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and Cupid playing on the tibia.In one of the houfes likewife is a painting of a Grecian temple, a dorned with twenty fluted doric 'pillars. One of the fhops (in appearance a foap-boiler's) had foap found in it-another fhop evidently was a coffee-houfe, and the marks of the cups ftill remain upon the marble dreffer. Without fide of another fhop are Hebrew characters (not written with vowel-points) and other oriental characters, which do not feem to be Hebrew. The iron-work of a calafh, apparently like those used at prefent in Naples, was found in the court of a houfe. The city-gate is highly interefting; here is the centry-box for the guard-a femi-circular feat in which the Romans used to affemble and converfe and a couple of tombs-all in great measure perfect -near one of the tombs is a court containing a stone, on which the bodies of the dead were burnt; and on the walls of this court are large frightful earthern masks with weeping faces. The tomb contains one large and feveral fmall niches for urns; the large one is fuppofed to have been for the head of the family. The excavated villa is more entire than any of the ruins yet laid open, feveral rooms, the garden and the cellar, being quite in their original ftate; the laft contains wine velfels cemented to the wall by the cinders which overwhelmed the city, and likewife filled with them. The paintings ftill remaining in this villa are beautiful--the hot and cold baths almoft entire-the kitchen entire alfo-in fhort, by examining thefe apartments, you precifely afcertain the plan and manner of ornamenting a Roman country-houfe, which feems to dif
fer very little from modern Italian villas, except that the ftucco is infinitely finer than any we now see, as likewife are the colours and varnifh laid over them. Pompeii was built and paved with lava; carriage wheels have worn traces in the pavement, and these traces are only four feet wide; nevertheless so narrow are the streets already excavated that there is barely room fufficient for two carriages to país each other; the fireets have raised footways on each fide three feet broad.
Perhaps the whole world does not exhibit fo awful a fpectacle as Pompeii; and when it was firft difcovered, when skeletons were found heaped together in the streets and houfes, when all the utenfils and even the very bread of the poor fuffocated inhabitants, were difcernible, what a fpeculation muft this ill-fated city have furnished to a thinking mind! To vifit it even now is abfolutely to live with the ancient Romans: and when we fee houfes, fhops, furniture, fountains, ftreets, carriages, and implements of hufbandry, exactly fimilar to those of the prefent day, we are apt to conclude that cuftoms and manners have undergone but little variation for the laft two thoufand years.— The custom of confulting augurs, and that of hiring perfons to weep at funerals, are ftill kept up in the mountainous and fecluded parts of Tufcany; and I have frequently feen the Tufcan cattle, when del tined for flaughter, adorned with chaplets of flowers, precifely as the ancients used to adorn their victims for facrifice. The Roman butchers, likewife, ftill wear the drefs, and ufe the knife of heathen facrificing priefts. The old Roman custom of not eating above one regular meal a
day, and that about the ninth hour of Italy, (three o'clock with us) is kept up by many of the Italians: and during the month of May it is common to fee fhepherds dreffed as in ancient times tike Pan, Satyrs, &c. I do not, however, mean to infer from what I have faid, that modern Italians equal the ancients in works of art; for, in this refpect, there feems as much difference between the prefent race and their forefathers, as there was between the ancient Romans and their teachers, the Greeks.
Not more than from forty to fifty fkeletons have yet been found in Pompeii-one third of the town only, however, is yet uncovered; but the excavations are going on daily; and a new ftreet, with a noble portico, have very lately been
Particulars concerning Tobacco, digeted in a chronological Order: from Profeffor Beckmann's Introduction to Technology.
N 1496, Romanus Pane, a Spa
his fecond departure from America, had left in that country, published the first account of tobacco, with which he became acquainted in St. Domingo. He gave it the names of Cohoba, Cohobba, Gioia.
In 1535, the negroes had already habituated themselves to the ufe of tobacco, and cultivated it in the plantations of their mafters. Europeans likewife already fmoked it..
In 1559, Jean Nicot, envoy from France at the court of Portugal, fift tranfmitted thence to Paris, to queen Catharine de Medicis, feed of the tobacco plant. And VOL. XLII.
from this circumftance it acquired the name Nicotiana. When tobacco began to be used in France it was called "Herbe du Grand Prieur," from the then grand prieur, of the houfe of Lorraine, who was very fond of it. It was likewife once known by the name of " Herhe de St. Croix," after cardinal Profper St. Croix, who, on his return from Portugal, where he had been nuncio from the pope, introduced into Italy the custom of using to bacco.
In 1565, Conrad Gefner became acquainted with tobacco. At that time feveral botanifts already cultivated the plant in their gardens.
In 1570, they ftill fmoked in Holland out of conical tubes compofed of palm leaves plaited together.
In 1575, first appeared a figure of the plant, André Thevet's "Cofmographie."
In 1585, the English firft faw pipes made of clay among the na tive Indians of Virginia, which was at that time difcovered by Richard Grenville. It appears, likewife, that the English foon after
Turks purchased tobacco, and that the refufe, from the English. It was late before they learned to cultivate the plant themfelves.
In 1615, it appears that tobacco began to be fown about Amersfort, in Holland.
In 1616, they began to cultivate tobacco in Virginia; the feeds had probably been carried thither from Tobago.
In 1619, king James the fift wrote his "Mifocapno" against the ufe of tobacco; and ordered that no planter in Virginia fhould cultivate more than 100 pounds.
In 1620, fome English companies introduced the cuftom of fmoking tobacco, in Zittau, in Ger
In 1620, Robert Konigfmann, a merchant, brought the first tobaccoplant from England to Strafburgh.
In 1624, pope Urban VIII. publifhed a decree of excommunication against all who fhould take nuff in the church, because then already fome Spanish ecclefiaftics ufed it during the celebration of
In 1631, fmoking of tobacco was firft introduced into Mifnia by the Swedish troops.
In 1634, imoking was forbidden in Ruffia, under the pain of having the nofe cut off.
In 1653, they began to fmoke tobacco in the canton of Apenzell, in Switzerland. At first, the children ran after those who imoked in the ftreets. The council likewife cited the fmokers before them, and punished them; and ordered the inn.keepers to inform againft fuch as fhould fmoke in their houfes.
In 1661, the police regulation of Bern was made, which was divided according to the ten commandments.
In 1690, pope Innocent XII. excommunicated all who fhould be guilty of using fnuff or tobac co in the church of St. Peter, at Rome.
In 1697, great quantities of tobacco already produced in the pala tinate and in Heffia.
In 1719, the fenate of Stralburgh prohibited the culture of tobacco, from an apprehenfion left it should prove injurious, lay diminishing the growing of corn.
In 1724, pope Benedict XIV, revoked the bull of excommunication published by Innocent, because i himself had acquired the habit of taking fnuff,
In 1753, the king of Por-
In 1759, the duties on
In 1770, the empress Maria-Therefa received from duties, &c. on tobacco
In 1773, the duties on
tobacco in the Two Sicilies amounted to In 1780, the king of
France received from tobacco a revenue of 29 millions of livres,
that is, about
Total annual revenue of thefe fix kingdoms from duties, &c. ontobacco
fary an article of drefs; the form of the pipes, from which the Dutch feem to have taken the model of theirs, fo original; and, laftly, the preparation of the yellow leaves, which are merely rubbed to pieces and then put into a pipe, fo pecu liar; that we cannot poffibly derive 40,000 all this from America by way of Europe; efpecially as India, where the habit of smoking tobacco is not fo general, intervenes between Perfia 806,000 and China. May we not expect to find traces of this cuftom in the first account of the voyages of the Portuguefe and Dutch to China?' To inveftigate this fubject I have indeed the inclination, but, at prefent at leaft, not fufficient leifure; and muft therefore, leave it to others. However, I can now adduce one impor tant confirmation of my conjecture from Ulloa's voyage to America: It is not probable," fays he, that the Europeans learned the ufe of tobacco from America; for, as it is very ancient in the Eaftern countries it is natural to fuppofe that the knowledge of it came to Europe from thofe regions, by means of the intercourle carried on with them by the commercial ftates 'on the Mediterranean Sea. No where, not even in thofe parts of America where the tobacco-plant grows wild, is the use of it, and that only for fmoking, either general or very frequent.
18,372,933 a fum greater than the revenues of the kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden together, on an aver age, amount to.
To me it appears probable, remarks profeffor Beckmann, that, even before the difcovery of the fourth quarter of the globe, a fort of tobacco was fmoked in Afia. This conjecture being mentioned to the celebrated traveller, M. Pallas, he gave the following anfwer: 'That in Afia, and efpecially in China, the ufe of tobacco for fmoking is more ancient than the difcovery of the New World, I too fcarcely entertain a doubt. Among the Chinefe and among the Mongol tribes who had the moft intercourfe with them, the cuftom of fmoking is lo general, fo frequent, and become fo Indifpenfable a luxury; the tobaccopurfe affixed to their belt..fo necsi
piety of their ancestors, than to preferve any memory of them, and has already deftroyed the greatest part of thefe I am going to mention; I hope it will appear in a different light to the learned fociety of Antiquaries, whofe chief care is to collect and preferve to futurity a faithful remembrance of whatever concerns former ages.
If a time thould ever come when an exact account of this fmall part of the British nation fhall be found interefting, the following lifts of thefe eftablishments, collected with care and exactnefs, may not prove unwelcome, as they may lead to fources where a complete account of each of them may be found.
I fhall make no farther apology for this eflay than to beg it may be confidered rather as a teftimony of my profound refpect for the learned fociety to which I have the honour of prefenting it, than for any intrinsic value which I attribute to it.
Spain, established for the fame
4. College at Rome about 1578.
9. A fchool for boys of the lower claffes at Efquerchin, near Douay, about 1750. 10. The Jefuit's college at St. Omer's came into the hands of the fecular clergy in 1764. II. Jefuits.
1. The college at St. Omer's, founded in 1594, removed to Bruges 1764, fuppreffed 1773. 2. The noviciate at Watten, near St. Omers, 1611; removed to Ghent 1765.
3. The college at Liege efta
blifhed 1616; turned into an academy for youth 1773. 4. The profefied houfe of Jefaits at Ghent, 1662; fuppreffed
Befides thefe the Jefuits had the direction of the Roman college, and of the three feminaries in Spain; they had alfo a house of miffionaries in Maryland.
Jefuiteffes eftablished at St Omer's 1608; removed to Liege 1629; and foon after to Munich. III. Benedictines; Men. 1. The abbey of Lamfpring, in the bishopric of Hildesheim, four leagues fouth of the city of that name.
2. The priory at Douay, given them by the abbey of St Vaast in 1604.
3. The priory of Dieulwart in
4. The priory of St. Malo's, 1611: