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from the chaff, by expofing it to the wind. Sometimes (though rarely) fwarms of a large fort of locuft or grafshopper, called in Spanish langofta, come from Barbary, and will fpread inftant devaftation among the fields of corn. The peafantry, armed with sticks and befoms, kill them, or chase them away: but they depofit their eggs, and therefore the young locufts in the year following are collected and burnt. The lands are not rented in the
Canaries. The landlord furnishes the feed and implements of hnfbandry, and receives one half of the produce, befides a certain quantity of wheat for each head of cattle which he lends to the tenants. Bread is eaten only by the richer inhabitants. The bulk of the people live much on gofio, which is only parched grain ground by a little hand-mill, of which every cottage poffeffes one. The Canarian carries to the field his gofio in his bag; and, as hunger prompts, he rolls it into little balls with water, and makes his miferable meal. Thofe who afpire to better fare eat falt fish and potatoes. The poor inhabitants of Palma and Gomere are fometimes reduced to the neceffity of making cakes of the roots of the pteris aquilina, or male fern, which they dig in the mountains. Lupines are a choice food for cattle, but they are previoufly foaked in water, and boiled, with the addition of falt.
A large quantity of wine is exported from Teneriffe, yet the vineyards are not managed with either fkill or attention. The prefs confifts of a long beam or lever, to the extremity of which a heavy ftone can be attached by means of a fcrew. The farmers, however,
well understand the mode of clarifying their wines, and fortifying them with brandy.
On the fuccefsful Cultivation of the true Rhubarb in England, by Mr. Thomas Jmes. From the Tranfactions of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufac tures, and Commerce,
Tnies this communication, will
HE certificate which accompa
The period I have devoted to the cultivation of this valuable drug has now become of a fufficient length to prove experimentally the truth or falfehood of my theories. Happy am I in reflecting, and happier ftill in communicating to the fociety, that fince I laft had the pleafure of addreffing them, I have additional reafon for fatisfaction. In my former papers (fee Tranfactions of the Society, vol. xi. xv. and xvi) having been, perhaps, more than fufficiently minute in deferibing my lyftem of cultivation, I fhall now only notice the nature of Bb 2
the foil and afpect; the former of which is a rich fandy loom, and the afpect inclining to the eaft and fouth and, as the public are in complete poffeffion of the opinions upon which it is founded, there is no occafion to repeat every particular point in the prefent inftance. I fhall therefore content myfelf with merely mentioning fome, and enlarging upon others, as neceflity may require.
Conceiving it to be good policy for a man to avail himself of every advantage that is prefented, I have recommended fpring as well as autumnal fowing, and the plants of each, when arrived at a proper fize, to be placed in the nurferybed, at its oppofite feafon. I perfevere in this practice, left the fummer, in proving too dry, fhould be equally detrimental as too wet a winter: but as draining the feedbeds may be fo easily effected, and the fafety of the plants neceffarily enfured; fo now, without on any account neglecting the former, I principally depend on the latter fowing for a fucceflion: befides, it is attended with the leaft trouble and expente; and if throughout the operation is well attended to, fuccels is nearly reduced to a certainty. Again, I have fomewhere obferved, that a proper mode of culti vation would greatly facilitate the cure of this root; in other words, good management will enfure its welfare till its arrival to a proper age: and that this has ever ap. peared to me of the most abfolute neceffity, I have never failed to reprefent. By nothing elle can it acquire that degree of woodinefs, in which I fufpect the principal fecret of its cure confifts. Age, too, is neceflary to give the plant its
proper growth; otherwife, when it undergoes the operation, its pieces will be diminutive, infignificant, and unprofitable. Above all, it is entirely indebted to age for its medical virtues; and I firmly believe, that to this, more than to foil or fitoation, it is owing that Turkey has been confidered fuperior to the English rhubarb.
In this place permit me to introduce an opinion that I have for fome time entertained, viz. that thofe parts of the root are of the finest quality that are the fartheft removed from the feed. This difference is eafily difcoverable from its earlieft ftages; and fo affured am I of the fact, that, but for want of a fupply of offsets, and one or two other confiderations, I thould be almoft tempted to abandon my prefent, in favour of this mode of culti vation. But though, in this refpect, the rhubarb is evidently fuperior, yet it thould be recollected that the other is lefs precarious, and its growth and produce much more confiderable.
Although, according to every public teftimony, of which mention will prefently be made, I have rea fon to believe my progrefs has been more confiderable than that of my contemporaries, if there are any, yet I have no conception that we have arrived at the ne plus ultra. Let us rather hope that every fucceeding year will be productive of a degree of improvement proportionate to the advantages of increafed experience. As we are lo much indebted, therefore, to the age of our plants, let me caution all who have, or may engage in this undertaking, never to yield to impatience; for, with a few perfons, the prejudices against the English rhubarb are many, and deeply
rooted; and to this fource moft of them may be traced. Nor is this very wonderful; for to entertain high expectations of rhubarb prematurely taken up, is no lefs extravagant, than to fuppofe the capacity of a child equal to that of an adult; yet hitherto our market is a ftranger to any other than fuch a commodity.
Another caufe may, I conceive, arife (notwithstanding the length of time fince the introduction of the palmated, or true, fort into this kingdom, and all that has been written on the fubject,) from the little or no care that feems to have been taken in felecting and planting it. As a proof of this, it is not many days fince I faw a confiderable quantity, and neither the purchaser nor planter knew it to be the rhapontic. In jaftice, however, to medical gentlemen in general, but in particular to thofe I have confulted upon this fubject, I have found them better informed, and liberal to the greateft degree. They entered at once into the views of the fociety, and their affurances of co-operation have been fully realifed. That I never expected to introduce it into general practice without oppofition, is evident from my laft papers in 1798; for I there remarked, that very probably, before this could be effected, certain difficulties must be overcome, the principal of which I apprehended to be an almoft univerfal prepoffef fion in favour of foreign commodities. Moderation on the part of the cultivator in the regulation of his prices, and an unwearied attention to its quality, are the only means likely to produce a counteraction. To great attention to thefe points I attribute all my fuccefs.
Mere recommendation ought ever in fuch a bufinefs as this, to be placed out of the queftion. the article will not bear the tefts of examination and trial, it should not be indebted to any thing elfe.
Whenever I have fubmitted any fpecimens to public examination, at an hofpital or ellewhere, my conftant language has been, " I have no wifh but that they may rife or fall according to their own intrinfic merit or demerit; and, if worthy of approbation, by this mean induce their general adoption. That this being, no doubt, the ultimate object of the fociety of arts, who have thought proper to honour me with feveral diftinctions, I feel myself impelled to forward it to the utmoft, and not remain contented with its mere cultivation." I have proceeded to ftate the great expenfe this country incurs by fo large an importation, and on this account urged its general adoption, in order to leffen the expente, on the fcore of duty. That although I am influenced by fuch motives, and many others, yet my own individual intereft I have at the fame time fairly acknowledged to be among the number; and I have concluded with expreffing a hope, that while pleading the general, as well as my own particular caufe, perhaps the benefit of their inftitution may be the neceflary confequence of introducing a valuable and efficacious medicine, at a comparatively trifling expenfe. I have never yet made this appeal in vain; and the fociety will, I dare fay, receive with much fatisfaction the intelligence that rhubarb of English growth is now ufed at Guy's (I mention the hofpitals in the order of its introduction,) St Thomas's, and Bb3
St. Bartholomew's; and is under tril at feveral others. Still farther to inform myfelf of the public opinion, I lately requested an interview with a numerous and moft refpectable committee, at apothecaries Hall: it is impoffible, without a breach of propriety, to repeat the compliments its members were pleased to pay me. Whether I deferve them or not, it would be equally improper in me to determine; but of this the fociety may be affured, I never will reft till I do. In a word, my purpose was fully answered. The article which I exhibited met with the most unqualified approbation, and full permiffion was given to publish this circumftance. I beg leave, before I conclude, to apologize for the egotilm which prevails throughout this communication. It is fcarcely poffible to avoid it, when, in cafes like the prefent, a man is under the neceffity of speaking of himself.
It is a fubject I have much at heart, and it would give me much real concern to keep back a fingle circumftance likely to be useful to future adventurers. Its production and adoption, with the attendant difficulties, have been to the best of my abilities amply confidered; the former in the communications before-mentioned, the latter in this paper. If the fociety are of opinion that the steps I am purfuing to effect this laft and defirable purpose deferve fuccefs, it will be highly flattering. Under their aufpices I commenced my plantation eight years ago, and I hope and truft my proceedings fince have been fuch that the purpose to which it has been appropriated will occafion no regret.
I am, fir,
Your very humble servant,
No. 13, Fish-ftreet-hill.
Extra& from a Memoir containing fome Rejearches refpecting the Duration of the Time of Geftation in the Females of different Animals. By M. Teffier. Read at the National Inftitute.
HE author firft takes notice of the difcuffions which took place, about twenty years ago, among phyfiologifts, refpecting the poffibility of the time of geftation being prolonged beyond the ufual term. Bouvard and Louis maintained, in oppofition to Bertin and Petit, that the time of geltation in animals was invariable. But the fact was not afcertained; on which account M. Teffier refolved to investigate the subject, and for that pupose established a correfpondence concerning it, and kept very exact journals of every circumftance that could tend to elucidate the matter. The refult of his inquiries, which he offers to the national inftitute, is as follows.
One hundred and fixty cows were observed.
14 calved from the 241ft to the 266 day, that is, from 8 months and 1 day to 8 months and 26 days,
on the 270th day. 50 from the 270th to the 280th day.
Confequently there were 67 days between the two extremes.
on the 326th day.
on the 330th day, that is, exactly at the end of 11 months.
from the 350th to the 360th day.
This gives a latitude in the time of geftation, of 83 days; and the following obfervation may be made refpecting cows and mares, namely, that more of the first brought forth before the completion of the 9th month, than of the second before that of the eleventh.
Of these only fifteen were observed.
1 brought forth young, which lived, on the 109th day, that is, 3 months and 19 days.
from the 110th to the 120th day.
on the 121ft day.
Confequently, the difference between the two extremes was 14 days.
One hundred and thirty-nine were obferved, during the course of three years.
1 brought forth on the 26th day.
on the 27th day.
on the 28th day.
on the 29th day.