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after it became cold, fo often as ten or twelve times daily; always ftirring up the falt depofited at the bottom of the bafon, and incorporating it again with the water, before I applied it. On the 11th day from the first application, while fhaving, I obferved a fmall difcharge; which affifting by a gentle preffure, the whole contents were foon emptied, without the fmaileft pain, and without blood.
Being informed of fome others who had been benefited in like manner from the fame application, and knowing myself of fore late in ftances under my own immediate direction, I feel it a duty thus to make it public; being convinced it can produce no bad effect, and every perfon having it in their power to make the trial. At the fame time, I beg leave to caution that no one should be disheartened from the length of time it may be neceffary to continue the application; as, in fome cafes, it has required three or four months, though in the laft only thirty days; but in all, without pain or inconvenience of any kind, or any previous notice of the discharge, till it actually took place.
Proposals for a new and less expenfrue Mode of employing and reforming Convicts; fubmitted to the Lords of the Treafury, by Jeremy Bentham, Efq.
thoughts to the penitentiary fyftem, from its firft origin, and having lately contrived a building, in which any number of perfons may be kept within the reach of
being infpected during every mn. ment of their lives; and having made out, as he flatters himself, to demonftration, that the only eligible mode of managing an establishment of fuch a nature, in a building of fuch a conftruction, would be by contract, has been induced to make ! public the following propofals for maintaining and employing convids in general, or fuch of them as would otherwife be confined on board the hulks, for 25 per cent, le's than it cofts government to main tain them at prefent, deducting alo the average value of the work at prefent performed by them for the public, upon the terms of his receiving the produce of their labour, taking on himself the whole expende of the building, fitting up, and ftocking, without any advance be made by government for that purpose, requiring only that the abatement and deduction abovementioned fhall be fulpended fr the first year. Upon the abovementioned terms he would engage as follows:
Ift. To furnish the prifoners with a conftant fupply of wholefome food, not limited in quantity, but adequate to each man's defire.
2d. To keep them clad in a fiate of tightnefs and neatness, fuper: to what is ufual even in the mc? improved prifons.
3d. To keep them fupplied wi feparate beds and bedding comp tent to their fituations, and in a ftate of cleanliness fcarcely where conjoined with liberty.
4th. To infure them a fufficie fupply of artificial warmth and g whenever the feafon renders it t ceflary, and thereby fave the te ceffity of taking them prematurely from their work at fuch felons (à
in other places), as well as preferving them from fuffering by the inclemency of the weather.
5th. To keep conftantly from them, in conformity to the practice fo happily received, every kind of ftrong and fpirituous liquors, unless when ordered in the way of medicine.
6th. To maintain them in a state of inviolable, though mitigated feclufion, in afforted companies, with out any of thofe opportunities of promifcuous affociation, which in other places difturb, if not deftroy, whatever good effect can have been expected from occafional folitude. 7th. To give them intereft in their work, by allowing them a fhare in the produce.
8th. To convert the prifon into a fchool, and, by extended application of the principle of the Sunday fchools, to return its inhabitants into the world instructed, at least as well as in ordinary fchools, in the most useful branches of vulgar learning, as well as in fome trade or occupation, whereby they may after wards earn their livelihood.
9th. To pay a penal fum for every efcape, with or without any default of his, irrefiftible violence from without excepted, and this without employing irons on any occafion, or in any shape.
10th. To provide them with fpiritual and medical affiftants, conftantly living in the midst of them, and inceffantly keeping them in view. 11th. To pay a fum of money for every one who dies under his care, taking thereby upon himself the infurance of their lives for an ordinary a rate, premium; and that at grounded on the average of the number of deaths, not among imprisoned felons, but among perfons
of the fame ages in a ftate of liberty
12th. To lay for them the foun-
13th. To infure them a livelihood at the expiration of their term, by fetting up a fubfidiary establishment, into which all fuch as thought proper fhould be admitted, and in which they would be continued in the exercife of the trade in which they were employed during their confinement, without any farther expenfe to government.
14th. To make himself perfonally refponfible for the reformatory efficacy of his management, and even make amends, in most inftances, for any accident of its failure, by paying a fum of money for every prifoner convicted of a felony after his difcharge, at a rate increafing according to the number of years he had been under the propofer's care.
15th. To prefent to the court of king's bench, on a certain day of every term, and afterwards print and publifh, at his own expénfe, a report, exhibiting in detail the ftate, not only moral and medical, but economical, of the establishment, fhewing the whole profits, if any, and in what manner they arise, and then and there, as well as on any other day, upon fummons from the court, to make answer to all fuch queftions as fhall be put to him in relation thereto, not only on the part of the court, or officer of the crown, but, by leave of the court, on the part of any perfon whatsoever. Queftions, the anfwer to which might tend to fubject him to cen viction, though it were for a capital crime, not excepted, treading under guilty, foot a maxim, invented by the
guilty, for the benefit of the guilty, and from which none but the guilty ever derived any advantage.
16th. By neatnefs and cleanlinefs, by diverfity of employment, by variety of contrivance, and, above all,
at Windfor, by Nathaniel Kent, in a Letter to the Secretary of ti Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce.
mentioning to you, fome
by that peculiarity of conftruction, UPON mentio that there had
which, without any unpieafant or hazardous vicinity, enables the whole eftablishment to be infpected at a view from a commodious and infulated room in the centre, the prifoners remaining unconfcious of their being thus obferved, it fhould be his fiudy to render it a fpectacle fuch as perfons of all claffes would, in the way of amufement, be curious to partake of, and that not only on Sundays, at the time of divine fervice, but on the ordinary days, at meal times, or times of work; providing thereby a fyftem of fuperintendence, univerfally unchargeable, and uninterrupted, the moft effectual and indestructible of all fecurities against abuse.
The ftation of gaoler is not, in common account, a very elevated one; the addition of contractor has not much tendency to raise it. The propofer little dreamt, when he first launched into the fubject, that he was to become a fuitor, and perhaps in vain, for fuch an office: but inventions unpractifed might be in want of the inventor; and a fituation thus clipped of emoluments, while it was loaded with obligations, might be in want of candidates. Penetrated, therefore, with the importance of the end, he would not fuffer himfelf to fee any thing unpleasant or difcreditable in the
Account of the Improvements on His
been fome practices in husbandry, on his majesty's farms, under my fuperintendance, in Windfor Great Park, which I conceived were not generally known; and upon your giving me reason to think the fociety for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. from its laudable defire to communicate to the public every thing that promifes advantage to it, would not be unwilling to allow me a few pages in its next publication; and being indulged with his majefty's gracious permiflion to ftate any matter that I may difcretionally judge proper to communicate; I am induced to lay before you a few particulars, which fome gentle men and farmers, under fimilar circumftances, may perhaps think deferving notice.
But before I enter upon any par ticular description of what I have to offer, it will not, perhaps, be uninterefting to the society to know the grounds upon which his majefty's large fyftem of agriculture has been founded.
In the year 1791 the Great Park, at Windfor, about 4000 acres, fell into his majesty's poffeffion. might truly be called a rough jewel. The whole, as a natural object, was grand and beautiful, of a foreft appearance; but the parts were crowded and indiftinct. The foil was various, fome parts clay and loam, and fome fharp gravel or poor fand; a great part of the former was covered with rufhes and
thole-hills, and the latter with fern and mofs.
About 1000 acres of the lightest part were separated from the reft at one extremity, and formed what is called the Norfolk farm: about 400 acres more, at the other extremity, of a good loamy foil, were feparated, and called the Flemish farm, both being named from the nature of the husbandry meant to be adopted upon them."
The reft (about 2,400 acres) remains still in plantations and park; and though fo much reduced, yet, from the improvements which have been made upon it, is now capable of carrying more stock than the whole 4000 acres did before. the unfound wet parts have been drained by the Effex mode, fo as to be rendered firm, and productive of an improved herbage. The molehills have been levelled, chiefly by dragging, and the coarfe and molly parts fined by repeated harrowing and rolling (being one of the first improvements upon park land of this defcription); befides which, a variety of beauty has been laid open, by clearing the valleys and low parts, to give a bolder effect to the woody fcenes upon the higher ground; and by making judicious openings, fo as to break ftrait lines, and feparate parts that were in fome places too heavy and famely: fo that the extent of land has now not only a much larger appearance, but exhibits a much greater variety of ground. The truth of this, every impartial perfon who knew the place before his majefty caufed thefe improvements to be made, muft allow. I have only to add, that though prejudice may have taken up an idea that there has been too great a facrifice of timber in effect
ing thefe improvements, truth will deny it. There has not been a tree taken down, but what was either in decay, or removed either to give room for the growth of others, or to fet them off to greater advantage in picturefque appearance.
I come now to the object in view, as before hinted, which is to state the motives which I am inclined to think induced his majefty to adopt the farming fyftem upon fo large a fcale, and next to fhew the refult. - Thele I conceive were chiefly to create ufeful labour for the induftrious poor in the neighbourhood, and for trying experiments in agriculture, to excite imitation where fuccefs might encourage it.
The Norfolk farm borders on that extenfive wafte called Baghotheath, hitherto confidered too barren for cultivation, though large tracts of a fimilar quality have been long fince rendered ufeful to the community in the fouth-weft part of Norfolk., Arable land of this defeription is generally managed there under a five-courfe fhift; first, wheat; fecond, turnips; third, barley with feeds, which continue laid two years.
But as the feeds turn to very little account after the first year, his majefty's, which though a five-courfe fhift likewife, of one hundred
acres in a fhift, is upon a much improved courfe of cropping; as thus-first, wheat or rye; fecond, the irregular fhift; third, turnips; fourth, barley or oats; fifth, clover. The irregular fhift, which is of great ufe on a light land farm, may perhaps want a little explanation. It is meant to, be partly productive, and partly preparative. Forty acres of it are fown with vetches, to be fed off;
forty are fown the latter end of Auguft with rye, for early feed the next fpring for the ewes and lambs; the remaining twenty acres are planted with potatoes, and the whole comes round for turnips the next year.
From the advantage of running fheep in the park, this farm has been brought furprisingly forward, confidering the fhort time it has been cultivated; and a great part of it, which produced nothing but heath and mofs, and would have been dear at five fhillings an acre to rent, now produces crops worth more than the original fee-fimple of the land.
Brevity checks me from going farther into a general defcription; but the following particulars may deferve notice.
The comparative advantages of the labour of horses and oxen have been for fome time under the confideration of the public. His majefty. has unquestionably tried the latter npon a larger fcale than any other perfon, as he does not work lefs than one hundred and eighty oxen upon his different farms, parks, and gardens, and has found them to answer fo well, that there is not now a horle kept.-Upon the two farms and the Great Park two hundred are kept, including thofe coming on and going off. Forty are bought in every year, rifing three years, and are kept as fucceffion oxen in the park; one hundred and twenty are under work; and forty every year are fatted off, rifing feven years.
The working oxen are mostly divided into teams of fix, and one of the number is every day refted, fo that no ox works more than five days out of the feven.-This day
of eafe in every week, befides Sunday, is of great advantage to the animal, as he is found to do better with ordinary keep and moderate labour, than he would do with high keep and harder labour. In fhort, this is the first secret to learn concerning him; for an ox will not admit of being kept in condition like a horfe, artificially by proportionate food to proportionate labour.
Thefe oxen are never allowed any corn, as it would prevent their fatting fo kindly afterwards. Their food in fummer is only a few vet ches, by way of a bait, and the run of coarfe meadows, or what are called leafowes, being rough woody paftures. In winter they have cothing but cut food, confifting of twothirds hay, and one-third wheat ftraw; and the quantity they eat in twenty-four hours is about twenty-four pounds of hay and twelve of ftraw: and on the days of reft, they range as they like in the ftraw. yards; for it is to be obferved, that they are not confined to hot stables, but have open fheds, under which they eat their cut provender, and are generally left to their choice to go in and out. Under this manage ment, as four oxen generally plough an acre a day, and do other work in proportion, there can be no doubt but their advantage is very great over horfes, and the refult to the public highly beneficial.
The oxen, which are brought on in fucceffion, run the firft fummer in the park, and in the leafowes and temporary ftraw-yards, in the winter; by which temporary ftrawyards, I would have it understood, that they are made in different places, fo that the manure which they make may be as near to the fpot where it is wanted as poffible.