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conduct, the zeal of a foldier of liberty, and of a citizen devoted to the republic. The ideas of prefervation, protection, and freedom, immediately refumed their places on the difperfion of the faction, who wifhed to opprefs the councils, and who, in making themfelves the moft odious of men, never ceafed to be the moft contemptible." The three confuls met together, on the next day, for tranfacting public butinefs, in the palace of the Luxembourg. Some changes were made in the adminiftration; and the new minifters were generally approved, with the exception of Fouché, minifter of police, formerly a great terrorift, as unexceptionable characters, in refpect of both talents and morals.

On the twelfth, a fhort proclamation was published by the confuls to the French, ftating that the patriots had made themfelves to be heard; that every thing that could injure them had been removed, and that every thing that remained pure in the national reprefentation, was now united under the banners of liberty. Still, amidit fo many changes and violations of oaths, we hear of new vows! "Take with us," faid the confuls in conclufion, "the oath which we have made, to be faithful to the republic, one and indivifible, founded on equality, liberty, and the reprefentative fyftem." The fertility of French genius was not able to fubftitute any thing in the room of an oath, though it favoured fo much of the altar! Honour again would have recalled the great principle of the monarchy. On the thirteenth of November, a letter was fent from the minifter for foreign affairs, Reinhard, to the foreign minifters, informing them, that the confuls of the French republic had taken into their hands the reins


of government, with orders to notify the fame intelligence to the governments at which they refided. The political relations of France with other nations, and the diplomatic relations of its government with other governments were to remain the lame, only that the public force would derive new energy from the public unanimity. Other proclamations were published to the fame effect with thefe now noticed; and various defences of the revolu tion of St. Cloud, and the provifional government appeared, from time to time, in newspapers and pamphlets. Nor did Buonaparte, on his acceffion to the government, forget to write a letter to his army in Egypt. In this letter, he fays,

"the confuls of the republic have frequently their minds taken up with what regards the army of Egypt; the eyes of all Europe are fixed on you; I my fell am frequently, in thought, among you. Whatever may be the fituation in which the chances of war may throw you, fhew yourfelves always the foldiers of Rivoli and of Aboukir, and you will be invincible. Repofe in Kieber that unlimited confidence, which you was wont to place in me, it is only what he deferves." Two deputies, one from the commiffion of elders, and another from that of five, hundred, were fent with pacific overtures to the western departments, with a very agreeable pledge of mildnefs on the part of government, prefently to be ftated. It has already been mentioned, that Buonaparte had been joined by general Augereau, a violent and outrageous jacobin. As an inftance of the conciliation, yet prudence, with which Buonaparte conducted himself, it may not be improper to notice the manner


in which he treated this man, whofe courage and entire devotion to the party he belonged to, pointed him out as a valuable partifan not to be rejected, but by all means to be attached to his caufe and perfon. Heaccepted his friendship, but with propriety and dignity. He appointed him to the chief command of the French army in Holland. In the letter which conveyed this appointment, there was a friendly rebuke for his connection with the jacobin clubs, and a reprobation of part of their principles and actions; yet the turn of the whole expressed great confidence in his intentions. The conful, in that letter, also stated, that, if neceffary, he was to take the command of the army in perfon, in which cafe, Augereau, would again be one of his principal officers.The manner in which Buonaparte expreffed his gratitude to the grenadier who had faved his life, is characteristic of the fentiments and manners at this time prevalent in France, and particularly marks the great revolution, in the way of thinking, on the fubject of diftinction of rank. On the twelfth of November, the conful entertained the grenadier, Thomé, at his own table at dinner, and after dinner, his wife made him a prefent of a diamond worth two thoufand crowns. It is certainly not in this manner that a fenator of Hamburgh would have expreffed his gratitude to a private foldier, who fhould have laid him under fuch an obligation; nor even a lord mayor of London. The leginative commiffions of twenty-five members, on the twelfth of November, allo entered on their functions; and they divided themfelves each into five committees, of five membors each, for the purpose of preparing laws of police, legiflation,

finance, a civil code, and a confti-tution. Lucian Buonaparte was chofen president of the commiffion of the five hundred, and Le Brune that of the commiffion of the elders. In these commiffions, a new oath was drawn up and agreed to, to be taken by all public functionaries. It was conceived in thefe terms: "I fwear fidelity to the French republic, one and indivifible, and to maintain with all my power the rights of the fovereignty of the people, a reprefentative government, liberty, equality, and the fecurity of perfons and property."

The commiffioners began their operations with the abolition of bad laws. A propofition made by the firft conful, of a very gracious nature, was the first subject that came under their confideration, and formed a very pleafing prefage of the fpirit that was to animate the new government. This was the repeal of two odious and oppreffive laws: the law of the forced loan, and the law of hoftages. The repeal of this law was no fooner promulgated in the western departments, by the two commiffioners of peace just mentioned, than thofe who had taken up arms in their own defence against it, immediately propofed a fufpenfion, which was acceded to by the republican general, Hedouville. But others of the infurgents, who were actuated by motives more hoftile to the republic, continued their depredations, avowing, by proclamations, that their object was the reftoration of the throne and the altar, and that directors and confuls were alike traitors and ufurpers: but thefe things will be more particularly related in a fubfequent chapter.

The confuls and the legislative commiffioners profeffed to have no

thing elle in view than, by the inftitution of a new republican fyftem, to guard more effectually, than had been done hitherto, against the intrigues of faction, and the corruption and treachery of rulers. By the promifcs of peace, they endea. voured to reflore the confidence of men of property, becaufe peace alone could enable them to refore a regular fyftem of finance, which the violent and temporary expedients required by war muft deftroy. But the derangement of the finances, and the general corruption of the country, made it a very difficalt talk for the confuls to raise the fupplies by ordinary means. It was not an ealy matter to preferve the promifed refpect for property, to give contentment to the French in this refpect, and, at the fame time, not to relax from that military energy which was neceflary to render the republic refpectable and formidable in the eyes of foreign nations. The financial expedients adopted by the new government were principally thefe:

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In lieu of the forced loan of one hundred millions, a war aid was fubftituted, of a fourth part added to all contributions or impofts on property, territorial, moveable, perfonal, and fumptuary. Forty millions of what they called bons, payable to bearer, of the nature of our treafury-warrants, were flued for fatisfying, for the laft half year of the 7th year, the demands of the public annuitants. For a prefent fupply, for the immediate exigences of government, Buonaparte aflembled about fixty or feventy of the bankers and prin cipal merchants of Paris, and hav

ing addreffed them in a fhort but very animated speech on the glorious deftinies and approaching profperity of France, obtained, without difficulty, a loan of five handred thousand pounds fterling. And feven commillaries, or fine, dies were immediately appointed by the fubfcribers for making it good. The promiffory notes they received from the new government were called billets du fyndicat. The repayment of this loan was charged on the first two payments, which were made at the rate of twenty per cent. per month, of the war tax, in the different departments of the republic. It was ordained that thefe bills, to whatever dif count they should have fallen, thould be received, not only in payment of the war aid, but even in that of the taxes of the year 7, by exchanging them for their amount in cath. Contributors to the forced loan, who had paid a part of their contribution, were entitled to a difcharge, fo far as it went, from the new war aid: and if there fhould be any balance in their favour, after an examination by the minifter of finance, they were to be re-imburfed out of the national treasury.


The whole of the financial plan of the year S, and which was expected to pour into the national treafury fix hundred and fitcen millions one hundred and feventytwo thoufand of livres, unfolded by Arnold, in the com million of the council of five hundred, on the eighteenth of December. This project he prefaced by obferving that it was dilorder in the fyftem of finance that undermined

To our treasury-warrants dockets are fubjoined, fpecifying the particular purpofs for which they are given. The particular purpote is not mentioned in the French warrants. It is only faid, in general, that they are GOOD (BONS) for this or that fum.


the ancient monarchy, and that the chaos in which the finances of the country were involved, had thrice fwallowed up the focial edifice. By what magic fpring therefore could government hope to profper, in the eyes of which property was nothing, and which abforbed to itlelf all the revenues both from land and induftry, by pallying them by requifitions, maximums, and forced loans? In order to break afunder this compact of violence and mifery, fuch events were neceflary as had taken place on the ninth and tenth of November, by which the nation had quickened into new life and activity by bold and profound conceptions. Of the fum total above-mentioned, he propoled that one hundred and fifty millions of livres fhould be raised upon territorial infcriptions, of one thoufand livres each, which were to have for pledge or mortgage a far greater fum, to be derived from the fale of national domains. Other means would be reforted to for enfuring an intereft of fix per cent. on thofe infcriptions until the capital fhould be repaid, which fhould be on the twenty-third of September, anno 9. Or, after that period, it would be at the option of the bearer of fach inferiptions to place ont their capital at a permanent intereft of five per cent. or to have it paid in annuities within the period of twenty years. It was accordingly refolved, and afterwards carried into a law, by the alent of the commiflion of elders, and the confuls, that on the twentyfecond of December, there fhould he raffod a fum of one hundred and fitty millions of livres on territorial inferiptions, to be made good out of the bulk of the national property, comprized in a statement

annexed to the prefent law. These infcriptions to be flared out in notes of one thousand livres each, payable to bearer; or in tenths, of notes of one hundred livres, alfo payable to bearer. Payment for thele notes to be made, two-fifths in fpecie, and the other three-fifths in exchequer-bills of the year 5, 6, and 7; in bonds of arrears, one-fourth in fpecie, of the years 4th, 5th, and 6th; and in bonds of requifition made out fince the twenty-firft of March, anno 7. To each note of one thoufand livres there was annexed a partial intereft amounting to fixty livres, payable in the proportion of thirty livres half yearly. During the years 8 and 9, there were to be diftributed by lottery, fifty thoufand prizes of fix per cent. annually, in the proportion of one for three notes, or of a third of the fum total of the one hundred and fifty thoufand notes. The bills to whofe lots the prizes fhould fall were to enjoy the benefit of them during the whole of the year in which the drawing took place.

Independently of these prizes, there was attached to each drawing, for each twenty-fifth premium, the fum of five hundred livres; for each prize filling up the number of two hundred, the fum of five hundred livres; and for the first and laft prize that should turn up at each drawing, the fum of five hundred thoufand livres. The drawings to take place in the proportion twelve thoufand five hundred every half year, until the whole of the one hundred and fifty thoufand notes fhould be delivered out, the drawing of the prizes was to take place every fix months, in proportion to the number of notes delivered out in the courfe of the preceding half year.

For the punctual payment of the intereft, and the prizes, the perfonal, moveable, and fumptuary contributions were to be refponfible, to the amount of fifteen millions.

In order to redeem the capital of the territorial infcriptions arifing from the prefent law, they were to be received as part payment for the national domains, to the amount of one hundred and fifty millions, and until the twenty-third of September of the ninth year. Every bearer of national infcriptions might at will infift, during that interval, on the fale of any particular national domain, on the condition of his acquiefcing in the estimate of the twentieth penny, in confequence of the revenue arifing out of the authentic leases that exifted in 1790, or in de fault of fuch leafes, in confequence of a contradictory eft mate made by appraisement.-Every bearer of national inferiptions, who fhould be come a proprietor of national domains, fhould ceafe to receive the intereft of fix per cent. beginning after the half year, after his purchafing the fame. But the number of notes, the capital of which fhould be thus redeemed, to partake in the drawing of the prizes and other benefits; and the bearers of thofe notes to enjoy whatever fhould have fallen, or might fall, to their lot, during the two years fixed by the prefent law. The national domains, fituated in what was lately called Belgium, to remain difpofed of for the payment of former loans, and for the payment of penfions granted to religious bodies and communities fuppreffed in these departments. The bearers of the territorial infcriptions, not redeemed on the twenty-third of September of the ninth year, by the pur

chafe and payment of the hundred and fifty millions on the national domains to be allotted to them by the prefent law, to have the choice of a permanent intereft of five por cent. on the capital of their territorial infcriptions, or a right to the repayment of it by annuities within the term of twenty years.

The means for raifing what farther fums were wanted, were chiefly additional taxes laid on expenditure, or the various fubjects of indirect contribution; a meafure which would not opprefs the poor, and could not justly be complained of by the rich. Duties were laid on cider, perry, and beer, and alfo malt. Some lauds, yet to be difpofed of, and fome woods, were to be fold in Belgium; as allo fome falt-pits, and falt-works, formerly the property of the crown.

It was alfo ordained that the receivers-general should fubfcribe obligations, from the twenty-first of March enfuing, enfuring the direct contributions of the year 8, at twelve different payments; that they fhould make payment of these obligations in fpecie; that they fhould be payable at the house of the receiver on a day which was fixed, and by a twelfth part of the amount monthly. The receiversgeneral of the department were bound to furnish, in specie, a fecurity equal to the twentieth part of the land-tax of their refpective departments. The funds rifing from the fecurities thus given by the receivers-general, were deftined to make good the payment of protefted exchequer-bills, or treafuywarrants, and fucceflively applied as a finking fund for the extinction of the public debt. The arrears of life annuities and ecclefiaftical pen

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