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not think himself called upon to take part in that difcuffion; but he feels himself authorised to claim in favour of the fubjects and veffels of the king, his mafter, all the rights to which they have a juft pretenfion in a neutral port belonging to a republic, whofe connections with the ftates of his majefty are very ancient, and generally known. No convention made between the city of Hamburgh and his Pruffian majefty being capable of invalidating or altering his rights.

In confequence of thefe confiderations, he dares hope that his Pruffian majefty may fill fufpend the occupation of Cuxhaven, until the two courts fhall have the means of entering into mutual explanations, more particularly fince fuch an occupation, in the actual circumftances, might give room to ill difpofed minds to attribute to his Pruffian majefty views not lefs oppofite to the fentiments of juftice and moderation which govern all his measures, than to the friendship and the good harmony which fubfift between him and his Britannic majefty.

At all events it will not efcape the wisdom and humanity of his majefty, that the entrance of a numerous corps of troops into a village both poor and with a fmall extent of territory, would probably aug. ment the mifery of the inhabitants; and that the city of Hamburgh ha ving always poffeffed that place, fo indifpenfably neceffary to the prefervation of the navigation of the Elbe, all which may trouble that poffeffion, derange ancient customs, and influence the pilots there at present to feek a refuge elsewhere, would ftrike a fenfible blow at the commerce of all the countries of

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From the fame to the fame.

Berlin, Nov. 18, 1800. The underfigned extraordinary envoy and minifter plenipotentiary of his Britannic majefty thinks himfelf obliged again to address himself to his excellency count Haugwitz, relative to the int ntion of his Prufian majefty, in taking military pol feffion of Cuxhaven. When the underfigned had the honour of tranfmitting to his excellency the verbal note of the 16th, it was not exactly known, that the Pruffian veffel brought into that port had been restored." The fact being now certain, as well as the zeal manifefted by the fenate of Hamburgh to fulfil the withes of the king; the furprife and confternation excited from the moment when the orders for marching a detachment of troops were known, would be raised to their utmost height, if it were afcertained, that notwithstanding the complete fatisfaction given to his Pruffian majefty on all the points refpecting which he thought proper to complain, he fhould not appear lefs attached to his determination of caufing Cuxhaven to be occupied by his troops. In fact, it appears at firft fight that this occupation would be fo calculated to give the moft ferious alarms to all commercial nations, that, without alluding to the interpretations which calumny might be defirous of giving to the measure, firong hopes are entertained from the juftice and moderation of his Pruffian majefty, for that realon only, that he will come to

the refolution of not carrying it into effect.

The underfigned would not, how ever, think he had executed his duty, fhould he neglect to reprefent to his excellency the lively alarms which neceffarily refult from the uncertainty in which the affair re mains. The reiterated affurances which the undersigned has received from his excellency of the friendship and good wishes of his Pruffian majefty towards the king of Great Bris tain, do not allow him to believe that any mifunderstanding can arife between the two courts; but he cannot avoid thinking that the enemies of humanity and of public tranquillity will endeavour to turn to their purposes the alarm which is generally diffufed, in order to fcatter difcord among the powers, who fhould all unite to maintain the lafety and independence of Europe at large. (Signed)


Anfwer of Count Haugwitz.

The undersigned minifter of ftate, and of the cabinet, is authorised, by the orders of the king, to tranquillize completely the anxieties and apprehenfions which my lord Carysfort, envoy extraordinary and minifter plenipotentiary of his Britannic majefty, expreffed to him in his two notes of the 16th and 18th of November. The Pruffian velel, the Triton, has, it is true, been reftored to its owner; but the mode of release was in every respect as irregular as the proceedings which had previously taken place with refpect to it; and after an examination of all the circumftances relative to the incident, which forms the fubject of complaint, there appears VOL. XLII.

throughout the whole a manifeft
infraction of the principles of the
neutrality of the north of Germany.
It is this fuperior confideration,
added to the unjuft refufal of the
magiftracy of Hamburgh, which
dictated to the king the refolution
of caufing a body of his troops to
occupy the port of Cuxhaven and
the bailiwic of Ritzebuttle. This
meafire was executed the moment
it was determined upon, and it is
no longer capable of being re
voked; the example of what has
taken place impofing on his ma-
jefty the neceffity of effectually
watching over the maintenance of
that neutrality which he has gua
ranteed to his co-eftates. The king
cannot imagine that his Britannic
majefty, after participating, in his
character of elector of Hanover, in
the advantages and benefits of this
happy neutrality, can conceive the
fmalleft alarm at feeing a Pruffian
garrifon enter into the port which
England has fixed on as her point
of communication with the north of
Germany. Being thus placed
under the immediate guarantee of
the king, it will be the more effec-
tually put out of the reach of all vi-
olation, and the troops of his ma-
jefty will have no other duty to
perform than that of caufing the
laws of good order and equality to
be refpected. The utmoft confi-
dence may be placed in the pru-
dent difpofitions of the reigning
duke of Brunswick, who is invested
with the command of the line of de-

But if more particular affurances be requifite upon this fubjeći, the king feels a pleasure in giving them by the prefent communication to his Britannic majefty, and in declaring to him, in exprefs and pofi



tive terms, that the prefent order of things will in no refpect interrupt the freedom of commerce and navi.gation in the port of Cuxhaven; nor, above all, the continuation of the correfpondence with England. On the contrary, the officer commanding the troops of the king garrifoned in the balliwic of Ritzebuttle will make it his duty to give it every poffible facility.

On the whole, the proceeding which the king has, from neceffity, been obliged to follow, does not admit of any equivocal interpreta tion. It has no other object than the maintenance of the fyftem of which he is the author and defender; and this object shall not be exceeded. His views and conduct have procured him the confidence of all Europe, and they never will be found inconfiftent: and though it is not to be anticipated that the other powers will be difpofed to mifconceive the purity of his views in the prefent cafe, yet his majesty referves to himself the privilege of explaining himself farther, and in a fuitable manner, to those who may be entitled to fuch explanation."

(Signed) Haugwitz.

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factory explanation. In all the courts of Europe, they fpeak openly of a confederacy between Denmark and fome other powers, to oppose, by force, the exercife of those prins ciples of maritime law on which the naval power of the British empire in a great measure refts, and which, in all wars, have been fol lowed by the maritime fates, and acknowledged by their tribunals.--His Britannic majefty, relying with confidence upon the faith of the engagements recently contracted between the two courts, has not demanded from him any explanation on this head. It was his with to wait for the moment when the court of Denmark fhould think it its duty to contradict those reports, fo injurious to its good faith, and fo little compatible with the maintenance of the good underftanding which had been re-established be tween the two countries. At prefent, the conduct and the public declaration of one of the powers, which it is pretended has entered into this confederacy, do not permit his majefty to preferve any longer towards the reft the fame filence which he has hitherto obferved.— The underfigned, therefore, finds himfelf bound to demand from his excellency count de Bernstorff, a plain, open, and fatisfactory answer on the nature, object, and extent of the obligations which his Danish majefty may have contracted, or the negociations which he is carrying on with refpect to a matter which fo nearly concerns the dignity of his Britannic majefty, and the interests of his people. His Britannic majefty, always ready to return all the marks of friendship which he may receive on the part of his Danish majefty, hopes to find, in the an


to this request, only a new occafion of manifefting thefe difpofitions. In tranfmitting this note to the fecretary of ftate, the underfigned avails himself, with pleafure, of this opportunity, to affure him of the high confideration with which he has the honour to be his very humble and very obedient servant,

fwer of the court of Copenhagen the powers of the north to re-establifh these engagements in their original form, Denmark has fo much. the lefs hefitated to confent to it, as, far from having ever abandoned the principles profeffed in 1780, the has thought it her duty to maintain them, and claim them upon all occafions, and not allow herself to admit in respect of them any other modifications than those which refult from her treaties with the bel

W. Drummond.

Anfwer of Count Bernstorff.

The underfigned secretary of state for foreign affairs, having given an account to the king, his mafter, of the contents of the note which Mr. Drummond has done him the honour to tranfmit to him on the 27th inftant, is authorised to return the anfwer which follows: the court of London must have received very incorrect information, to have been able for a moment to prefume, that Denmark had conceived projects hoftile against it, or incompatible with the maintenance of the good understanding which fubfifts between the two crowns; and the king is very much obliged to his Britannic majefty, for having furnished him with the opportunity of contradicting, in the moft pofitive manner, reports as ill founded, as contrary to his most decided fentiments. The negociation which is carrying on at St. Petersburgh, between Ruffia, Pruflia, Sweden and Denmark, has no other object than the renewal of the engagements, which, in the years 1780 and 1781, were contracted by the fame powers for the fafety of their navigation, and of which a communication was at that time made to all the courts of Europe. His majefty, the emperor of Ruffia, having propofed to

ligerent powers. Very far from withing to interrupt those powers in the exercise of rights which the war gives them, Denmark introduces into the negociation with her allies none but views absolutely defenfive, pacific, and incapable of giving offence or provocation to any one. The engagements fhe will make will be founded upon the ftricteft fulfilment of the duties of neutrality, and of the obligations which her treaties impofe upon her; and if he wishes to fhelter her innocent navigation from the manifeft abuses and violence which the maritime war produces but too easily, fhe thinks he pays refpect to the belligerent powers, by fuppofing, that, far from withing to authorife or tolerate thefe abuses, they would, on their fide, adopt meafures beft calculated to prevent or reprefs them. Denmark has not made a mystery to any one of the object of her negociation, upon the nature of which fome fufpicion has been infused into the court of London; but the has not thought that she departed from the ufual forms, in wishing to wait the definitive refult of it, in order to communicate an official account of it to the powers at war. The underfigned, not knowing that any of the powers engaged in this negociation has made S 2 a declaration,

a declaration, or adopted measures relative to this object, at which Great Britain might take offence or umbrage, cannot, without ulterior explanation, reply to this point of Mr. Drummond's note. Much lefs does he conceive in what refpect the engagement taken by the previous convention of the 29th of Auguft laft, can be confidered as contrary to thofe which Denmark is about to enter into with the neutral and united powers of the north: and in all cafes in which he shall find himfelf called upon to combat or re move the doubts that hall have been conceived with respect to the good faith of the king, he fhall confider his talk to be very eafy, as long as this good faith fhall be introduced into the reproaches or the fufpicions advanced againft his majetty. He flatters himfelf that the English government, after having Je eived the required explanations, will have the franknefs to allow, that the provifional and momentary abandonment, not of a principle, the queftion with refpect to which remained undecided, but of a meafure, whole right has never been, nor ever can be contefted, cannot be found at all in oppofition to the general and permanent principles, relative to which the powers of the north are upon the point of eftablifhing a co-operation, which, fo far from being calculated to compromife their neutrality, is defined only to ftrengthen it. The underfigued would fain believe, that thefe explanations will appear fatisfactory to the court of London; and that the latter will do juftice to the intentions and fentiments of the king, and particularly to his majefty's invariable defire to maintain and cement, by all the means in his power,

the friendship and good understanding which fubfift between Denmark and Great Britain. He has the honour to offer to Mr. Drummond the affurance of his moft diftinguished confideration.

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Convention for the Re-establishment of an armed Neutrality, between his Majefy the King of Sweden, on the one Part, and his Majesty the Em peror of all the Ruffias, on the other Part, concluded and figued at St. Peterburgh, the 4th (15th of December), 1800, accepted and rati fied by his Swedish Majefiy on the 20th December, and by his Impe rial Majesty of all the Ruffias on the 8th (19th December) in the Jame Year.

In the name of the Moft Holy and Undivided Trinity,

IN order that the freedom of na

vigation, and the fecurity of the merchandize of the neutral powers, may be established, and the principles of the laws of nations be fully afcertained, during the continuance of the prefent maritime war, his majefty the king of Sweden and his majefty the emperor of all the 'Ruflias, actuated by their love of juftice, and by a reciprocal defire to promote whatever may be for the public advantage of their refpective ftates, have to that effect determined to give a new fanction to those principles of their neutrality, which are in their nature indifloluble, and require that it may be refpected by all the powers interefted in their prefervation. With this view their


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