Imágenes de páginas

from the day on which it is figned, fion, affurances of my confideration or fooner, if poffible. and efteem; and am, fir, yours &c.

In faith of which, we, the underfigned plenipotentiaries of their Danish and Britannic majeftics, have figned, in their names, and in virtue of our powers, the prefent convention, and have affixed to it feals bearing our arms.

Done at Copenhagen, this 29th
, day of Auguft, 1800.
(Signed) Whitworth. (L. S.)
C. Bernftorff. (L. S.)

Circular Letter addreffed by the Spanish Minifler to the Foreign Minifiers at the Court of Spain, relative to a Violation of the Right of Neutral Flags, alleged to have been committed by the English at Bar




Have the honour of communicating to you a copy of the memorial which the king my mafter has defired me to tranfmit to his minifter at Stockholm, in order to be delivered to the minifter of his Swedish majefty. The principles which are there cftablished, and the event which gave rife to them, are of fuch a nature as muft intereft all the commercial nations of Europe, and particularly neutral princes. His majefty is already perfuaded that your government will confider the affair under the fame point of view, and he flatters himself that it will concur in effacing, as far as poffible, from the annals of this war, an action fo deftructive to that confidence and hofpitality which the flags of neutral powers ought to enjoy.

I renew to you, fir, on this occa

At St. Ildephonfo, Septem-
(Signed) Chevalier d'Urquijo.
ber 17, 1800.

Letter to the Minifier for Foreign Affairs of his Swedish Majefty, on the fame Subject.


The king, my mafter, has feen, with the livelieft indignation, by a Swedish majefty, at Barcelona, to report made by the conful of his the captain-general of Catalonia, containing a declaration of captain Rudbart, of the Swedish galliot Hoffnung, that on the 4th of September laft, in the afternoon, two English fhips and a frigate forced the faid captain, after having exregular, to take on board English amined his papers, and found them officers, and a confiderable number of failors, and to fuffer himfelf to be towed, in the evening, by feveral English boats, as far as the road of Barcelona, and under the cannon of the batteries: that the Englife, having compelled the faid captain and his crew to be filent, by holding a piftol to his breaft, took poffeffion of the rudder, and at nine in the evening, by means of the faid galliot, and the boats which furrounded it, made an attack on two frigates under Spanish colours, which were there at anchor, and that a friendly and neutral veffe! which having no reason to fufpect could conceal enemies on board, and thus ferve to favour a molt treacherous attack, were in a manrender. For the other particulars, ner furprised, and forced to fur


and the violence exercifed by the English in the Swedish vetfel, I refer to the declaration of the captain, hereto annexed.

The king, my mafter, cannot confider this event but as interefting, and wounding the rights of all the powers of Europe, England excepted; and in particular as an infult of the higheft magnitude to the flag of his Swedish majefty. It is evident, indeed, that the belligeent powers, in admitting neutral fhips into their roads and ports, wifh to foften the fcourge of war, and to maintain thofe commercial relations between one nation and another, which their mutual wants require. Every thing then that tends to render this navigation fubject to fufpicion and danger, equally wounds the rights and interefts of all nations. But in the prefent cafe, the rights and honour of the Swedish flag have been violated in a manner fo infulting, that few fuch inftances are to be found in the maritime hiftory of Europe. This action, fhould it remain unpunished, would tend to embroil two friendly nations, to annihilate their commercial relations, and to make the flag which fhould fuffer it to be confidered as a fecret auxiliary of the hoftile power, and thus force Spain to purfue those measures which the interefis of its fubjects and the fecurity of its ports would require.

The king, my mafter, however, has ordered me to convey to his Swedish majefty an account of this grievous infult offered to his flag; and not doubting of the refentment he will feel on account of a proceeding fo bafe and difloyal, on the part of the naval officers of his Britannic majefty, he expects that

the court of Stockholm will require
of the English miniftry, in the most
rendered themselves
urgent manner, that the officers
who have

culpable on this occafion fhall be
feverely punished, and that the
two Spanish frigates. furprised and
carried from the road of Barcelona
by a ftratagem fo contrary to the
rights of nations and the rules of
war, fhall be immediately reftored,
with their cargoes, as being illegal. -
ly captured by means of a neutral
veffel, which ferved as an inftru-
ment in the hands of the aflail

His catholic majesty thinks him
felf fo much better founded to con
fider the fuccefs of this remon-
ftrance as certain, fince the Eng-
lith government itself cannot dif
femble, that its enemies, by fol
lowing this example, might employ
neutral veffels in the like manner, to
infeft its harbours, and to occafion
great damage in all its ports. But
if, contrary to all expectation, the
steps taken by his Swedish majefty,
to obtain from the court of London
reparation for the infult offered to
his flag, as well as reftitution of the
two frigates, fhould not be attend-
ed with fuccefs before the end of
this year, his majefty will fee him-
felf obliged, though with regret, to
purfue, in regard to the Swedish
flag, fuch meafures of precaution as
may in future protect his ports and
harbours from an abuse fo dange
rous, and fo infulting as that which
has been lately committed by the

I have the honour to be, &c.

(Signed) The Chevalier d'Urquijo.
At St. Ildephonfo, Septem-
ber 19, 1800.
R 4


Note tranfmitted by the Swedish Mi-
wiftry to the Minister of his Catho-
lic Majefty at Stockholm, in Answer
to the Reprefentations of the Spanish
Court; dated Ildephonfo, September
17, 1800.

IS Swedish majefty has under

cern, the violence used by fome officers of the English navy, towards a merchant-fhip from Swedish Pomerania, by employing the fame in a hoftile enterprise against two frigates in the road of Barcelona.

He, perfectly accords with his Catholic majefty with refpect to the light in which this new abufe of power is to be confidered, and the common danger which fuch examples muft occafion both to neutral and belligerent powers. jefty will therefore immediately His mamake remonstrances to the court of London, to which he is equally induced by his friendly connections with the Spanish court, and the violation of the neutrality of his flag.

In these remonftrances, which will have for their first object the rights of the Swedish flag and of Swedish-fubjects, his Catholic majefty will certainly admit it to be right that the king fhould confider himself as the principal party; but while he attends to his own interefts, he will not neglect those of Spain. Juftice requires that what has been obtained in an unjustifiable 'manner fhall be restored. His majefty will demand, but without anfwering for the confequence of this measure. He will, when it fhall be time, make confidential communications to the Spanish court, with refpect to the difpofitions which the English government fhall manifeft on the fubject; but the juftice of

his Catholic majefty will undoubt edly leave to him the free choice of the forms and means to be employed in this negociation, nor attempt to limit any precife time or mode of re@oration. Spain and all Europe which Sweden has carried on in is acquainted with the long procefs on the fubject of restoration,

and there can be no reafon to expect that fpeedier juftice will be done in a caufe which requires reftitution to be made to an enemy.

In the mean time his Swedish liable to any kind of refponfibility majefty cannot confider himself as with refpect to an affair to the caules of which he was an entire ftranger. According to the ftatewas, under the circumfiances withment of the Spanish court itself, it that the Swedish government and which it took place, not fuppofed nation were involved in it. lt would be much to be lamented, fhould the injuftice of a third power be able to break connections which feveral direct difcuffions during the events of this nature have frequentwar have not altered Unfortunate ly taken place, and fome as if they A Swedir fhip which was taken in were peculiar to the Spanish ports. the harbour of Pallage itself, a fecond Swede plundered and entirely deftroyed by the French in Alicant, and feveral others taken by the French privateers at the entrance of the harbour of Malaga, have occafriendly reprefentations and remonfioned his Swedish majefly to make ftrances to the court of Spain, to procure refpect and fecurity to the trade of his kingdom. His majesty would have been happy to have then feen the fame energy with which it now makes complaints; but the fruitlefinefs of his remonftrances


never induced him to pafs the bounds of that moderation and candour, which fhould be cultivated by friendly courts, and to which his majefty trufts the court of Spain will return, when it shall have carefully inquired into the true caufes of the different accidents which have occafionally taken place in its ports. The underfigned, chancellor of the court, has the honour to make the prefent reprefentations to the chevalier de la Huerta, envoy extraordinary from his Catholic majefty, as an answer to his communication of the 17th of September, and avails himself with pleasure of the opportunity to exprefs his efteem, &c.

(Signed) F. Von. Ehrenheim. Drottningholm, October 22, 1800.

Note from the Swedish Minifter for foreign Affairs to the Minifter of is Pruffian Majefty at Stockholm, on the Subject of the Affair at Bar


AVING stated to the king the

manner in which his Pruflian

majefty has viewed the memorial of the court of Spain, on the subject of an infult offered to the Swedish flag by the English, the underfigned, chancellor of the court, has been commanded to exprefs to M. de Tarach the grateful acknowledgements of his majefty for the constant attention which the court of Berlin has fhewn to the interefts of the neutral flags, and the full confidence which he repofes in the mode in which they are regarded by that court. The king has viewed with furprife the public refponfibility to which the court of Spain

has called Sweden upon this occa
fion, and the menaces which it has
thereto added: notwithstanding all
the vexations to which neutral flags
have been expofed during the pre-
fent war, this is the most oppreffive
proceeding which they have yet ex-
perienced. Being thus inceffantly
placed between the offence and the
reparation, they muft foon be drag-
ged into a concern in the war, or
ceafe to appear on the feas where it
These truths, in-
is carried on.
volving confequences fo important
to the other neutral powers as well
as to Sweden, his Swedish majefty
could not, in general, take upon
himself any fhare of refponfibility
for the improper ufe which the bel-
ligerent powers may make of the
Swedish veffels which they may
feize upon. This principle appears
to his Swedish majefty fo well found-
ed, that he flatters himself the court
of Berlin will give it all the fup-
port which juffice and the common
intereft appear equally to demand;
and it has been hitherto respected
amidst all the outrages which have
been committed on both fides, with-
out which the war muft have be-
come general. Had the Ottoman
Porte, Ruffia, and England, attach-
ed fuch refponfibility to all the flags
in the port of Alexandria; had they
claimed the reftitution of Egypt
from the respective governments,
because their merchant-veffels had
been compelled to carry French.
troops to take that country by fur-
prife; and had they ufed the fame
forms of application, and infifted
on the fame peremptory terms and
conditions, all commerce, all neu-
trality must have been at once an-
nihilated. His majefty, therefore,
conceived that the violence offered
to the Swedish flag, at Barcelona


was not to be treated in any other manner than that of which he had previously to complain, and he referves to himself the privilege of demanding reparation for the injuries done to his fubjects or his flag at fuch opportunity, and by fuch means, as the particular fituation may afford. His majefty, however, ought not to conceal, that, in the prefent cale, the injury which has thence refulted to a friendly power gives him fo much the more uneafinefs, as he regards the capture made by the Englifh as very illegal, and he is anxiously defirous of being able, by his reprefentations, to contribute to its reftitution. His majefty will certainly make every exertion to effect an arrangement upon which the continuance of amicable relations between Sweden and Spain is unexpectedly made to depend; but he cannot, at prefent, take thofe fteps with refpect to the two frigates which he has not hitherto taken with respect to his own convoys, nor give the court of Spain any better hopes than he has himself. The undersigned embraces this occafion, &c.


Reply of the Spanish Minifier to the
Note tranfmitted to him by the
Swedish Minifter, October 22.

Stockholm, Dec. 29, 1800.

Sir, I have this moment received from my court an answer to the difpatches, in which I communicated the firft fteps I had taken with his Swedish majefty, when I had the honour to prefent my first note on the fubject of the outrage of which the English were guilty in the road of Barcelona.

The king, my mafter, has ob

ferved with regret the coldness with
which the Swedish court has recei
ved the complaint, while it has con-
fined itself to feeble and indecifive
meafures, from which it does not
even indulge the hope of any ad-
vantage. This view of the matter
fhews the fmall intereft with which
Sweden is prepared to act in the
bufinefs. I cannot,conceal from
you, fir, that this inactivity, which
is obferved in the applications of
the court of Sweden to that of Lon-
don, might afford room to believe
that this negociation will be con-
nected with other objects of private
intereft which demand temporifing
meafures, incompatible with that
energy and zeal which his Catholic
majefty expected to fee difplayed by
his Swedish majefty, in regard to an
affair, which, as it involves the ho
nour of his flag, would have afford-
ed him an occafion to prove to
Europe the warm part he takes in
the intereft of the maritime powers,
puts upon the good understanding
as well as to teftify the value he
which hitherto has prevailed be
tween the two courts.
fuance of a new order from my
In pur-
court, I repeat, and formally infilt
upon what I demanded in my last
flatter myself, that his Swedish ma
note of the 17th October. I fondly
jefty will adopt far more active mea-
fures than the contents of your note
allowed me to hope. It is not pro-
ships to all the severity of the mea-
bable that you will expofe Swedish
fures which circumftances require
to be exercifed against fufpected
veffels, and whofe conduct might
be confidered as connived at, un-
lefs the Swedish court receives from
England the moft ample reparation
refpecting the affair of Barcelona.

(Signed) The chevalier de Huerta.
I have the honour to be, &c.

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