« AnteriorContinuar »
The difference between the two extremes, in thefe animals, was 7 days.
M. Teffier propofes to make fimilar inquiries refpecting the hatching of the eggs of birds; on which fubject, he mentions a curious obfervation, made by M. Darcet, namely, that, of the eggs of the fame brood, 1 was hatched on the 13th day, 2 on the 17th, 3 on the 18th, and 5 on the 19th and 20th days; there were fome others which were not hatched.
Experiments refpecting the Circulation of the Sap in Trees. By M. Coulomb; from the Journal de Phyfique.
OWARDS the middle of April, in the year 1796, I had feveral large Italian poplars cut down; the fap had already begun to rife, and the trees were covered with budding leaves. As I was overlooking the workmen, I obferved that one of thefe trees, which was already divided to within a few lines diftance from the axis of the tree, made a noife, when cut, fimilar to that produced by air, when it rifes in large quantities and in fmall globules, through the furface of a fluid. By having feveral more trees, of the fame fort, felled, I oblerved that this noife, as well as the flowing of a very limpid and tafteless water, took place only when the trees were about half cut through. I afterwards caufed feveral trees to be cut through, in a circular form, fo that they were only fupported by a cylinder, of from 30 to 40 millimetres in diameter, at the axis of the tree.Thefe trees, as they fell, frequently
remained joined to this axis, by fibres partly broken; at which time, bubbles of air were seen to come out in great abundance; infomuch that the quantity of air which came from them was incomparably greater than that of watery fap; but the laft-mentioned fluid was perfectly limpid and taflelefs.
From this experiment, I fufpected that, in large trees, the fap rifes perceptibly only near the axis of the tree which forms the medullary canal leading to the young branches, or at leaft in the vellels which are contiguous to this canal.
In order to try if my conjecture was true, I immediately caufed four or five poplars, of from three to four decimetres in diameter, to be pierced with a large auger: the opening was made at the difiance of one metre above the ground, and directed horizontally towards the axis of the tree. I obferved that, till within the difiance of two or three centimetres from the centre of the tree, the fpiral fcrew of the anger was fcarcely wetted; but, as foon as it had arrived at this diltance from the axis of the tree, the water came out in abundance; and
a continual noife was occafioned by the bubbles of air, which rofe with the fap, and which burft in the opening made by the auger.
This noile continued to take place, in trees pierced in this manner, during the whole fummer; it gradually decreased however, and was, as may be imagined, proportionally greater, as the heat of the fun increased the perfpiration of the leaves. Scarcely any noife could be heard during the night, or when the days were wet and cold.
From the noife, and from the quantity of bubbles of air which efcape, it appears that the quantity of air, or of gas, of whatever fort it may be, which riles with the fap, is, as I have already faid, incomparably greater than the quantity of fap itfelf. May it not be fuppofed, from the above obfervation, that the only circulation which exifts in trees, takes place in those parts which are near the central canal of the tree, and in that infinite number of medullary horizontal rays at the end of which we always fee the buds form themlelves and expand, and eftablifh a medullary communication with the axis of the tree; the diameter of which communication increases, in proportion as the bud enlarges and becomes a branch.
I fubmit thefe experiments to the confideration of botanifts, who I hope will repeat them. They will perhaps ferve to throw fome light on the phyfiology of vegetables.
On the Ufes of the Juniper Plant, by
HE juniper plant is too well
mates to require any particular defeription in this place. It is a very ufeful plant, both in medicine and economy. Every part of it-its leaves, its refin, its berries, its wood, and its roots, may all be applied to fome useful purpose.
I fhall país by the ufes to which this plant may be applied by apothecaries, and hall here only confider that which is made of it in Finland, both for economical parpoles, and as a domestic medicine.
Ift. The leaves are employed for fumigating houses, in order to expel or correct noxious air.
2d. All the water ufed for brewing malt-liquors is previously boiled with juniper twigs, which renders the beer both better tafted and more wholefome.
3d. All veffels ufed for containing milk are wafled with water in which juniper twigs have been boiled, which is fuppofed to contribute to keep the milk fweet, and to improve its tafte.
4th. Veffels for that purpose are made of juniper wood in preference to any other.
5th. Warm decoctions of juniper are given to cows, in order to increafe their milk. The fame is allo fometimes practised with respect to theep.
6th. Juniper-berries contain a refinous aromatic oil, which is employed for various ufes.
7th. The ripe berries, pounded and infufed in hot water, are drank as tea. They are excellent purifiers of the blood, allo diuretic and gently aperient.
8th. Some roaft and infufe the berries in the manner of coffee, and confider them as a palliating remedy in gonty and calculous affections.
9th. In. Finland and Carelia, a very well-tafted and wholesome beer
beer is brewed from the berries of the juniper. It is not many years fince this art was difcovered, and it has only very lately become univerfally known. The method of brewing this beer is as follows:
Take about 50lbs. of clean juniper-berries, pound them well in a mortar, put them into the common math-tun ufed in brewing beer, pour immediately upon them 2 buckets of cold water, and fo let them ftand for the space of twentyfour hours. When the juices of the berries have thus been properly extracted, draw off the liquor by the cock of the math-tun, and put it to boil in a copper, taking care to fkim it well whilft it is boiling. If it be not properly skimmed, it acquires a bitter refinous tafte.
When the liquor has been well boiled and fkimmed, take out a quantity of it, and boil with this as much hops as may be fufficient for the quantity of beer you intend to brew, after which pour it again to the reft. Let the liquor ftand till it is lukewarm; then add the yeaft, and let it ferment. This beer ferments more flowly than that brewed from malt. When the fermentation is completed, barrel your beer, and bung it tight, putting into each barrel a small quantity of ifinglafs to fine it.
This beer has a fweet aromatic tafte, very grateful to the palate: it is very wholefome; but does not keep well, being apt to turn four: It is therefore advifeable to brew only a fmall quantity of it at a time. During the laft autumn I drank daily of this beer, and found it agree very well with my health.
10th. By boiling the wort to a proper confiftence, we obtain a fyrup of juniper, which is very
useful in pectoral and other complaints.
11th. If we make the wort ferment, by adding yeast, but no hops, and then diftil it, we obtain the most palatable and wholefome fpecies of gin.
12th. After the ardent fpirits have been drawn off, the oil depofits itfelf in globules upon the mais. These are generally collected upon bits of clean cotton, from which they are afterwards pressed out into a glass. A drop of this oil, taken in a glafs of brandy, gives it a very pleafant tafte, and diffufes a glow throw the whole body, Five or fix drops, taken in the courfe of the day, are fuppofed by fome to be a good remedy in the epilepfy.
13th. An oil is alfo extracted from the wood of the juniper by the following procefs. Dry the wood well, fplit it into small sticks; and faften thefe, in an upright pofition, in an iron trough. Next fix a glazed pot in the earth, and cover it with a board, having a hole in the middle, with fmall grooves on the upper furface, that communicate with the hole. Then faften the trough, turned upfide down, upon the board, and make a fire all round. In this manner the oil will be melted out, and run, by the grooves and the hole, into the pot. This oil is ufed by the common people, as an external application, in paralytic affections and pains in the limbs. During the courfe of the last fummer, feveral of the peasants took it with good effect in the dyfentery.
14th. An infufion of the roots and branches of young juniper fhrubs, dried and cut into fhavings, is drank as tea, and supposed to be ferviceable in pains of the joints and pulmonary complaints.
Lift of Patents for new Inventions granted during the Year 1800.
ILLIAM Turner, and John Turner, of Lane-End, in the parish of Stoke-upon-Trent, in the county of Stafford, potters; for a method of manufacturing porcelain and earthen ware, by the introduction of a material not heretofore ufed in manufacturing thofe articles. Dated January 9.
Ifaac Sandford, of Hartford, in the state of Connecticut, in North America, gentleman, at prefent refiding in the parish of St. Paul, Covent-garden, in the county of Middlefex; for a method of manufacturing and making bricks, tiles, and pottery-ware in general, and of difcharging the moulds ufed therein. Dated January 13.
Thomas Parkinson, of Marketfquare, in the parish of St. George, Bloomsbury, gentleman; for an hydroftatic engine or machine, for the purpose of drawing beer, or any other liquors, out of a cellar or vault; or for railing water out of mines, fhips, and wells; or for any other purpose where fluids are reDated Fequired to be raised. bruary 1.
-; Edward Coleman, of for an artificial frog, which, being applied to the natural frogs of horfes' feet, will effectually prevent
contracted hoofs, thrushes, and can-
Edward Shorter, of Newington, in the county of Surrey, mechanic; for a machine or engine for working and caufing the progreffive motion of fhips and veffels of every defcription, without the affiftance of Dated February 4. fails or oars.
Samuel Miller, in the parish of St. Mary-la-bonne, in the county of Middlefex, engraver; for a machine and procefs for more eafily dividing hard fubftances, as well as for raifing all kinds of heavy weights, and driving all forts of machinery. Dated February 4.
Richard Lumbert, of the parish of Wickriffington, in the county of Gloucefter, gentleman; for improvements on the plough or machine for draining of lands. Dated February 4.
Jofeph Barnett, of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, merchant; for a method of making buttons for wearing apparel. Dated February 4.
William Lefter, of Cotton End, in the parish of Hardingstone, near Northampton, farmer and patent harrow - manufacturer; for an engine or machine for the purpose of cutting hay and ftraw into chaff, and other ufeful purpofes, for the ufe of cattle. bruary 4.
Jabez Carter Hornblower, of John's Row, City-Road, in the parith of St. Luke, in the county of Middlefex, engineer; for a method of glazing calicos, cottons, muflins, linens, &c. Dated February 4.
Phineas Crowther, of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, engineer; for a method of applying the power of a reciprocating fteam-engine to the crank or rotative axis, for drawing of coals, lead, tin, &c. out of mines, &c. Dated February 28.
Richard Maullin, of Cofely, in the county of Stafford, fcrew-maker; for a machine or contrivance to mould or withdraw patterns for the cafting of wood, bed, and all other fcrews which are got up in caftiron, brafs, or other metallic compofitions. Dated February 28.
Robert Stuart, at Blantyre cottonmills, near Glafgow, cotton-fpinner; for a method of ftarching and preparing cotton-yarn in that ftate called the cop, by which means it is at once fitted for being made into warp, on the chain of the web, without undergoing certain operations at prefent in ufe; and alfo that the cotton-yarn, fo prepared by him in the cop, is in like manner at once fitted for the purpofe of weft or woof, by which means certain expenfive operations are allo faved. Dated March 19.
Edward Steers, of the Inner Temple, London, efquire; for a machine to be applied to boats or vellels, for the purpofe of moving them along with eafe and celerity. Dated March 19.
James Wood, of Hart-fireet, in the parish of St. Paul, Covent-garden, in the county of Middlefex, mufical wind-inftrument maker; for an improvement upon the mu
William Johnfon, of Widmorehoufe, in the parifa of Bromley, in the county of Kent, efquire; for a machine with new means of ob taining power in mechanical ope rations, of the nature of a felf mov ing power or perpetual motion. Dated March 19.
David Hardie, of St. James's Street, in the parish of St. James's, in the county of Middlefex; for an apparatus for weighing, in a ma ner lefs liable to error, and with greater expedition, than by any of the modes of weighing hitherto ufed. Dated March 19.
John Glover, of Great Lever, in the county of Sometset, manufacturer; for a method of bleaching linen cloth, and other cloths. Dated March 24.
John Horatio Savigny, of Kingftreet, in the parish of St. Paul, Covent-garden, furgeon's-inftrumentmaker; for an inftrument called a tourniquet, for more effectually hindering and flopping the effation of blood in gun-fhot and other bad wounds, &c. Dated March 31.
Charles Random Berenger, of Old Bond-ftreet, print-feller; for a method of printing and colouring tranfparencies on filk, cotton, liner, and other wove manufactures, for carriage and window blinds, fcreens, &c. Dated March 31.
Benjamin Blackmore, of Wandfworth, in the county of Surrey, bolting-cloth manufacturer; for an elaftic fpring, for the improvement and more complete manufacturing