legal acquifition, under whatever pretext; and, on whatever occafion the faid fequeftrations might have been ordered. The citadel of Milan having agreed to furrender, the garrifon, to the number of four thousand, marched out with the honours of war. The full half of thefe being French and Piedmontele, came over to the French with arms and baggage, and colours flying. A magnificent te deum was celebrated in the cathedral of Milan, in gratitude for the fuccefs of the French arms, and particularly the triumphs of Buonaparte, the great patron and protector of religion. At this folemnity, amidst an immenfe number of people, the chief conful, general Berthier, and all his chief ftaff, were prefent.

Buonaparte, in a conference he had with the clergy at Milan, advifed them to preach and practife the morality of Jefus Chrift.

When the victory of Maringo had put the fate of Italy in the hands of Buonaparte, the first idea that occurred to his mind was, how it was to be fettled. Though naturally and habitually referved and taciturn, he difcovered, on this


occafion, that among the objects neareft his heart was that of efta

rous of repoffeffing the duchy; and, on pretence of frequent outrages and depredations committed, as was alleged in the adjoining dif trics by Tulcan brigands, or robe bers. It was thus that they thought proper, on the prefent occafion, to ftyle an armed corps, which the inhabitants had formed for maintaining the internal order and tranquil lity of the country. General Sommeriva, in the end of September, was fent with only a fmall efcort to difarm and difperfe the national guard of the Tufcans. This requifition not being readily complied with, general Brune fent a detachment, under general Dupont, to take poffeffion of the Tufcan terri-. tory. Dupont, on the fifteenth of October, entered Florence without oppofition. Soon after this, brigadier general Clement perfuaded the Auftrian troops, at Leghorn, to furrender that town to him, on his affenting to a convention for the continuance of the Tufcan govern ment, and the fecurity of privileges and of property. This agreement was not fcrupulously obferved, though the British merchants were fortunate in preferving the greater part of their effects, by means of the fhips in the harbour. Strong parties were now sent out againft the armed Tufcans at Arezzo, and other places; and, as fome resistance was made by the latter, they were not fubdued and difperfed without bloodshed. About the fame time, a heavy contr bution was impofed on the fmall helpless state of Lucca.

blishing a very powerful republic in Lombardy: fuch a ftate as might be a check on the enemies of France, and even stronger, perhaps, than might be agreeable to that fpirit of domination and tyranny which prevailed among fo great a portion of the French nation.

In a folemn fpeech, pronounced at Milan, he faid, that Lombardy, and Liguria, fhould form only one republic. Time has not yet unfolded his fentiments and views on that great fubject. That a republic fhould be formed in Italy, fitted to reft, immoveable, on its own bafis, and to counterpoife and check the unprincipled defigns, and capricious fallies of other powers, is an event greatly to be defired by every government, and by none that would be of long duration, more than by the rulers of France itself.

After Italy was re-conquered, by the quick pallage of the Alps, the battle of Maringo, and the furrender of all the ftrong places in Lombardy, Piedmont, and Genoa, to the French general, Berthier, as well as the first conful, returned to Paris, and Maflena was fucceeded in the command of the army by general Brune.

The French, in the arrangements made with the Aufirians, for a fufpenfion of arms, had acquiefced in the neutrality of Tufcany. And, perhaps, if that fufpenfion had been followed by a pacification, as propofed by the chief conful, in the moment of victory, it would not have been violated. But when negociation for peace was found not to be fuccefsful, the French government became defi

The French authority and power, throughout Italy, was at this time fo great, that the municipality of Celenatico, a fea-port on the Adriatic coaft, prefumed to arrest [03]


an English officer, who carried difpatches to them from the Britih admiral in the Mediterranean. The municipality do not appear to have had any other motive for this deed, than the ufual propenfity of paltry and overawed ftates to pay court to the prevailing power, by marks of zealous fervility. Lord Keith determined to take fevere vengeance for this breach of the law of nations; and captain Ricket carried his orders into prompt execution. A proclamation was iffed, lamenting that the innocent fhould fuffer with, and for, the guilty, but ftating at the fame time the neceflity of fanctioning and fupporting a law fo indifpenfably neceffary in all the intercourfes of peace or war, and which the magiftrates of Cefenatico had fo unneceffarily and wantonly violated. And, a fhort time after the publication of this, all the vellels within the Mole were funk or burned. The two piers were confumed, and the harbour was rendered ulelefs.

It is not eafy, amidst fo many complicated views and fhifting fcenes, to account for the reftoration of Rome, with the greater part of the Roman territories to the pope. The conclave for the election of a fucceffor to Pius VI. was held under the aufpices of the emperor at Venice. It was generally fuppofed, that, in this ftep, the court of Vienna had it in contemplation, to ftipulate for fome cefions on the part of the Romish fee

to the houfe of Auftria, in Italy. The ecclefiaftic, honoured with the pontificate, was cardinal di Chiaramonte, a man of good fenfe, and mild and unaffuming manners. As it was cuftomary for the new pontiff to affume the name of the pope who had promoted him to the dig nity of cardinal, Chiaramonte took that of Pius VII. The emperor, on his election, prefented him with a fum of money, as an earneft of his regard and protection; but, did not at firft refore any part of the papal dominions, It is not impoffi. ble, that after the battle of Maringo, when he became apprehenfive of the lofs of his power and influence in Italy, he refolved to have the credit of delivering up to the pope the greater part of the ecclefiaftical eftate, rather than that it fhould fall into either the poffeffion or difpofal of other hands. The court of Vienna, it was faid, had been for fome time fufpicious of an understanding between the king of Naples and the Ruffians. The king, it was fufpected, was to accommo date the court of St. Petersburgh with the long object of its ambition, fome fea-port in the Mediter ranean, and to be indemnified by a portion of the ecclefiaftical territories. Be all this as it may, the Aufirians having delivered up to his holiness the greater part of the ecclefiaftical flate, Pius VII. took poffeflion of the fee of Rome in July, and began to exercise the functions of fovereignty, with great dignity and moderation.


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