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hundred caiffons, ten thousand prifoners, and a great number of officers, among whom were three generals. The general does not state the lofs of the French to be more than one thousand in killed, wounded, and mifling. But, according to the Auftrian accounts, and on which all the world placed more dependence, the report of Moreau exceeded the truth by at least one half. The victorious republicans, after a long and unremitted purfuit of the flying Auftrians, took poffeffion of the city of Saltzburgh...
In the mean time, the three other French armies, the Gallo-Batavian, and that of Italy, were not idle. On the day diftinguified by the battle of Hohenlinden, general Augereau gained an important advan tage near Banberg. General Macdonald, defying the obftacles of an Alpine winter, paffed from the country of the Grifons into the Valtelline, drove the enemy before him, and opened a communication with the army of Italy.-A divifion of his army, after a feries of actions with the Auftrians, croffed the Mincio, on the twenty-fixth of December.-Vienna was ftruck with terror. The archduke repaired to the camp, to animate the troops to fresh exertions. But this prince, on a comparative view of his own with the enemy's ftrength, propofed an artiflice, which was readily agreed to, and concluded, at Steyer, on the twenty-fifth of December, though the French, breaking their faith, had difmantled the three towns which had been delivered to them merely as pledges. The emperor now confented to the furrender of many other pofts, relying on the promife of reftitution. He was now constrained, by a fucceffion of VOL. XLII.
heavy loffes, to declare his readiness to detach himself from his allies, and recede from his former determination to agree to no other than a general peace. And the British court, duly fenfible of the alarming fituation in which they themfelves had fo much contributed to involve him, released him from his engage
On a general retrospect of this combined campaign, in lialy and Germany, it is impoffible not to perceive and acknowledge that the courage, the genius, and the magnanimity too, of the leaders of the French armies, particularly the renowned Buonaparte, fhone forth with moft refplendent luftre. It was, on the whole, a war, as it were, of wit on the minds of the brave and fimple Germans. The French were not inferior to the Auftrians in bravery, but it was art, contrivance, and ftratagem, that decided the conteft in their favour. The happy choice of a pofition for the army of referve, at Dijon, from whence troops might be fent, as occafion fhould demand, either to Germany or Italy, the fecrecy and celerity with which Buonaparte darted erofs the Alps into Lombardy, and affembled fo great an army from fo many points, the feints by which he amufed general Melas, the concert formed with Moreau, the feints too by which Moreau deceived and overcame his opponents on the Danube-all thefe circumstances form indeed a very ftriking contraft with that fupinenels and want of intelligence which difgraced the conduct of general Melas: who was yet an excellent officer, and might have been fuccefsful, if he had been opposed to a lefs inventive and towering genius than Buonaparte.
It is not certain, however, whether the discomfiture of general Melas is not in fome measure to be afcribed to a defign, which appears to have been entertained by the English miniftry, of raifing the white flag in the fouth of France under the fons of the count d'Artois and of the late duke of Orleans. His movements on the fide of Niece have been fuppofed by fome to have had a reference to that intended expedition. We have not, however, received any certain information on this fubjec.
In eftimating the merits of the oppofite commanders, it is proper, in juftice to general Melas, to take notice of the fingular advan age' which the French generals poffeffed in the concert of their operations. The Auftrian generals were to be guided, in all their principal movements, by a council of war at Vienna: while Buonaparte could take his meafures on the fpot, and accommodate the tactics of both Morcau and Berthier to rifing
It would be unpardonable in an annalift to pafs over, without due notice and applaufe, the wife and magnanimous conduct of the chief conful, in being ever ready, and even defirous, in the hour of the greatest victories, to fufpend the career of war, and come to terms of peace.
While his imperial majefty was in danger of lofing his territories, his tremendous adverfary, Buonaparte, was in danger of lofing his life. On the twenty-fourth of December, when he was on his way to the theatre, a fudden explofion broke the windows of his carriage, killed feveral perfons, and wounded others. This mifchief was occafioned by a barrel, in which were combuftibles and a kind of rifle-gun, placed on a small carriage, fo difpofed as to obstruct the paffage, through the freets. This infernal confpiracy was clearly traced to the jacobins. Some of the confpirators were convicted, and fuffered the punifliment due to their crimes.
Return from the Affairs of the Continent to thofe of Great Britain.-Diflurbances in the Prison of Cold-Bath-Fields. -Mobs and Riots on Account of the exorbitant Price of Bread.-Naval Exploits.-And Expeditions to the Ceafs of France, Spain, and Africa.- Negociation for Peace with France renewed.-Reduction of the Ifland of Malta, under the Power of Great Britain.-And of the Dutch land of Curaçao.-An English Fleet, with Troops on board, menaces Cadiz.-Affairs of Egypt.-Weft Indies.— Eaft Indies.-A Storm brewing in the North of Europe.-Summary Review of the Eighteenth Century
[AVING taking a fummary re
view of affairs on the theatre of war, on the continent, we return to thofe of Great Britain.
Soon after the parliament had been prorogued, apprehenfions of tumult and riot alarmed the affluent and eafy inhabitants of London. On the fourteenth of Auguft. the prifoners in the house of correction, in Cold-Bath-Fields, rendered impatient, perhaps,* by the friendly vifits of certain members of parliament, whofe philanthropy, it was obferved, was directed chiefly to men obnoxious to government, and to objects, from which there was the greateft reafon to hope for the reputation of benevolence, exhibited ipecimens of turbulence, and a defire of escaping from their confinement. They refufed to fubmit, in the evening, to the ufual futting in of their cells; and when they were compelled to
• Spes addita fufciat iras. Virg.
give way, on this point, they uttered loud complaints of the miferies to which they were fubjected. A multitude of people was drawn to the walls of the prifon; and it was apprehended that the mob would attempt to release the prifoners. At this crifis, the keeper, Aris, a rigorous and hard-hearted man, fallied out, and procured the aid of fome peace-officers, for the defence of his poft. The volun teers of Clerkenwell, St. Sepulchre, and other adjoining diftricts, repaired, from their fhops, to affift in quelling the disturbance; and peace and order were at length restored. The contagion of this example was the more to be dreaded, that the price of bread, from a bad season, from the war, but, probably, above all, from an overflow of money, fuch as it was, had rifen to an exorbitant height. This evil was perhaps occationed alfo, in fome
+ The experiment, whether the high price of provifions is not, in part, to be attributed to the influx of wealth and artificial currency, is, from the abundance of the harweft of 1801, now on foot. September 21, 1801.
fmall degree, by the avarice and arts of regraters and foreftallers.Mr. Ruby and others were punished for fuch offences; but, by fuch profecutions, the difcontents of the people were not fufficiently allayed. In various parts of the country, many of the inhabitants endeavoured to procure, by intimidation and force, a reduction of the price of corn, and other articles of confumption. Some depredations and outrages were committed, but the progrefs of riot was prevented by the appearance of military parties. At Birmingham, the fhops of the bakers were, on the eighth of September, attacked by the populace, and thofe who refufed to fell bread, at the rate which they prefcribed, were infulted and robbed. The chief object of their rage, the next day, was a team-mill. The defenders of this, having wounded fome of the affailants or fpectators, the mill would have probably been deftroyed, but for the opportune arrival of a party of dragoons. In the evening of the tenth, the foldiers, who paraded the ftreets, were an noyed by the mob with ftones; but these marks of discontent gradually declined.
On the fifteenth of December, disturbances commenced in London. Inflammatory bills, posted on the Monument, in the night preceding, urged the people to refcue themfelves from famine by their own exertions, and to take vengeance on monopolifts and foreftallers. In the morning, a mob appeared in Mark-Lane, infulted the dealers in corn, and clamorously demanded an abatement in the price of that neceflary article. The chief magiftrate, Mr. alderman Combe, adPreffing the most forward of the po
pulace, fhewed that their turbulence would only aggravate the evil of which they complained. Finding his perfuafions fruitlefs, he ordered the act against riots to be read; and, without military aid, tranquillity was reftored. The riot being re newed in the evening, the deputymarshal and fome of the constables received fevere blows; but the vo lunteers who attended were not ordered to fire, as the lord-mayor thought that fuch violence, on fuch an occafion, as a tumult excited by fo fevere a preffure, might be deemed rafh and inhuman. On feveral fucceeding days, riotous affemblies difturbed different parts of the city; but the ready attendance of the volunteers, and the firmness of their countenance, alarmed the populace, and, without the actual ufe of firearms, repreffed the commotions.
From thefe fcenes of internal commotion, we proceed to the effects of the national energy, directed against the common enemy. fquadron, under the command of fir Edward Pellew, on the 4th of June, attacked the fouth-weft of the peninfula of Quiberon, on the coaft of Bretagne, filenced the forts, and cleared the fhore of the enemy. A party of foldiers then landed and deftroyed the forts. An attack was afterwards made on various pofts, and fix brigs, floops, and gun-velfels, were taken, a corvette burned, and a fort difmantled. This fuccefs was foon followed by an interception of fupplies deftined for the ufe of the French feet, at Breft. Eight boats were employed in this fervice, under lieutenant Burke and other officers, who, amidst a severe fire of cannon and mufketry, took three armed veffels, with eight laden with provifions, and drove others
hear the rocks of St. Croix. Some French fhips having efcaped to Quimper River, boats were fent, on the twenty-third of June, to attack them; but they removed to an inacceffible diftance up the river. However, two parties of marines difembarked, and blew up a battery and other fortifications. Lieutenant Burke was afterwards fent to Bour-neceuf-bay, to attack fome veffels of war that were moored in a strong pofition. Five were captured, befides fome trading fhips; but the impracticability of bringing them out, induced the captors to burn them. It unfortunately happened, that our gun-boats, in returning, ftruck upon fand-banks, and above ninety men were made prifoners.
About this time, fir Charles Hamilton, making his appearance, with a fmall fquadron, near Goree, an ifle on the coast of Africa, the governor thought proper to furrender; and a British garrifon took immediate poffeffion of the forts, and of Joul, a dependent factory.
On the eighth of July, an attempt was made to take or deftroy four frigates, in the road of Dunkirk. Captain Campbell, of the Dart, took the La Defirée; but the other fhips, in number, three, efcaped, though not without confiderable damage. In Auguft, a fleet, under the command of fir John Borlafe Warren, with a military force, under the orders of fir James Murray Pulteney, fet fail on a fecret expedition. One object of this was the conqueft of Belle-Ifle, but the ftrong works that had been provided for the defence of that ifland difcouraged the attempt. The armament therefore proceeded to the coaft of Spain, and, on the twenty-fifth of Auguft,
arrived before the harbour of Fer rol. The troops landed without oppofition, and advanced towards the heights which overlook the port. A fkirmish with a body of Spaniards enfued, which terminated in favour of the invaders. Lieutenant-colonel Stewart, who commanded the British, was wounded. The next morning another engagement enfued, in which alfo the Spaniards were defeated. About one hundred of the Spaniards were killed or wounded. The lofs of the Englifh, who were now in poffeffion of the commanding eminences, did not exceed half that number. The opportunity of furvey, afforded by the heights, did not give the British commander any hope of fuccefs, particularly when he learned. from the report of the prifoners, that the place was furnished with the means of defence. He therefore ordered the troops to re-embark, and they were not molefted in their retreat. It was confidently affirmed, by a noble lord, in the British house of peers, that, at the very time when the British army received orders to re-embark, the proper officer was coming with the keys of the town to furrender; but, of the evidence on which this was affirmed, we are altogether ignorant. After this, fir Ralph Abercromby moved towards Leghorn, but, at the earneft entreaty of the Tufcan government, who dreaded a vifit, in c-fe of his coming on fhore, from the French, he moved off, to reconnoitre Malta: whither we fhall prefently follow him.
In confequence of a notification from baron Thugut, on the ninth of August, that lord Minto, the British ambaffador at the court of Vienna, had fignified the defire of his Britannic majesty, to be included [P3]